Exodus
Exodus 1 Par ▾ 

The Israelites Multiply in Egypt
(Genesis 46:8-27)

1These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt with Jacob, each with his family:

2Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah;

3Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin;

4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher.

5The descendants of Jacob numbered seventya in all, including Joseph, who was already in Egypt.

6Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died, 7but the Israelites were fruitful and increased abundantly; they multiplied and became exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them.

Oppression by a New King

8Then a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph, came to power in Egypt. 9“Look,” he said to his people, “the Israelites have become too numerous and too powerful for us. 10Come, we must deal shrewdly with them, or they will increase even more; and if a war breaks out, they may join our enemies, fight against us, and leave the country.”

11So the Egyptians appointed taskmasters over the Israelites to oppress them with forced labor. As a result, they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh. 12But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and flourished, so that the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites.

13They worked the Israelites ruthlessly 14and made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar, and with all kinds of work in the fields. Every service they imposed was harsh.

15Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah, 16“When you help the Hebrew women give birth, observe them as they deliver. If the child is a son, kill him; but if it is a daughter, let her live.”

17The midwives, however, feared God and did not do as the king of Egypt had told them; they let the boys live. 18So the king of Egypt summoned the midwives and asked them, “Why have you done this? Why have you let the boys live?”

19The midwives answered Pharaoh, “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before a midwife arrives.”

20So God was good to the midwives, and the people multiplied and became even more numerous. 21And because the midwives feared God, He gave them families of their own.

22Then Pharaoh commanded all his people: “Every son born to the Hebrewsb you must throw into the Nile, but every daughter you may allow to live.”

Footnotes:

5 a Hebrew (see also Genesis 46:27); DSS and LXX (see also Acts 7:14) seventy-five
22 b Samaritan, LXX, Targum; Hebrew does not include to the Hebrews

Exodus 2
Exodus 2 Par ▾ 

The Birth of Moses

1Now a man of the house of Levi married a Levite woman, 2and she conceived and gave birth to a son. When she saw that he was a beautiful child, she hid him for three months.

3But when she could no longer hide him, she got him a papyrus basketa and coated it with tar and pitch. Then she placed the child in the basket and set it among the reeds along the bank of the Nile. 4And his sister stood at a distance to see what would happen to him.

Pharaoh's Daughter Rescues Moses

5Soon the daughter of Pharaoh went down to bathe in the Nile, and her attendants were walking along the riverbank. And when she saw the basket among the reeds, she sent her maidservant to retrieve it. 6When she opened it, she saw the child, and behold, the little boy was crying. So she had compassion on him and said, “This is one of the Hebrew children.”

7Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Shall I go and call one of the Hebrew women to nurse the child for you?”

8“Go ahead,” Pharaoh’s daughter told her. And the girl went and called the boy’s mother.

9Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child and nurse him for me, and I will pay your wages.” So the woman took the boy and nursed him.

10When the child grew older, she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Mosesb and explained, “I drew him out of the water.”

Moses Kills an Egyptian

11One day, after Moses had grown up, he went out to his own peoplec and observed their hard labor. He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. 12After looking all around and seeing no one, he struck down the Egyptian and hid his body in the sand.

13The next day Moses went out and saw two Hebrews fighting. He asked the one in the wrong, “Why are you attacking your fellow Hebrew?”

14But the man replied, “Who made you ruler and judge over us? Are you planning to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?”

Then Moses was afraid and thought, “This thing I have done has surely become known.”

Moses Flees to Midian

15When Pharaoh heard about this matter, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, where he sat down beside a well.

16Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came to draw water and fill the troughs to water their father’s flock. 17And when some shepherds came along and drove them away, Moses stood up and came to their rescue and watered their flock.

18When the daughters returned to their father Reuel, he asked them, “Why have you returned so early today?”

19“An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds,” they replied. “He even drew water for us and watered the flock.”

20“So where is he?” their father asked. “Why did you leave the man behind? Invite him to have something to eat.”

21Moses agreed to stay with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage. 22And she gave birth to a son whom he named Gershom,d for he said, “I have become a stranger in a strange land.”

God Hears the Cry of the Israelites

23After a long time, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites groaned and cried out under their burden of slavery, and their cry for deliverance from bondage ascended to God.

24So God heard their groaning, and He remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 25God saw the Israelites and took notice.

Footnotes:

3 a The Hebrew can also mean ark (see Genesis 6:14)
10 b Moses sounds like a Hebrew term that means to lift out
11 c or his brothers
22 d Gershom sounds like the Hebrew for sojourner

Exodus 3
Exodus 3 Par ▾ 

Moses at the Burning Bush

1Meanwhile, Moses was shepherding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian. He led the flock to the far side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. 2There the Angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire from within a bush. Moses saw the bush ablaze with fire, but it was not consumed! 3So Moses thought, “I must go over and see this marvelous sight. Why is the bush not burning up?”

4When the LORD saw that he had gone over to look, God called out to him from within the bush, “Moses, Moses!”

“Here I am,” he answered.

5“Do not come any closer,” God said. “Take off your sandals, for the place where you are standing is holy ground.” 6Then He said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”

At this, Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.

7The LORD said, “I have indeed seen the misery of My people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their oppressors, and I am aware of their sufferings. 8I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land to a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey—the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites.

9And now the cry of the Israelites has reached Me, and I have seen how severely the Egyptians are oppressing them. 10Therefore, go! I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring My people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.”

11But Moses asked God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt?”

12“I will surely be with you,” God said, “and this will be the sign to you that I have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, all of you will worship God on this mountain.”

13Then Moses asked God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is His name?’ What should I tell them?”

14God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.a This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’”

15God also told Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘The LORD,b the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ This is My name forever, and this is how I am to be remembered in every generation.

16Go, assemble the elders of Israel and say to them, ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, has appeared to me and said: I have surely attended to you and have seen what has been done to you in Egypt. 17And I have promised to bring you up out of your affliction in Egypt, into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites—a land flowing with milk and honey.’

18The elders of Israel will listen to what you say, and you must go with them to the king of Egypt and tell him, ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us take a three-day journey into the wilderness, so that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.’

19But I know that the king of Egypt will not allow you to go unless a mighty hand compels him. 20So I will stretch out My hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders I will perform among them. And after that, he will release you.

21And I will grant this people such favor in the sight of the Egyptians that when you leave, you will not go away empty-handed. 22Every woman shall ask her neighbor and any woman staying in her house for silver and gold jewelry and clothing, and you will put them on your sons and daughters. So you will plunder the Egyptians.”

Footnotes:

14 a Or I WILL BE WHAT I WILL BE
15 b LORD, with capital letters, stands for the divine name, YHWH, here and throughout the Scriptures

Exodus 4
Exodus 4 Par ▾ 

Moses' Staff

1Then Moses answered, “What if they refuse to believe me or listen to my voice? For they may say, ‘The LORD has not appeared to you.’”

2And the LORD asked him, “What is that in your hand?”

“A staff,” he replied.

3“Throw it on the ground,” said the Lord. So Moses threw it on the ground, and it became a snake, and he ran from it.

4“Stretch out your hand and grab it by the tail,” the LORD said to Moses. So he reached out his hand and caught the snake, and it turned back into a staff in his hand. 5“This is so that they may believe that the LORD, the God of their fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob—has appeared to you.”

Moses' Hand

6Furthermore, the LORD said to Moses, “Put your hand inside your cloak.a ” So he put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out, his hand was leprous,b white as snow.

7“Put your hand back inside your cloak,” said the LORD.

So Moses put his hand back inside his cloak, and when he took it out, it was restored, like the rest of his skin.

8And the LORD said, “If they refuse to believe you or heed the witness of the first sign, they may believe that of the second. 9But if they do not believe even these two signs or listen to your voice, take some water from the Nile and pour it on the dry ground. Then the water you take from the Nile will become blood on the ground.”

The Appointment of Aaron

10“Please, Lord,” Moses replied, “I have never been eloquent, neither in the past nor since You have spoken to Your servant, for I am slow of speech and tongue.”

11And the LORD said to him, “Who gave man his mouth? Or who makes him mute or deaf, sighted or blind? Is it not I, the LORD? 12Now go! I will help you as you speak, and I will teach you what to say.”

13But Moses replied, “Please, Lord, send someone else.”

14Then the LORD’s anger burned against Moses, and He said, “Is not Aaron the Levite your brother? I know that he can speak well, and he is now on his way to meet you. When he sees you, he will be glad in his heart. 15You are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. I will help both of you to speak, and I will teach you what to do. 16He will speak to the people for you. He will be your spokesman, and it will be as if you were God to him. 17But take this staff in your hand so that you can perform signs with it.”

Moses Leaves for Egypt

18Then Moses went back to his father-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Please let me return to my brothers in Egypt and see if they are still alive.”

“Go in peace,” Jethro replied.

19Now the LORD had said to Moses in Midian, “Go back to Egypt, for all the men who sought to kill you are dead.” 20So Moses took his wife and sons, put them on a donkey, and headed back to Egypt. And he took the staff of God in his hand.

21The LORD instructed Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

22Then tell Pharaoh that this is what the LORD says: ‘Israel is My firstborn son, 23and I told you to let My son go so that he may worship Me. But you have refused to let him go, so I will kill your firstborn son!’”

24Now at a lodging place along the way, the LORD confronted Moses and was about to kill him. 25But Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off her son’s foreskin, and touched Moses’ feet with it. “Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me,” she said.

26So the LORD let him alone. (When she said, “bridegroom of blood,” she was referring to the circumcision.)

The People Believe Moses and Aaron

27Meanwhile, the LORD had said to Aaron, “Go and meet Moses in the wilderness.” So he went and met Moses at the mountain of God and kissed him. 28And Moses told Aaron everything the LORD had sent him to say, and all the signs He had commanded him to perform.

29Then Moses and Aaron went and assembled all the elders of the Israelites, 30and Aaron relayed everything that the LORD had said to Moses.

And Moses performed the signs before the people, 31and they believed. And when they heard that the LORD had attended to the Israelites and had seen their affliction, they bowed down and worshiped.

Footnotes:

6 a Hebrew into your bosom; also in verse 7
6 b Leprosy was a term used for various skin diseases; see Leviticus 13

Exodus 5
Exodus 5 Par ▾ 

Pharaoh's First Refusal

1Afterward, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, says: ‘Let My people go, so that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness.’”

2But Pharaoh replied, “Who is the LORD that I should obey His voice and let Israel go? I do not know the LORD, and I will not let Israel go.”

3“The God of the Hebrews has met with us,” they answered. “Please let us go on a three-day journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD our God, or He may strike us with plagues or with the sword.”

4But the king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you draw the people away from their work? Get back to your work!” 5Pharaoh also said, “Look, the people of the land are now numerous, and you would be stopping them from their labor.”

Bricks and Straw

6That same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their foremen: 7“You shall no longer supply the people with straw for making bricks. They must go and gather their own straw. 8But require of them the same quota of bricks as before; do not reduce it. For they are lazy; that is why they are crying out, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God.’ 9Make the work harder on the men so they will be occupied and pay no attention to these lies.”

10So the taskmasters and foremen of the people went out and said to them, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I am no longer giving you straw. 11Go and get your own straw wherever you can find it; but your workload will in no way be reduced.’”

12So the people scattered all over the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. 13The taskmasters kept pressing them, saying, “Fulfill your quota each day, just as you did when straw was provided.”

14Then the Israelite foremen, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over the people, were beaten and asked, “Why have you not fulfilled your quota of bricks yesterday or today, as you did before?”

The Cry of the Israelites

15So the Israelite foremen went and appealed to Pharaoh: “Why are you treating your servants this way? 16No straw has been given to your servants, yet we are told, ‘Make bricks!’ Look, your servants are being beaten, but the fault is with your own people.”

17“You are slackers,” Pharaoh replied. “Slackers! That is why you keep saying, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to the LORD.’ 18Now get to work. You will be given no straw, yet you must deliver the full quota of bricks.”

19The Israelite foremen realized they were in trouble when they were told, “You must not reduce your daily quota of bricks.” 20When they left Pharaoh, they confronted Moses and Aaron, who stood waiting to meet them.

21“May the LORD look upon you and judge you,” the foremen said, “for you have made us a stench before Pharaoh and his officials; you have placed in their hand a sword to kill us!”

22So Moses returned to the LORD and asked, “Lord, why have You brought trouble upon this people? Is this why You sent me? 23Ever since I went to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, he has brought trouble on this people, and You have not delivered Your people in any way.”


Exodus 6
Exodus 6 Par ▾ 

God Promises Deliverance

1But the LORD said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, for because of My mighty hand he will let them go; because of My strong hand he will drive them out of his land.”

2God also told Moses, “I am the LORD. 3I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty,a but I did not reveal Myself to them by My name, ‘the LORD.’ 4I also established My covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, the land where they lived as foreigners. 5Furthermore, I have heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, and I have remembered My covenant.

6Therefore tell the Israelites: ‘I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians and deliver you from their bondage. I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. 7I will take you as My own people, and I will be your God. Then you will know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. 8And I will bring you into the land that I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. I will give it to you as a possession. I am the LORD!’”

9Moses relayed this message to the Israelites, but on account of their broken spirit and cruel bondage, they did not listen to him.

10So the LORD said to Moses, 11“Go and tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the Israelites go out of his land.”

12But in the LORD’s presence Moses replied, “If the Israelites will not listen to me, then how will Pharaoh listen to me, since I am unskilled in speech?b

13Then the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them a charge concerning both the Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt.

Genealogies of Moses and Aaron

14These were the heads of their fathers’ houses:

The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi. These were the clans of Reuben.

15The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon.

16These were the names of the sons of Levi according to their records: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. Levi lived 137 years.

17The sons of Gershon were Libni and Shimei, by their clans.

18The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. Kohath lived 133 years.

19The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi.

These were the clans of the Levites according to their records.

20And Amram married his father’s sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. Amram lived 137 years.

21The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri.

22The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.

23And Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon. She bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

24The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the clans of the Korahites.

25Aaron’s son Eleazar married one of the daughters of Putiel, and she bore him Phinehas.

These were the heads of the Levite families by their clans.

26It was this Aaron and Moses to whom the LORD said, “Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their divisions.” 27Moses and Aaron were the ones who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt in order to bring the Israelites out of Egypt.

28Now on the day the LORD spoke to Moses in Egypt, 29He said to him, “I am the LORD; tell Pharaoh king of Egypt everything that I say to you.”

30But in the LORD’s presence Moses replied, “Since I am unskilled in speech, why would Pharaoh listen to me?”

Footnotes:

3 a Hebrew El-Shaddai
12 b Hebrew I have uncircumcised lips; also in verse 30

Exodus 7
Exodus 7 Par ▾ 

God Commands Moses and Aaron

1The LORD answered Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet. 2You are to speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron must declare it to Pharaoh so that he will let the Israelites go out of his land.

3But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and though I will multiply My signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, 4Pharaoh will not listen to you.

Then I will lay My hand on Egypt, and by mighty acts of judgment I will bring the divisions of My people the Israelites out of the land of Egypt. 5And the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD, when I stretch out My hand against Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.”

6So Moses and Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded them. 7Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh.

Aaron's Staff Becomes a Serpent

8The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, 9“When Pharaoh tells you, ‘Perform a miracle,’ you are to say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh,’ and it will become a serpent.”

10So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the LORD had commanded. Aaron threw his staff down before Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a serpent.

11But Pharaoh called the wise men and sorcerers and magicians of Egypt, and they also did the same things by their magic arts. 12Each one threw down his staff, and it became a serpent. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up the other staffs.

13Still, Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, just as the LORD had said.

The First Plague: Blood

14Then the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is stubborn; he refuses to let the people go. 15Go to Pharaoh in the morning as you see him walking out to the water. Wait on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that was changed into a snake. 16Then say to him, ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to tell you: Let My people go, so that they may worship Me in the wilderness. But you have not listened until now.

17This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD. Behold, with the staff in my hand I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will turn to blood. 18The fish in the Nile will die, the river will stink, and the Egyptians will be unable to drink its water.’”

19And the LORD said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt—over their rivers and canals and ponds and reservoirs—that they may become blood.’ There will be blood throughout the land of Egypt, even in the vessels of wood and stone.”

20Moses and Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded; in the presence of Pharaoh and his officials, he raised the staff and struck the water of the Nile, and all the water was turned to blood. 21The fish in the Nile died, and the river smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink its water. There was blood throughout the land of Egypt.

22But the magicians of Egypt did the same things by their magic arts. So Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said. 23Instead, Pharaoh turned around, went into his palace, and did not take even this to heart. 24So all the Egyptians dug around the Nile for water to drink, because they could not drink the water from the river.

25And seven full days passed after the LORD had struck the Nile.


Exodus 8
Exodus 8 Par ▾ 

The Second Plague: Frogs

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him that this is what the LORD says: ‘Let My people go, so that they may worship Me. 2But if you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs. 3The Nile will teem with frogs, and they will come into your palace and up to your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and your people, and into your ovens and kneading bowls. 4The frogs will come up on you and your people and all your officials.’”

5And the LORD said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers and canals and ponds, and cause the frogs to come up onto the land of Egypt.’”

6So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.

7But the magicians did the same thing by their magic arts, and they also brought frogs up onto the land of Egypt.

8Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray to the LORD to take the frogs away from me and my people. Then I will let your people go, that they may sacrifice to the LORD.”

9Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me. When shall I pray for you and your officials and your people that the frogs (except for those in the Nile) may be taken away from you and your houses?”

10“Tomorrow,” Pharaoh answered.

“It will be as you say,” Moses replied, “so that you may know that there is no one like the LORD our God. 11The frogs will depart from you and your houses and your officials and your people; they will remain only in the Nile.”

12After Moses and Aaron had left Pharaoh, Moses cried out to the LORD for help with the frogs that He had brought against Pharaoh. 13And the LORD did as Moses requested, and the frogs in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields died.

14The people piled them into countless heaps, and there was a terrible stench in the land.

15When Pharaoh saw there was relief, however, he hardened his heart and would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said.

The Third Plague: Gnats

16Then the LORD said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the earth, that it may turn into swarms of gnats throughout the land of Egypt.’”

17This they did, and when Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, gnats came upon man and beast. All the dust of the earth turned into gnats throughout the land of Egypt.

18The magicians tried to produce gnats using their magic arts, but they could not. And the gnats remained on man and beast.

19“This is the finger of God,” the magicians said to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had said.

The Fourth Plague: Flies

20Then the LORD said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, and when Pharaoh goes out to the water, stand before him and tell him that this is what the LORD says: ‘Let My people go, so that they may worship Me. 21But if you will not let My people go, I will send swarms of flies upon you and your officials and your people and your houses. The houses of the Egyptians and even the ground where they stand will be full of flies.

22But on that day I will give special treatment to the land of Goshen, where My people live; no swarms of flies will be found there. In this way you will know that I, the LORD, am in the land. 23I will make a distinctiona between My people and your people. This sign will take place tomorrow.’”

24And the LORD did so. Thick swarms of flies poured into Pharaoh’s palace and into the houses of his officials. Throughout Egypt the land was ruined by swarms of flies.

25Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within this land.”

26But Moses replied, “It would not be right to do that, because the sacrifices we offer to the LORD our God would be detestable to the Egyptians. If we offer sacrifices that are detestable before the Egyptians, will they not stone us? 27We must make a three-day journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the LORD our God as He commands us.”

28Pharaoh answered, “I will let you go and sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness, but you must not go very far. Now pray for me.”

29“As soon as I leave you,” Moses said, “I will pray to the LORD, so that tomorrow the swarms of flies will depart from Pharaoh and his officials and his people. But Pharaoh must not act deceitfully again by refusing to let the people go and sacrifice to the LORD.”

30Then Moses left Pharaoh and prayed to the LORD, 31and the LORD did as Moses requested. He removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh and his officials and his people; not one fly remained. 32But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time as well, and he would not let the people go.

Footnotes:

23 a LXX, Vulgate; Hebrew set redemption

Exodus 9
Exodus 9 Par ▾ 

The Fifth Plague: Livestock

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him that this is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘Let My people go, so that they may worship Me. 2But if you refuse to let them go and continue to restrain them, 3then the hand of the LORD will bring a severe plague on your livestock in the field—on your horses, donkeys, camels, herds, and flocks. 4But the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that no animal belonging to the Israelites will die.’”

5The LORD set a time, saying, “Tomorrow the LORD will do this in the land.” 6And the next day the LORD did just that. All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died. 7So Pharaoh sent officials, who saw that none of the livestock of the Israelites had died. But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not let the people go.

The Sixth Plague: Boils

8Then the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from the furnace; in the sight of Pharaoh, Moses is to toss it into the air. 9It will become fine dust over all the land of Egypt, and festering boils will break out on man and beast throughout the land.”

10So they took soot from the furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on man and beast. 11The magicians could not stand before Moses, because the boils had broken out on them and on all the Egyptians.

12But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had told Moses.

The Seventh Plague: Hail

13Then the LORD said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand before Pharaoh, and tell him that this is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘Let My people go, so that they may worship Me. 14Otherwise, I will send all My plagues against youa and your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like Me in all the earth.

15For by this time I could have stretched out My hand and struck you and your people with a plague to wipe you off the earth. 16But I have raised you upb for this very purpose, that I might display to youc My power, and that My name might be proclaimed in all the earth. 17Still, you lord it over My people and do not allow them to go.

18Behold, at this time tomorrow I will rain down the worst hail that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded until now. 19So give orders now to shelter your livestock and everything you have in the field. Every man or beast that remains in the field and is not brought inside will die when the hail comes down upon them.’”

20Those among Pharaoh’s officials who feared the word of the LORD hurried to bring their servants and livestock to shelter, 21but those who disregarded the word of the LORD left their servants and livestock in the field.

22Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, so that hail may fall on all the land of Egypt—on man and beast and every plant of the field throughout the land of Egypt.”

23So Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning struck the earth. So the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt. 24The hail fell and the lightning continued flashing through it. The hail was so severe that nothing like it had ever been seen in all the land of Egypt from the time it became a nation.

25Throughout the land of Egypt, the hail struck down everything in the field, both man and beast; it beat down every plant of the field and stripped every tree. 26The only place where it did not hail was in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived.

27Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. “This time I have sinned,” he said. “The LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked. 28Pray to the LORD, for there has been enough of God’s thunder and hail. I will let you go; you do not need to stay any longer.”

29Moses said to him, “When I have left the city, I will spread out my hands to the LORD. The thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth is the LORD’s. 30But as for you and your officials, I know that you still do not fear the LORD our God.”

31(Now the flax and barley were destroyed, since the barley was ripe and the flax was in bloom; 32but the wheat and the spelt were not destroyed, because they are late crops.)

33Then Moses departed from Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the LORD. The thunder and hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured down on the land.

34When Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder had ceased, he sinned again and hardened his heart—he and his officials. 35So Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the LORD had said through Moses.

Footnotes:

14 a Hebrew against your heart
16 b Or have spared you
16 c LXX in you

Exodus 10
Exodus 10 Par ▾ 

The Eighth Plague: Locusts

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, that I may perform these miraculous signs of Mine among them, 2and that you may tell your children and grandchildren how severely I dealt with the Egyptians when I performed miraculous signs among them, so that you may know that I am the LORD.”

3So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him, “This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, so that they may worship Me. 4But if you refuse to let My people go, I will bring locusts into your territory tomorrow. 5They will cover the face of the land so that no one can see it. They will devour whatever is left after the hail and eat every tree that grows in your fields. 6They will fill your houses and the houses of all your officials and every Egyptian—something neither your fathers nor your grandfathers have seen since the day they came into this land.’”

Then Moses turned and left Pharaoh’s presence.

7Pharaoh’s officials asked him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the people go, so that they may worship the LORD their God. Do you not yet realize that Egypt is in ruins?”

8So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh. “Go, worship the LORD your God,” he said. “But who exactly will be going?”

9“We will go with our young and old,” Moses replied. “We will go with our sons and daughters, and with our flocks and herds, for we must hold a feast to the LORD.”

10Then Pharaoh told them, “May the LORD be with you if I ever let you go with your little ones. Clearly you are bent on evil. 11No, only the men may go and worship the LORD, since that is what you have been requesting.” And Moses and Aaron were driven from Pharaoh’s presence.

12Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt, that the locusts may swarm over it and devour every plant in the land—everything that the hail has left behind.”

13So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and throughout that day and night the LORD sent an east wind across the land. By morning the east wind had brought the locusts.

14The locusts swarmed across the land and settled over the entire territory of Egypt. Never before had there been so many locusts, and never again will there be. 15They covered the face of all the land until it was black, and they consumed all the plants on the ground and all the fruit on the trees that the hail had left behind. Nothing green was left on any tree or plant in all the land of Egypt.

16Pharaoh quickly summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you. 17Now please forgive my sin once more and appeal to the LORD your God, so that He will remove this death from me.”

18So Moses left Pharaoh’s presence and appealed to the LORD. 19And the LORD changed the wind to a very strong west wind that carried off the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea.a Not a single locust remained anywhere in Egypt.

20But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let the Israelites go.

The Ninth Plague: Darkness

21Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, so that darkness will spread over the land of Egypt—a palpable darkness.”

22So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and total darkness covered all the land of Egypt for three days. 23No one could see each other, and for three days no one left his place. Yet all the Israelites had light in their dwellings.

24Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go, worship the LORD. Even your little ones may go with you; only your flocks and herds must stay behind.”

25But Moses replied, “You must also provide us with sacrifices and burnt offerings to present to the LORD our God. 26Even our livestock must go with us; not a hoof will be left behind, for we will need some of them to worship the LORD our God, and we will not know how we are to worship the LORD until we arrive.”

27But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he was not willing to let them go. 28“Depart from me!” Pharaoh said to Moses. “Make sure you never see my face again, for on the day you see my face, you will die.”

29“As you say,” Moses replied, “I will never see your face again.”

Footnotes:

19 a Or the Sea of Reeds

Exodus 11
Exodus 11 Par ▾ 

The Plague on the Firstborn Foretold

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “I will bring upon Pharaoh and Egypt one more plague. After that, he will allow you to leave this place. And when he lets you go, he will drive you out completely. 2Now announce to the people that men and women alike should ask their neighbors for articles of silver and gold.”

3And the LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover, Moses himself was highly regarded in Egypt by Pharaoh’s officials and by the people.

4So Moses declared, “This is what the LORD says: ‘About midnight I will go throughout Egypt, 5and every firstborn son in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the servant girl behind the hand mill, as well as the firstborn of all the cattle. 6Then a great cry will go out over all the land of Egypt, such as never has been heard before, and never will be heard again. 7But among all the Israelites, not even a dog will snarl at man or beast.’ Then you will know that the LORD makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel. 8All these officials of yours will come and bow before me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow you!’ After that, I will depart.”

And hot with anger, Moses left Pharaoh’s presence.

9The LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”

10Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart so that he would not let the Israelites go out of his land.


Exodus 12
Exodus 12 Par ▾ 

The First Passover
(Numbers 9:1-14)

1Now the LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 2“This month is the beginning of months for you; it shall be the first month of your year.

3Tell the whole congregation of Israel that on the tenth day of this month, each man must select a lamba for his family, one per household. 4If the household is too small for a whole lamb, they are to share with the nearest neighbor, based on the number of people, and apportion the lamb accordingly.

5Your lamb must be an unblemished year-old male, and you may take it from the sheep or the goats. 6You must care for it until the fourteenth day of the month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel will slaughter the animals at twilight.b 7They are to take some of the blood and put it on the two sideposts and tops of the doorframes of the houses in which they eat the lambs.

8They are to eat the meat that night, roasted over the fire, along with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.

9Do not eat any of the meat raw or cooked in boiling water, but only roasted over the fire—its head and legs and inner parts. 10Do not leave any of it until morning; before the morning you must burn up any part that is left over.

11This is how you are to eat it: You must be fully dressed for travel, with your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. You are to eat in haste; it is the LORD’s Passover.

12On that night I will pass through the land of Egypt and strike down every firstborn male, both man and beast, and I will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD. 13The blood on the houses where you are staying will distinguish them; when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No plague will fall on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread
(Leviticus 23:4-8; Numbers 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:1-8)

14And this day will be a memorial for you, and you are to celebrate it as a feast to the LORD, as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. 15For seven days you must eat unleavened bread. On the first day you are to remove the yeast from your houses. Whoever eats anything leavened from the first day through the seventh must be cut off from Israel.

16On the first day you are to hold a sacred assembly, and another on the seventh day. You must not do any work on those days, except to prepare the meals—that is all you may do.

17So you are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this very day I brought your divisions out of the land of Egypt. You must observe this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come. 18In the first month you are to eat unleavened bread, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day. 19For seven days there must be no yeast found in your houses. If anyone eats something leavened, that person, whether a foreigner or native of the land, must be cut off from the congregation of Israel. 20You are not to eat anything leavened; eat unleavened bread in all your homes.”

21Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and told them, “Go at once and select for yourselves a lamb for each family, and slaughter the Passover lamb. 22Take a cluster of hyssop, dip it into the blood in the basin, and brush the top and the two sideposts of the doorframe with some of the blood. None of you shall go out the door of his house until morning.

23When the LORD passes through to strike down the Egyptians, He will see the blood on the top and the two sideposts and pass over the door; so He will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down.

24And you are to keep this command as a perpetual ordinance for you and your descendants. 25When you enter the land that the LORD will give you as He promised, you are to observe this service.

26When your children ask you, ‘What does this service mean to you?’ 27you are to reply, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when He struck down the Egyptians and spared our homes.’”

Then the people bowed down and worshiped. 28And the Israelites went and did just what the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

29Now at midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, as well as all the firstborn among the livestock.

30During the night Pharaoh got up—he and all his officials and all the Egyptians—and there was loud wailing in Egypt; for there was no house without someone dead.

The Exodus Begins

31Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Get up, leave my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, worship the LORD as you have requested. 32Take your flocks and herds as well, just as you have said, and depart! And bless me also.”

33And in order to send them out of the land quickly, the Egyptians urged the people on. “For otherwise,” they said, “we are all going to die!” 34So the people took their dough before it was leavened, carrying it on their shoulders in kneading bowls wrapped in clothing.

35Furthermore, the Israelites acted on Moses’ word and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and gold, and for clothing. 36And the LORD gave the people such favor in the sight of the Egyptians that they granted their request. In this way they plundered the Egyptians.

37The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth with about 600,000 men on foot, besides women and children. 38And a mixed multitude also went up with them, along with great droves of livestock, both flocks and herds.

39Since their dough had no yeast, the people baked what they had brought out of Egypt into unleavened loaves. For when they had been driven out of Egypt, they could not delay and had not prepared any provisions for themselves.

40Now the duration of the Israelites’ stay in Egyptc was 430 years. 41At the end of the 430 years, to the very day, all the LORD’s divisions went out of the land of Egypt. 42Because the LORD kept a vigil that night to bring them out of Egypt, this same night is to be a vigil to the LORD, to be observed by all the Israelites for the generations to come.

Instructions for the Passover

43And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover: No foreigner is to eat of it. 44But any slave who has been purchased may eat of it, after you have circumcised him. 45A temporary resident or hired hand shall not eat the Passover.

46It must be eaten inside one house. You are not to take any of the meat outside the house, and you may not break any of the bones.

47The whole congregation of Israel must celebrate it. 48If a foreigner resides with you and wants to celebrate the LORD’s Passover, all the males in the household must be circumcised; then he may come near to celebrate it, and he shall be like a native of the land. But no uncircumcised man may eat of it. 49The same law shall apply to both the native and the foreigner who resides among you.”

50Then all the Israelites did this—they did just as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron. 51And on that very day the LORD brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt by their divisions.

Footnotes:

3 a The Hebrew word can mean lamb or kid; also in verse 4
6 b Hebrew between the two evenings
40 c MT; Samaritan Pentateuch and LXX Egypt and Canaan

Exodus 13
Exodus 13 Par ▾ 

The Dedication of the Firstborn
(Deuteronomy 15:19-23)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“Consecrate to Me every firstborn male. The firstborn from every womb among the Israelites belongs to Me, both of man and beast.”

3So Moses told the people, “Remember this day, the day you came out of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; for the LORD brought you out of it by the strength of His hand. And nothing leavened shall be eaten.

4Today, in the month of Abib, you are leaving. 5And when the LORD brings you into the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites—the land He swore to your fathers that He would give you, a land flowing with milk and honey—you shall keep this service in this month.

6For seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day there shall be a feast to the LORD. 7Unleavened bread shall be eaten during those seven days. Nothing leavened may be found among you, nor shall yeast be found anywhere within your borders.

8And on that day you are to explain to your son, ‘This is because of what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 9It shall be a sign for you on your hand and a reminder on your forehead that the law of the LORD is to be on your lips. For with a mighty hand the LORD brought you out of Egypt. 10Therefore you shall keep this ordinance at the appointed time year after year.

11And after the LORD brings you into the land of the Canaanites and gives it to you, as He swore to you and your fathers, 12you are to present to the LORD the firstborn male of every womb. All the firstborn males of your livestock belong to the LORD. 13You must redeem every firstborn donkey with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, you are to break its neck. And every firstborn of your sons you must redeem.

14In the future, when your son asks you, ‘What does this mean?’ you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 15And when Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the LORD killed every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of man and beast. This is why I sacrifice to the LORD the firstborn male of every womb, but I redeem all the firstborn of my sons.’ 16So it shall serve as a sign on your hand and a symbol on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt.”

The Pillars of Cloud and Fire

17When Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them along the road through the land of the Philistines, though it was shorter. For God said, “If the people face war, they might change their minds and return to Egypt.” 18So God led the people around by the way of the wilderness toward the Red Sea.a And the Israelites left the land of Egypt arrayed for battle.

19Moses took the bones of Joseph with him because Joseph had made the sons of Israel swear a solemn oath when he said, “God will surely attend to you, and you shall carry my bones with you from this place.”

20They set out from Succoth and camped at Etham on the edge of the wilderness. 21And the LORD went before them in a pillar of cloud to guide their way by day, and in a pillar of fire to give them light at night, so that they could travel by day or night. 22Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night left its place before the people.

Footnotes:

18 a Or the Sea of Reeds

Exodus 14
Exodus 14 Par ▾ 

Pharaoh Pursues the Israelites

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“Tell the Israelites to turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea. You are to encamp by the sea, directly opposite Baal-zephon.

3For Pharaoh will say of the Israelites, ‘They are wandering the land in confusion; the wilderness has boxed them in.’ 4And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart so that he will pursue them. But I will gain honor by means of Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD.”

So this is what the Israelites did.

5When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, Pharaoh and his officials changed their minds about them and said, “What have we done? We have released Israel from serving us.”

6So Pharaoh prepared his chariot and took his army with him. 7He took 600 of the best chariots, and all the other chariots of Egypt, with officers over all of them.

8And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt so that he pursued the Israelites, who were marching out with fists raised in defiance. 9The Egyptians—all Pharaoh’s horses and chariots, horsemen and troops—pursued and overtook the Israelites as they camped by the sea near Pi-hahiroth, opposite Baal-zephon.

10As Pharaoh approached, the Israelites looked up and saw the Egyptians marching after them, and they were terrified and cried out to the LORD. 11They said to Moses, “Was it because there are no graves in Egypt that you brought us into the wilderness to die? What have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt? 12Did we not say to you in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we may serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”

13But Moses told the people, “Do not be afraid. Stand firm and you will see the LORD’s salvation, which He will accomplish for you today; for the Egyptians you see today, you will never see again. 14The LORD will fight for you; you need only to be still.”

Parting the Red Sea

15The LORD said to Moses, “Why are you crying out to Me? Tell the Israelites to go forward. 16And as for you, lift up your staff and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, so that the Israelites can go through the sea on dry ground. 17And I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them. Then I will gain honor by means of Pharaoh and all his army and chariots and horsemen. 18The Egyptians will know that I am the LORD when I am honored through Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”

19Then the Angel of God, who had gone before the camp of Israel, withdrew and went behind them. The pillar of cloud also moved from before them and stood behind them, 20so that it came between the camps of Egypt and Israel. The cloud was there in the darkness, but it lit up the night.a So all night long neither camp went near the other.

21Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and all that night the LORD drove back the sea with a strong east wind that turned it into dry land. So the waters were divided, 22and the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with walls of water on their right and on their left.

23Then the Egyptians chased after them—all Pharaoh’s horses, chariots, and horsemen—and followed them into the sea. 24At morning watch, however, the LORD looked down on the army of the Egyptians from the pillar of fire and cloud, and He threw their camp into confusion. 25He caused their chariot wheels to wobble,b so that they had difficulty driving. “Let us flee from the Israelites,” said the Egyptians, “for the LORD is fighting for them against Egypt!”

26Then the LORD said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, so that the waters may flow back over the Egyptians and their chariots and horsemen.” 27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at daybreak the sea returned to its normal state. While the Egyptians were retreating, the LORD swept them into the sea. 28The waters flowed back and covered the chariots and horsemen—the entire army of Pharaoh that had chased the Israelites into the sea. Not one of them survived.

29But the Israelites had walked through the sea on dry ground, with walls of water on their right and on their left. 30That day the LORD saved Israel from the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore. 31When Israel saw the great power that the LORD had exercised over the Egyptians, the people feared the LORD and believed in Him and in His servant Moses.

Footnotes:

20 a LXX and the night passed
25 b Or to swerve, or to come off, or to bind (compare Samaritan, LXX, Syriac)

Exodus 15
Exodus 15 Par ▾ 

Moses' Song of Deliverance

1Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the LORD:

“I will sing to the LORD,

for He is highly exalted.

The horse and rider

He has thrown into the sea.

2The LORD is my strength and my song,

and He has become my salvation.

He is my God, and I will praise Him,

my father’s God, and I will exalt Him.

3The LORD is a warrior,

the LORD is His name.

4Pharaoh’s chariots and army

He has thrown into the sea;

the finest of his officers

are drowned in the Red Sea.a

5The depths have covered them;

they sank there like a stone.

6Your right hand, O LORD, is majestic in power;

Your right hand, O LORD, has shattered the enemy.

7You overthrew Your adversaries

by Your great majesty.

You unleashed Your burning wrath;

it consumed them like stubble.

8At the blast of Your nostrils

the waters piled up;

like a wall the currents stood firm;

the depths congealed in the heart of the sea.

9The enemy declared,

‘I will pursue, I will overtake.

I will divide the spoils;

I will gorge myself on them.

I will draw my sword;

my hand will destroy them.’

10But You blew with Your breath,

and the sea covered them.

They sank like lead

in the mighty waters.

11Who among the gods is like You, O LORD?

Who is like You—majestic in holiness,

revered with praises,

performing wonders?

12You stretched out Your right hand,

and the earth swallowed them up.

13With loving devotion You will lead

the people You have redeemed;

with Your strength You will guide them

to Your holy dwelling.

14The nations will hear and tremble;

anguish will grip the dwellers of Philistia.

15Then the chiefs of Edom will be dismayed;

trembling will seize the leaders of Moab;

those who dwell in Canaan will melt away,

16and terror and dread will fall on them.

By the power of Your arm

they will be as still as a stone

until Your people pass by, O LORD,

until the people You bought pass by.

17You will bring them in and plant them

on the mountain of Your inheritance—

the place, O LORD, You have prepared for Your dwelling,

the sanctuary, O Lord, Your hands have established.

18The LORD will reign forever and ever!”

19For when Pharaoh’s horses, chariots, and horsemen went into the sea, the LORD brought the waters of the sea back over them. But the Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground.

The Song of Miriam

20Then Miriam the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women followed her with tambourines and dancing. 21And Miriam sang back to them:

“Sing to the LORD,

for He is highly exalted;

the horse and rider

He has thrown into the sea.”

The Waters of Marah

22Then Moses led Israel from the Red Sea, and they went out into the Desert of Shur. For three days they walked in the desert without finding water. 23And when they came to Marah,b they could not drink the water there because it was bitter. (That is why it was named Marah.)

24So the people grumbled against Moses, saying, “What are we to drink?” 25And Moses cried out to the LORD, and the LORD showed him a log. And when he cast it into the waters, they were sweetened.

There the LORD made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them, 26saying, “If you will listen carefully to the voice of the LORD your God, and do what is right in His eyes, and pay attention to His commands, and keep all His statutes, then I will not bring on you any of the diseases I inflicted on the Egyptians. For I am the LORD who heals you.”

27Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there by the waters.

Footnotes:

4 a Or the Sea of Reeds; also in verse 22
23 b Marah means bitter

Exodus 16
Exodus 16 Par ▾ 

Manna and Quail from Heaven

1On the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left the land of Egypt, the whole congregation of Israel set out from Elim and came to the Desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai. 2And there in the desert they all grumbled against Moses and Aaron. 3“If only we had died by the LORD’s hand in the land of Egypt!” they said. “There we sat by pots of meat and ate our fill of bread, but you have brought us into this desert to starve this whole assembly to death!”

4Then the LORD said to Moses, “Behold, I will rain down bread from heaven for you. Each day the people are to go out and gather enough for that day. In this way I will test whether or not they will follow My instructions. 5Then on the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it will be twice as much as they gather on the other days.”

6So Moses and Aaron said to all the Israelites, “This evening you will know it was the LORD who brought you out of the land of Egypt, 7and in the morning you will see the LORD’s glory, because He has heard your grumbling against Him. For who are we that you should grumble against us?”

8And Moses added, “The LORD will give you meat to eat this evening and bread to fill you in the morning, for He has heard your grumbling against Him. Who are we? Your grumblings are not against us but against the LORD.”

9Then Moses said to Aaron, “Tell the whole congregation of Israel, ‘Come before the LORD, for He has heard your grumbling.’”

10And as soon as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of Israel, they looked toward the desert, and there in a cloud the glory of the LORD appeared.

11Then the LORD said to Moses, 12“I have heard the grumbling of the Israelites. Tell them, ‘At twilight you will eat meat, and in the morning you will be filled with bread. Then you will know that I am the LORD your God.’”

13That evening quail came and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. 14When the layer of dew had evaporated, there were thin flakes on the desert floor, as fine as frost on the ground. 15When the Israelites saw it, they asked one another, “What is it?” For they did not know what it was.

So Moses told them, “It is the bread the LORD has given you to eat. 16This is what the LORD has commanded: ‘Each one is to gather as much as he needs. You may take an omera for each person in your tent.’”

17So the Israelites did this. Some gathered more, and some less. 18When they measured it by the omer, he who gathered much had no excess, and he who gathered little had no shortfall. Each one gathered as much as he needed to eat.

19Then Moses said to them, “No one may keep any of it until morning.” 20But they did not listen to Moses; some people left part of it until morning, and it became full of maggots and began to smell. So Moses was angry with them.

21Each morning they each gathered as much as they needed, and when the sun grew hot, it melted away.

The Sabbath Observed
(Genesis 2:1-3; Hebrews 4:1-11)

22On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much food—two omers per person—and all the leaders of the congregation came and reported this to Moses. 23He told them, “This is what the LORD has said: ‘Tomorrow is a day of solemn rest, a holy Sabbath to the LORD. So bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil. Then set aside whatever remains and keep it until morning.’”

24So they set it aside until morning as Moses had commanded, and it did not smell or contain any maggots. 25“Eat it today,” Moses said, “because today is a Sabbath to the LORD. Today you will not find anything in the field. 26For six days you may gather, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, it will not be there.”

27Yet on the seventh day some of the people went out to gather, but they did not find anything. 28Then the LORD said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep My commandments and instructions? 29Understand that the LORD has given you the Sabbath; therefore on the sixth day He will give you bread for two days. On the seventh day, everyone must stay where he is; no one may leave his place.” 30So the people rested on the seventh day.

31Now the house of Israel called the bread manna.b It was white like coriander seed and tasted like wafers made with honey. 32Moses said, “This is what the LORD has commanded: ‘Keep an omer of manna for the generations to come, so that they may see the bread I fed you in the wilderness when I brought you out of the land of Egypt.’”

33So Moses told Aaron, “Take a jar and fill it with an omer of manna. Then place it before the LORD to be preserved for the generations to come.” 34So Aaron placed it before the Testimony to be preserved, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

35The Israelites ate manna forty years, until they came to a land where they could settle; they ate manna until they reached the border of Canaan. 36(Now an omer is a tenth of an ephah.)c

Footnotes:

16 a An omer was about 2.3 quarts or 2.2 liters (probably about 3 pounds or 1.4 kilograms); also in verses 18, 32, 33, and 36
31 b Manna sounds like the Hebrew for What is it?
36 c An ephah was a dry measure having the capacity of about 23 quarts or 22 liters

Exodus 17
Exodus 17 Par ▾ 

Water from the Rock
(Numbers 20:2-13)

1Then the entire congregation of Israel left the Desert of Sin, moving from place to place as the LORD commanded. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink. 2So the people contended with Moses, “Give us water to drink.”

“Why do you contend with me?” Moses replied. “Why do you test the LORD?”

3But the people thirsted for water there, and they grumbled against Moses: “Why have you brought us out of Egypt—to kill us and our children and livestock with thirst?”

4Then Moses cried out to the LORD, “What should I do with these people? A little more and they will stone me!”

5The LORD answered Moses, “Walk on ahead of the people and take some of the elders of Israel with you. Take along in your hand the staff with which you struck the Nile, and go. 6Behold, I will stand there before you by the rock at Horeb; when you strike the rock, water will come out of it for the people to drink.”

So Moses did this in the sight of the elders of Israel. 7He named the place Massaha and Meribahb because the Israelites quarreled, and because they tested the LORD, saying, “Is the LORD among us or not?”

The Defeat of the Amalekites

8After this, the Amalekites came and attacked the Israelites at Rephidim. 9So Moses said to Joshua, “Choose some of our men and go out to fight the Amalekites. Tomorrow I will stand on the hilltop with the staff of God in my hand.”

10Joshua did as Moses had instructed him and fought against the Amalekites, while Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

11As long as Moses held up his hands, Israel prevailed; but when he lowered them, Amalek prevailed. 12When Moses’ hands grew heavy, they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it. Then Aaron and Hur held his hands up, one on each side, so that his hands remained steady until the sun went down.

13So Joshua overwhelmed Amalek and his army with the sword.

14Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write this on a scroll as a reminder and recite it to Joshua, because I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven.”

15And Moses built an altar and named it The LORD Is My Banner. 16“Indeed,” he said, “a hand was lifted up toward the throne of the LORD. The LORD will war against Amalek from generation to generation.”

Footnotes:

7 a Massah means testing
7 b Meribah means quarreling

Exodus 18
Exodus 18 Par ▾ 

The Visit of Jethro

1Now Moses’ father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, heard about all that God had done for Moses and His people Israel, and how the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.

2After Moses had sent back his wife Zipporah, his father-in-law Jethro had taken her in, 3along with her two sons. One son was named Gershom,a for Moses had said, “I have been a foreigner in a foreign land.” 4The other son was named Eliezer,b because Moses had said, “The God of my father was my helper and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh.”

5Moses’ father-in-law Jethro, along with Moses’ wife and sons, came to him in the desert, where he was encamped at the mountain of God. 6He sent word to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons.”

7So Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him. They greeted each other and went into the tent. 8Then Moses recounted to his father-in-law all that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardships they had encountered along the way, and how the LORD had delivered them.

9And Jethro rejoiced over all the good things the LORD had done for Israel, whom He had rescued from the hand of the Egyptians. 10Jethro declared, “Praise the LORD, who has delivered you from the hand of the Egyptians and of Pharaoh, and who has rescued the people from the hand of the Egyptians. 11Now I know that the LORD is greater than all other gods, for He did this when they treated Israel arrogantly.”

12Then Moses’ father-in-law Jethro brought a burnt offering and sacrifices to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law in the presence of God.

Jethro Advises Moses

13The next day Moses took his seat to judge the people, and they stood around him from morning until evening. 14When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he asked, “What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone as judge, with all the people standing around you from morning till evening?”

15“Because the people come to me to inquire of God,” Moses replied. 16“Whenever they have a dispute, it is brought to me to judge between one man and another, and I make known to them the statutes and laws of God.”

17But Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “What you are doing is not good. 18Surely you and these people with you will wear yourselves out, because the task is too heavy for you. You cannot handle it alone.

19Now listen to me; I will give you some advice, and may God be with you. You must be the people’s representative before God and bring their causes to Him. 20Teach them the statutes and laws, and show them the way to live and the work they must do.

21Furthermore, select capable men from among the people—God-fearing, trustworthy men who are averse to dishonest gain. Appoint them over the people as leaders of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.

22Have these men judge the people at all times. Then they can bring you any major issue, but all minor cases they can judge on their own, so that your load may be lightened as they share it with you.

23If you follow this advice and God so directs you, you will be able to endure, and all these people can go home in peace.”

24Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25So Moses chose capable men from all Israel and made them heads over the people as leaders of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens. 26And they judged the people at all times; they would bring the difficult cases to Moses, but any minor issue they would judge themselves.

27Then Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, and Jethro returned to his own land.

Footnotes:

3 a Gershom sounds like the Hebrew for sojourner
4 b Eliezer means God is my helper

Exodus 19
Exodus 19 Par ▾ 

Israel at Mount Sinai

1In the third month, on the same day of the month that the Israelites had left Egypt, they came to the Desert of Sinai. 2After they had set out from Rephidim, they entered the Desert of Sinai, and Israel camped there in front of the mountain.

3Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, “This is what you are to tell the house of Jacob and explain to the sons of Israel: 4‘You have seen for yourselves what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to Myself. 5Now if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, you will be My treasured possession out of all the nations—for the whole earth is Mine. 6And unto Me you shall be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you are to speak to the Israelites.”

7So Moses went back and summoned the elders of the people and set before them all these words that the LORD had commanded him. 8And all the people answered together, “We will do everything that the LORD has spoken.”

So Moses brought their words back to the LORD.

9The LORD said to Moses, “Behold, I will come to you in a dense cloud, so that the people will hear when I speak with you, and they will always put their trust in you.”

And Moses relayed the words of the people to the LORD.

10Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow. They must wash their clothes 11and be prepared by the third day, for on the third day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.

12And you are to set up a boundary for the people around the mountain and tell them, ‘Be careful not to go up on the mountain or touch its base. Whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death. 13No hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot with arrows—whether man or beast, he must not live.’

Only when the ram’s horn sounds a long blast may they go up the mountain.”

14When Moses came down from the mountain to the people, he consecrated them, and they washed their clothes. 15“Be prepared for the third day,” he said to the people. “Do not draw near to a woman.”

The LORD Visits Sinai

16On the third day, when morning came, there was thunder and lightning. A thick cloud was upon the mountain, with a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled. 17Then Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.

18Mount Sinai was completely enveloped in smoke, because the LORD had descended on it in fire. And smoke rose like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked violently. 19And as the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him in the thunder.

20The LORD descended to the top of Mount Sinai and called Moses to the summit. So Moses went up, 21and the LORD said to him, “Go down and warn the people not to break through to see the LORD, lest many of them perish. 22Even the priests who come near the LORD must consecrate themselves, or the LORD will break out against them.”

23But Moses said to the LORD, “The people cannot come up Mount Sinai, for You solemnly warned us, ‘Put a boundary around the mountain and set it apart as holy.’”

24And the LORD replied, “Go down and bring Aaron with you. But the priests and the people must not break through to come up to the LORD, or He will break out against them.”

25So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.


Exodus 20
Exodus 20 Par ▾ 

The Ten Commandments
(Genesis 2:1-3; Deuteronomy 5:6-21)

1And God spoke all these words:

2“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.

3You shall have no other gods beforea Me.

4You shall not make for yourself an idol of any kind, or an image of anything in the heavens above, the earth below, or the waters under the earth. 5You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on their children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me, 6but showing loving devotion to a thousand generationsb of those who love Me and keep My commandments.

7You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not leave anyone unpunished who takes His name in vain.

8Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God, on which you must not do any work—neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant or livestock, nor the foreigner within your gates. 11For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth and the sea and all that is in them, but on the seventh day He rested. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart as holy.

12Honor your father and mother, so that your days may be long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.

13You shall not murder.

14You shall not commit adultery.

15You shall not steal.

16You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

17You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, or his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.

Moses Comforts the People
(Deuteronomy 5:22-33; Hebrews 12:18-29)

18All the people witnessed the thunder and lightning, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain in smoke. And when the people saw this, they trembled and stood at a distance. 19“Speak to us yourself and we will listen,” they said to Moses. “But do not let God speak to us, or we will die.”

20“Do not be afraid,” Moses replied. “For God has come to test you, so that the fear of Him may be before you, to keep you from sinning.” 21And the people stood at a distance as Moses approached the thick darkness where God was.

Idolatry Forbidden
(Leviticus 19:1-8; 1 Corinthians 10:14-22)

22Then the LORD said to Moses, “This is what you are to tell the Israelites: ‘You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven. 23You are not to make any gods to rival Me; you are not to make for yourselves gods of silver or gold.

The Altar of Sacrifice
(Deuteronomy 27:1-10)

24You are to make for Me an altar of earth, and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and peace offerings, your sheep and goats and cattle. In every place where I cause My name to be remembered, I will come to you and bless you.

25Now if you make an altar of stones for Me, you must not build it with stones shaped by tools; for if you use a chisel on it, you will defile it. 26And you must not go up to My altar on steps, lest your nakedness be exposed on it.’

Footnotes:

3 a Or besides
6 b Or to thousands

Exodus 21
Exodus 21 Par ▾ 

Laws for Servants
(Deuteronomy 15:12-18)

1These are the ordinances that you are to set before them:

2If you buy a Hebrew servant, he is to serve you for six years. But in the seventh year, he shall go free without paying anything. 3If he arrived alone, he is to leave alone; if he arrived with a wife, she is to leave with him. 4If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall belong to her master, and only the man shall go free.

5But if the servant declares, ‘I love my master and my wife and children; I do not want to go free,’ 6then his master is to bring him before the judges.a And he shall take him to the door or doorpost and pierce his ear with an awl. Then he shall serve his master for life.

7And if a man sells his daughter as a servant, she is not to go free as the menservants do. 8If she is displeasing in the eyes of her master who had designated her for himself,b he must allow her to be redeemed. He has no right to sell her to foreigners, since he has broken faith with her. 9And if he chooses her for his son, he must deal with her as with a daughter. 10If he takes another wife, he must not reduce the food, clothing, or marital rights of his first wife. 11If, however, he does not provide her these three things, she is free to go without monetary payment.

Personal Injury Laws

12Whoever strikes and kills a man must surely be put to death. 13But if he did not lie in wait, but God allowed it to happen, then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee.

14But if a man schemes and acts willfully against his neighbor to kill him, you must take him away from My altar to be put to death.

15He who strikes his father or mother must surely be put to death.

16Whoever kidnaps another man must be put to death, whether he sells him or the man is found in his possession.

17Whoever cursesc his father or mother must surely be put to death.

18If men are quarreling and one strikes the other with a stone or a fist, and he does not die but is confined to bed, 19then the one who struck him shall go unpunished, as long as the other can get up and walk around outside with his staff. Nevertheless, he must compensate the man for his lost work and see that he is completely healed.

20If a man strikes his male or female servant with a rod, and the servant dies by his hand, he shall surely be punished. 21However, if the slave gets up after a day or two, the owner shall not be punished, since the slave is his property.

22If men who are fighting strike a pregnant woman and her child is born prematurely,d but there is no further injury, he shall surely be fined as the woman’s husband demands and as the court allows. 23But if a serious injury results, then you must require a life for a life— 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, wound for wound, and stripe for stripe.

26If a man strikes the eye of his manservant or maidservant and blinds it, he must let the servant go free in compensation for the eye. 27And if he knocks out the tooth of his manservant or maidservant, he must let the servant go free in compensation for the tooth.

28If an ox gores a man or woman to death, the ox must surely be stoned, and its meat must not be eaten. But the owner of the ox shall not be held responsible.

29But if the ox has a reputation for goring, and its owner has been warned yet does not restrain it, and it kills a man or woman, them the ox must be stoned and its owner must also be put to death. 30If payment is demanded of him instead, he may redeem his life by paying the full amount demanded of him.

31If the ox gores a son or a daughter, it shall be done to him according to the same rule.

32If the ox gores a manservant or maidservant, the owner must pay thirty shekelse of silver to the master of that servant, and the ox must be stoned.

Laws about Restitution

33If a man opens or digs a pit and fails to cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls into it, 34the owner of the pit shall make restitution; he must pay its owner, and the dead animal will be his.

35If a man’s ox injures his neighbor’s ox and it dies, they must sell the live one and divide the proceeds; they also must divide the dead animal. 36But if it was known that the ox had a habit of goring, yet its owner failed to restrain it, he shall pay full compensation, ox for ox, and the dead animal will be his.

Footnotes:

6 a Or before God
8 b Or so that he does not designate her for himself
17 c Or dishonors; LXX reviles
22 d Or she has a miscarriage
32 e That is, about 12 ounces or 342 grams

Exodus 22
Exodus 22 Par ▾ 

Property Laws

1If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he must repay five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep.

2If a thief is caught breaking in and is beaten to death, no one shall be guilty of bloodshed. 3But if it happens after sunrise, there is guilt for his bloodshed.

A thief must make full restitution; if he has nothing, he himself shall be sold for his theft. 4If what was stolen is actually found alive in his possession—whether ox or donkey or sheep—he must pay back double.

5If a man grazes his livestock in a field or vineyard and allows them to stray so that they graze in someone else’s field, he must make restitution from the best of his own field or vineyard.

6If a fire breaks out and spreads to thornbushes so that it consumes stacked or standing grain, or the whole field, the one who started the fire must make full restitution.

7If a man gives his neighbor money or goods for safekeeping and they are stolen from the neighbor’s house, the thief, if caught, must pay back double. 8If the thief is not found, the owner of the house must appear before the judgesa to determine whether he has taken his neighbor’s property.

9In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any lost item that someone claims, ‘This is mine,’ both parties shall bring their cases before the judges. The one whom the judges condemnb must pay back double to his neighbor.

10If a man gives a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any other animal to be cared for by his neighbor, but it dies or is injured or stolen while no one is watching, 11an oath before the LORD shall be made between the parties to determine whether or not the man has taken his neighbor’s property. The owner must accept the oath and require no restitution.

12But if the animal was actually stolen from the neighbor, he must make restitution to the owner.

13If it was torn to pieces, he shall bring it as evidence; he need not make restitution for the torn carcass.

14If a man borrows an animal from his neighbor and it is injured or dies while its owner is not present, he must make full restitution. 15If the owner was present, no restitution is required. If the animal was rented, the fee covers the loss.

Laws of Social Responsibility

16If a man seduces a virgin who is not pledged in marriage and sleeps with her, he must pay the full dowry for her to be his wife. 17If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he still must pay an amount comparable to the bridal price of a virgin.

18You must not allow a sorceress to live.

19Whoever has sexual relations with an animal must surely be put to death.

20Whoever sacrifices to any god except the LORD alone must be utterly destroyed.c

21You must not exploit or oppress a foreign resident, for you yourselves were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

22You must not mistreat any widow or orphan. 23If you do mistreat them, and they cry out to Me in distress, I will surely hear their cry. 24My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword; then your wives will become widows and your children will be fatherless.

25If you lend money to one of my people among you who is poor, you must not act as a creditor to him; you are not to charge him any interest.

26If you take your neighbor’s cloak as collateral, return it to him by sunset, 27because his cloak is the only covering he has for his body. What else will he sleep in? And if he cries out to Me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.

28You must not blaspheme God or curse the ruler of your people.

29You must not hold back offerings from your granaries or vats. You are to give Me the firstborn of your sons. 30You shall do likewise with your cattle and your sheep. Let them stay with their mothers for seven days, but on the eighth day you are to give them to Me.

31You are to be My holy people. You must not eat the meat of a mauled animal found in the field; you are to throw it to the dogs.

Footnotes:

8 a Or before God; also in verse 9
9 b Or whom God condemns
20 c The Hebrew term refers to giving over things or persons to the LORD, either by destroying them or by giving them as an offering

Exodus 23
Exodus 23 Par ▾ 

Justice and Mercy

1You shall not spread a false report. Do not join the wicked by being a malicious witness.

2You shall not follow a crowd in wrongdoing. When you testify in a lawsuit, do not pervert justice by siding with a crowd. 3And do not show favoritism to a poor man in his lawsuit.

4If you encounter your enemy’s stray ox or donkey, you must return it to him.

5If you see the donkey of one who hates you fallen under its load, do not leave it there; you must help him with it.

6You shall not deny justice to the poor in their lawsuits. 7Stay far away from a false accusation. Do not kill the innocent and the just, for I will not acquit the guilty.

8Do not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who see and twists the words of the righteous.

9Do not oppress a foreign resident, since you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners; for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

Sabbath Laws
(Leviticus 25:1-7; Deuteronomy 15:1-6)

10For six years you are to sow your land and gather its produce, 11but in the seventh year you must let it rest and lie fallow, so that the poor among your people may eat of the field, and the wild animals may consume what they leave. Do the same with your vineyard and olive grove.

12For six days you are to do your work, but on the seventh day you must cease, so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your maidservant may be refreshed, as well as the foreign resident.

13Pay close attention to everything I have said to you. You must not invoke the names of other gods; they must not be heard on your lips.

Three Yearly Feasts
(Leviticus 23:1-3)

14Three times a year you are to celebrate a feast to Me.

15You are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread as I commanded you: At the appointed time in the month of Abib you are to eat unleavened bread for seven days, because that was the month you came out of Egypt. No one may appear before Me empty-handed.

16You are also to observe the Feast of Harvesta with the firstfruits of the produce from what you sow in the field.

And observe the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather your produce from the field.

17Three times a year all your males are to appear before the Lord GOD.

18You must not offer the blood of My sacrifices with anything leavened, nor may the fat of My feast remain until morning.

19Bring the best of the firstfruits of your soil into the house of the LORD your God.

You must not cook a young goat in its mother’s milk.

God's Angel to Lead
(Deuteronomy 7:12-26)

20Behold, I am sending an angel before you to protect you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared. 21Pay attention to him and listen to his voice; do not defy him, for he will not forgive rebellion, since My Name is in him.

22But if you will listen carefully to his voice and do everything I say, I will be an enemy to your enemies and a foe to your foes. 23For My angel will go before you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites, and Jebusites, and I will annihilate them.

24You must not bow down to their gods or serve them or follow their practices. Instead, you are to demolish them and smash their sacred stones to pieces.

25So you shall serve the LORD your God, and He will blessb your bread and your water. And I will take away sickness from among you. 26No woman in your land will miscarry or be barren; I will fulfill the number of your days.

27I will send My terror ahead of you and throw into confusion every nation you encounter. I will make all your enemies turn and run. 28I will send the hornet before you to drive the Hivites and Canaanites and Hittites out of your way.

29I will not drive them out before you in a single year; otherwise the land would become desolate and wild animals would multiply against you. 30Little by little I will drive them out ahead of you, until you become fruitful and possess the land.

31And I will fix your borders from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the Euphrates.c For I will deliver the inhabitants into your hand, and you will drive them out before you. 32You shall make no covenant with them or with their gods. 33They must not remain in your land, lest they cause you to sin against Me. For if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you.”

Footnotes:

16 a That is, the Feast of Weeks; see Exodus 34:22, Numbers 28:26, Deuteronomy 16:10, and 2 Chronicles 8:13
25 b LXX, Vulgate I will bless
31 c Hebrew the River

Exodus 24
Exodus 24 Par ▾ 

The Covenant Sealed

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Come up to the LORD—you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of Israel’s elders—and you are to worship at a distance. 2Moses alone shall approach the LORD, but the others must not come near. And the people may not go up with him.”

3When Moses came and told the people all the words and ordinances of the LORD, they all responded with one voice: “All the words that the LORD has spoken, we will do.”

4And Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD.

Early the next morning he got up and built an altar at the base of the mountain, along with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5Then he sent out some young men of Israel, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to the LORD.

6Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half he sprinkled on the altar. 7Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people, who replied, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient.”

8So Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

9Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10and they saw the God of Israel. Under His feet was a work like a pavement made of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself. 11But God did not lay His hand on the nobles of Israel; they saw Him, and they ate and drank.

Moses on the Mountain

12Then the LORD said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and stay here, so that I may give you the tablets of stone, with the law and commandments I have written for their instruction.”

13So Moses set out with Joshua his attendant and went up on the mountain of God. 14And he said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we return to you. Aaron and Hur are here with you. Whoever has a dispute can go to them.”

15When Moses went up on the mountain, the cloud covered it, 16and the glory of the LORD settled on Mount Sinai. For six days the cloud covered it, and on the seventh day the LORD called to Moses from within the cloud. 17And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like a consuming fire on the mountaintop in the eyes of the Israelites.

18Moses entered the cloud as he went up on the mountain, and he remained on the mountain forty days and forty nights.


Exodus 25
Exodus 25 Par ▾ 

Offerings for the Tabernacle
(Exodus 40:1-33; Hebrews 9:1-10)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“Tell the Israelites to bring Me an offering. You are to receive My offering from every man whose heart compels him. 3This is the offering you are to accept from them: gold, silver, and bronze; 4blue, purple, and scarlet yarn; fine linen and goat hair; 5ram skins dyed red and fine leathera ; acacia wood; 6oil for lighting; spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense; 7and onyx and other gemstones to be mounted on the ephod and breastpiece.

8And they are to make a sanctuary for Me, so that I may dwell among them. 9You must make the tabernacle and design all its furnishings according to the pattern I will show you.

The Ark of the Covenant
(Exodus 37:1-9)

10And they are to construct an arkb of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high.c 11Overlay it with pure gold both inside and out, and make a gold molding around it.

12Cast four gold rings for it and fasten them to its four feet, two rings on one side and two on the other. 13And make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. 14Insert the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark, in order to carry the ark. 15The poles are to remain in the rings of the ark; they must not be removed. 16And put into the ark the Testimony, which I will give you.

The Mercy Seat

17And you are to make a mercy seatd of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. 18And make two cherubim of hammered gold at the two ends of the mercy seat. 19Mold one cherub at one end and a second cherub at the other end; make the cherubim of one piece with the mercy seat. 20The cherubim are to have wings spread upward, overshadowing the mercy seat, and they are to face one another. The faces of the cherubim should look toward the mercy seat.

21Set the mercy seat atop the ark, and put the Testimony that I will give you into the ark.

22And I will meet with you there above the mercy seat, between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the Testimony; I will commune with you about all that I command you regarding the Israelites.

The Table of Showbread
(Exodus 37:10-16; Leviticus 24:5-9)

23You are also to make a table of acacia wood, two cubits long, one cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high.e 24Overlay it with pure gold and construct a gold border around it. 25Also make a rim around it a handbreadth in width,f and put a gold molding on the rim.

26Make four gold rings for the table and attach the rings to the four corners at its four legs. 27The rings are to be close to the rim, to serve as holders for the poles to carry the table. 28Make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold, so that the table may be carried with them.

29You are also to make the plates and dishes, as well as the pitchers and bowls for pouring drink offerings. Make them out of pure gold.

30And place the Bread of the Presence on the table before Me at all times.

The Golden Lampstand
(Numbers 8:1-4)

31Then you are to make a lampstand of pure, hammered gold. It shall be made of one piece, including its base and shaft, its cups, and its buds and petals.

32Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand—three from one side and three from the other. 33There are to be three cups shaped like almond blossoms with buds and petals on one branch, three on the next branch, and the same for all six branches that extend from the lampstand.

34And on the lampstand there shall be four cups shaped like almond blossoms with buds and petals. 35For the six branches that extend from the lampstand, a bud must be under the first pair of branches, a bud under the second pair, and a bud under the third pair. 36Their buds and branches are to be all of one piece, hammered out of gold.

37Make seven lamps and set them up on the lampstand so that they illuminate the area in front of it. 38The wick trimmers and their trays must be of pure gold. 39The lampstand and all these utensils shall be made from a talentg of pure gold.

40See that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

Footnotes:

5 a Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals
10 b That is, a chest
10 c That is, about 3.75 feet long, 2.25 feet wide, and 2.25 feet high (1.1 meters long, 68 centimeters wide, and 68 centimeters high); similarly in verse 17
17 d Or atonement cover
23 e That is, about 3 feet long, 1.5 feet wide, and 2.25 feet high (90 centimeters long, 45 centimeters wide and 68 centimeters high)
25 f That is, about 2.9 inches or 7.4 centimeters
39 g That is, about 75.4 pounds or 34.2 kilograms

Exodus 26
Exodus 26 Par ▾ 

The Ten Curtains of the Tabernacle
(Exodus 36:8-13)

1You are to construct the tabernacle itself with ten curtains of finely spun linen, each with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and cherubim skillfully worked into them. 2Each curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits widea —all curtains the same size.

3Five of the curtains are to be joined together, and the other five curtains joined as well. 4Make loops of blue material on the edge of the end curtain in the first set, and do the same for the end curtain in the second set.

5Make fifty loops on the edge of the end curtain of both sets, so that the loops line up opposite one another. 6Make fifty gold clasps as well, and join the curtains together with the clasps, so that the tabernacle will be a single unit.

The Eleven Curtains of Goats' Hair
(Exodus 36:14-19)

7You are to make curtains of goat hair for the tent over the tabernacle, eleven curtains altogether. 8Each of the eleven curtains is to be the same size, thirty cubits long and four cubits wide.b

9Join five of the curtains into one set and the other six into another. Then fold the sixth curtain over double at the front of the tent.

10Make fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in the first set, and fifty along the edge of the corresponding curtain in the second set. 11Make fifty bronze clasps and put them through the loops to join the tent together as a single unit.

12As for the overlap that remains of the tent curtains, the half curtain that is left over shall hang down over the back of the tabernacle. 13And the tent curtains will be a cubitc longer on either side, and the excess will hang over the sides of the tabernacle to cover it.

14Also make a covering for the tent out of ram skins dyed red, with a covering of fine leatherd over it.

The Frames and Sockets
(Exodus 36:20-30)

15You are to make upright frames of acacia wood for the tabernacle. 16Each frame is to be ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide.e 17The frames must each be connected together with two tenons. Do the same for all the frames of the tabernacle.

18Construct twenty frames for the south side for the tabernacle, 19with forty silver bases under the twenty frames—two bases under each frame, one for each tenon.

20For the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, make twenty frames 21and forty silver bases—two bases under each frame.

22For the rear of the tabernacle, the west side, make six frames, 23as well as two frames for the two back corners of the tabernacle, 24coupled together from bottom to top and fitted into a single ring. These will serve as the two corners. 25So there are to be eight frames and sixteen silver bases for the rear side—two bases under each frame.

26You are to also make five crossbars of acacia wood for the frames on one side of the tabernacle, 27five for those on the other side, and five for those on the rear side of the tabernacle, to the west.

28The central crossbar in the middle of the frames shall extend from one end to the other. 29Overlay the frames with gold and make gold rings to hold the crossbars. Also overlay the crossbars with gold.

30So you are to set up the tabernacle according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

The Veil for the Ark
(Exodus 36:35-36)

31Make a veil of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen, with cherubim skillfully worked into it. 32Hang it with gold hooks on four gold-plated posts of acacia wood standing on four silver bases. 33And you are to hang the veil from the clasps and place the Ark of the Testimony behind the veil. So the veil will separate the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place.

34Put the mercy seat on the Ark of the Testimony in the Most Holy Place. 35And place the table outside the veil on the north side of the tabernacle, and put the lampstand opposite it on the south side.

The Curtain for the Entrance
(Exodus 36:37-38)

36For the entrance to the tent, you are to make a curtain embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. 37Make five posts of acacia wood for the curtain, overlay them with gold hooks, and cast five bronze bases for them.

Footnotes:

2 a That is, about 42 feet long and 6 feet wide (13 meters long and 1.8 meters wide)
8 b That is, about 45 feet long and 6 feet wide (13.5 meters long and 1.8 meters wide)
13 c That is, about 18 inches or 45 centimeters
14 d Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals
16 e That is, about 15 feet long and 2.25 feet wide (4.5 meters long and 68 centimeters wide)

Exodus 27
Exodus 27 Par ▾ 

The Bronze Altar

1You are to build an altar of acacia wood. The altar must be square, five cubits long, five cubits wide, and three cubits high.a 2Make a horn on each of its four corners, so that the horns are of one piece, and overlay it with bronze.

3Make all its utensils of bronze—the pots for removing ashes, and the shovels, basins, meat forks, and firepans. 4Construct for it a grate of bronze mesh, and make a bronze ring at each of the four corners of the mesh. 5Set the grate beneath the ledge of the altar, so that the mesh comes halfway up the altar.

6Additionally, make poles of acacia wood for the altar and overlay them with bronze. 7The poles are to be inserted into the rings so that the poles are on two sides of the altar when it is carried.

8Construct the altar with boards so that it is hollow. It is to be made just as you were shown on the mountain.

The Courtyard

9You are also to make a courtyard for the tabernacle. On the south side of the courtyard make curtains of finely spun linen, a hundred cubits longb on one side, 10with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, and silver hooks and bands on the posts.

11Likewise there are to be curtains on the north side, a hundred cubits long, with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, and with silver hooks and bands on the posts. 12The curtains on the west side of the courtyard shall be fifty cubitsc wide, with ten posts and ten bases.

13The east side of the courtyard, toward the sunrise, is to be fifty cubits wide. 14Make the curtains on one side fifteen cubits long,d with three posts and three bases, 15and the curtains on the other side fifteen cubits long, with three posts and three bases.

16The gate of the courtyard shall be twenty cubits long,e with a curtain embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. It shall have four posts and four bases.

17All the posts around the courtyard shall have silver bands, silver hooks, and bronze bases. 18The entire courtyard shall be a hundred cubits long and fifty cubits wide,f with curtains of finely spun linen, five cubits high,g and with bronze bases. 19All the utensils of the tabernacle for every use, including all its tent pegs and the tent pegs of the courtyard, shall be made of bronze.

The Oil for the Lamps
(Leviticus 24:1-4)

20And you are to command the Israelites to bring you pure oil of pressed olives for the light, to keep the lamps burning continually.

21In the Tent of Meeting, outside the veil that is in front of the Testimony, Aaron and his sons are to tend the lamps before the LORD from evening until morning. This is to be a perpetual statute for the Israelites throughout their generations.

Footnotes:

1 a That is, about 7.5 feet in length and width, and 4.5 feet in height (2.3 meters in length and width, and 1.4 meters wide)
9 b That is, about 150 feet or 45.7 meters; also in verse 11
12 c That is, about 75 feet or 23 meters; also in verse 13
14 d That is, about 23 feet or 6.8 meters; also in verse 15
16 e That is, about 30 feet or 9.1 meters
18 f That is, about 150 feet long and 75 feet wide (45 meters long and 23 meters wide)
18 g That is, about 7.5 feet or 2.3 meters

Exodus 28
Exodus 28 Par ▾ 

Garments for the Priests

1Next, bring near to you your brother Aaron from among the Israelites, along with his sons Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar, to serve Me as priests. 2Make holy garments for your brother Aaron to give him dignity and splendor.

3You are to instruct all the skilled craftsmen, whom I have filled with a spirit of wisdom, to make garments for Aaron’s consecration, so that he may serve Me as priest. 4These are the garments that they shall make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a woven tunic, a turban, and a sash. They are to make these holy garments for your brother Aaron and his sons, so that they may serve Me as priests. 5They shall use gold, along with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and fine linen.

The Ephod
(Exodus 39:1-7)

6The craftsmen are to make the ephod of finely spun linen embroidered with gold, and with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn. 7It shall have two shoulder pieces joined at its two ends, so it can be fastened. 8The skillfully woven waistband of the ephod must be of one piece, of the same workmanship—with gold, with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and with finely spun linen.

9Take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel: 10six of their names on one stone and the remaining six on the other, in the order of their birth. 11Engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel, to be set as a gem cutter engraves a seal. Mount the stones in gold filigree settings. 12Fasten both stones onto the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the sons of Israel. Aaron is to bear their names on his two shoulders as a memorial before the LORD.

13Fashion gold filigree settings 14and two chains of pure gold, made of braided cord work; and attach these chains to the settings.

The Breastpiece
(Exodus 39:8-21)

15You are also to make a breastpiece of judgment with the same workmanship as the ephod. Construct it with gold, with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. 16It must be square when folded over double, a spana long and a span wide.

17And mount on it a setting of gemstones, four rows of stones:b

In the first row there shall be a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald;

18in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire, and a diamond;

19in the third row a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst;

20and in the fourth row a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper.

Mount these stones in gold filigree settings. 21The twelve stones are to correspond to the names of the sons of Israel, each engraved like a seal with the name of one of the twelve tribes.

22For the breastpiece make braided chains like cords of pure gold. 23Make two gold rings and attach them to the two corners of the breastpiece. 24Then attach the two gold chains to the two gold rings at the corners of the breastpiece, 25and attach the other ends of the two chains to the two filigree settings, fastening them to the ephod’s shoulder pieces in the front.

26Make two more gold rings and attach them to the other two corners of the breastpiece, on the edge next to the inner border of the ephod.

27Make two additional gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces of the ephod, on its front, close to its seam and above the woven waistband of the ephod. 28The rings of the breastpiece shall be tied to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue yarn, so that the breastpiece is above the waistband of the ephod and does not swing out from the ephod.

29Whenever Aaron enters the Holy Place, he shall bear the names of the sons of Israel over his heart on the breastpiece of judgment, as a continual reminder before the LORD.

30And place the Urim and Thummim in the breastpiece of judgment, so that they will also be over Aaron’s heart whenever he comes before the LORD. Aaron will continually carry the judgment of the sons of Israel over his heart before the LORD.

Additional Priestly Garments
(Exodus 39:22-31)

31You are to make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue yarn, 32with an opening at its top in the center. Around the opening shall be a woven collar with an opening like that of a garment,c so that it will not tear.

33Make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn all the way around the lower hem, with gold bells between them, 34so that gold bells and pomegranates alternate around the lower hem of the robe.

35Aaron must wear the robe whenever he ministers, and its sound will be heard when he enters or exits the sanctuary before the LORD, so that he will not die.

36You are to make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it as a seal:

HOLY TO THE LORD.

37Fasten a blue cord to it to attach it to the turban; it is to be on the front of the turban. 38It will be on Aaron’s forehead, so that he may bear the iniquity of the holy things that the sons of Israel consecrate with regard to all their holy gifts. It shall always be on his forehead, so that the people may be acceptable before the LORD.

39You are to weave the tunic with fine linen, make the turban of fine linen, and fashion an embroidered sash. 40Make tunics, sashes, and headbands for Aaron’s sons, to give them dignity and splendor.

41After you put these garments on your brother Aaron and his sons, anoint them, ordain them, and consecrate them so that they may serve Me as priests.

42Make linen undergarments to cover their bare flesh, extending from waist to thigh. 43Aaron and his sons must wear them whenever they enter the tent of meeting or approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place, so that they will not incur guilt and die. This is to be a permanent statute for Aaron and his descendants.

Footnotes:

16 a That is, about 9 inches or 23 centimeters
17 b The precise identification of some of these gemstones is uncertain.
32 c The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain; possibly coat of mail

Exodus 29
Exodus 29 Par ▾ 

Consecration of the Priests
(Leviticus 8:1-13)

1Now this is what you are to do to consecrate them to serve Me as priests: Take a young bull and two rams without blemish, 2along with unleavened bread, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil. Make them out of fine wheat flour, 3put them in a basket, and present them in the basket, along with the bull and the two rams.

4Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, and wash them with water. 5Take the garments and clothe Aaron with the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod itself, and the breastplate. Fasten the ephod on him with its woven waistband. 6Put the turban on his head and attach the holy diadem to the turban. 7Then take the anointing oil and anoint him by pouring it on his head.

8Bring his sons as well and clothe them with tunics. 9Wrap the sashes around Aaron and his sons and put headbands on them. The priesthood shall be theirs by a perpetual statute. In this way you are to ordain Aaron and his sons.

The Order of the Sacrifices
(Leviticus 8:22-36)

10Bring the bull to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands on its head. 11And you shall slaughter the bull before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. 12Take some of the blood of the bull and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger; then pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar. 13Take all the fat that covers the entrails and the lobe of the liver, and both kidneys with the fat on them, and burn them on the altar. 14But burn the flesh of the bull and its hide and dung outside the camp; it is a sin offering.a

15Take one of the rams, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on its head. 16You are to slaughter the ram, take its blood, and sprinkle it on all sides of the altar. 17Cut the ram into pieces, wash the entrails and legs, and place them with its head and other pieces. 18Then burn the entire ram on the altar; it is a burnt offering to the LORD, a pleasing aroma, an offering made to the LORD by fire.

19Take the second ram, and Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands on its head. 20Slaughter the ram, take some of its blood, and put it on the right earlobes of Aaron and his sons, on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the big toes of their right feet. Sprinkle the remaining blood on all sides of the altar. 21And take some of the blood on the altar and some of the anointing oil and sprinkle it on Aaron and his garments, as well as on his sons and their garments. Then he and his garments will be consecrated, as well as his sons and their garments.

22Take the fat from the ram, the fat tail, the fat covering the entrails, the lobe of the liver, both kidneys and the fat on them, and the right thigh (since this is a ram for ordination), 23along with one loaf of bread, one cake of bread made with oil, and one wafer from the basket of unleavened bread that is before the LORD. 24Put all these into the hands of Aaron and his sons and wave them before the LORD as a wave offering. 25Then take them from their hands and burn them on the altar atop the burnt offering as a pleasing aroma before the LORD; it is an offering made by fire to the LORD.

26Take the breast of the ram of Aaron’s ordination and wave it before the LORD as a wave offering, and it will be your portion. 27Consecrate for Aaron and his sons the breast of the wave offering that is waved and the thigh of the heave offering that is lifted up from the ram of ordination. 28This will belong to Aaron and his sons as a regular portion from the Israelites, for it is the heave offering the Israelites will make to the LORD from their peace offerings.

29The holy garments that belong to Aaron will belong to his sons after him, so they can be anointed and ordained in them. 30The son who succeeds him as priest and enters the Tent of Meeting to minister in the Holy Place must wear them for seven days.

Food for the Priests

31You are to take the ram of ordination and boil its flesh in a holy place. 32At the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, Aaron and his sons are to eat the meat of the ram and the bread that is in the basket. 33They must eat those things by which atonement was made for their ordination and consecration. But no outsider may eat them, because these things are sacred. 34And if any of the meat of ordination or any bread is left until the morning, burn up the remainder. It must not be eaten, because it is sacred.

35This is what you are to do for Aaron and his sons based on all that I have commanded you, taking seven days to ordain them. 36Sacrifice a bull as a sin offering each day for atonement. Purify the altar by making atonement for it, and anoint it to consecrate it. 37For seven days you shall make atonement for the altar and consecrate it. Then the altar will become most holy; whatever touches the altar will be holy.

The Daily Offerings
(Numbers 28:1-8)

38This is what you are to offer regularly on the altar, each day: two lambs that are a year old. 39In the morning offer one lamb, and at twilight offer the other. 40With the first lamb offer a tenth of an ephahb of fine flour, mixed with a quarter hinc of oil from pressed olives, and a drink offering of a quarter hin of wine. 41And you shall offer the second lamb at twilight with the same grain offering and drink offering as in the morning, as a pleasing aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD.

42For the generations to come, this burnt offering shall be made regularly at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting before the LORD, where I will meet you to speak with you. 43I will also meet with the Israelites there, and that place will be consecrated by My glory. 44So I will consecrate the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and I will consecrate Aaron and his sons to serve Me as priests.

God will Dwell Among the People
(2 Corinthians 6:14-18)

45Then I will dwell among the Israelites and be their God. 46And they will know that I am the LORD their God, who brought them out of the land of Egypt, so that I might dwell among them.

I am the LORD their God.

Footnotes:

14 a Or purification offering; also in verse 36
40 b That is, about 2.3 quarts or 2.2 liters (probably about 3.5 pounds or 1.6 kilograms of flour)
40 c That is, probably about 0.98 quart or 0.93 liter

Exodus 30
Exodus 30 Par ▾ 

The Altar of Incense
(Exodus 37:25-29)

1You are also to make an altar of acacia wood for the burning of incense. 2It is to be square, a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high.a Its horns must be of one piece. 3Overlay the top and all the sides and horns with pure gold, and make a molding of gold all around it. 4And make for it two gold rings below the molding on opposite sides to hold the poles used to carry it. 5Make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.

6Place the altar in front of the veil that is before the Ark of the Testimony—before the mercy seat that is over the Testimony—where I will meet with you. 7And Aaron is to burn fragrant incense on it every morning when he tends the lamps. 8When Aaron sets up the lamps at twilight, he must burn the incense perpetually before the LORD for the generations to come. 9On this altar you must not offer unapproved incense or a burnt offering or grain offering, nor are you to pour a drink offering on it.

10Once a year Aaron shall make atonement on the horns of the altar. Throughout your generations he shall make atonement on it annually with the blood of the sin offeringb of atonement. The altar is most holy to the LORD.”

The Atonement Money

11Then the LORD said to Moses, 12“When you take a census of the Israelites to number them, each man must pay the LORD a ransom for his life when he is counted. Then no plague will come upon them when they are numbered. 13Everyone who crosses over to those counted must pay a half shekel,c according to the sanctuary shekel, which weighs twenty gerahs.d This half shekel is an offering to the LORD.

14Everyone twenty years of age or older who crosses over must give this offering to the LORD. 15In making the offering to the LORD to atone for your lives, the rich shall not give more than a half shekel, nor shall the poor give less. 16Take the atonement money from the sons of Israel and use it for the service of the Tent of Meeting. It will serve as a memorial for the Israelites before the LORD to make an atonement for your lives.”

The Bronze Basin

17Again, the LORD said to Moses, 18“You are to make a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Set it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and put water into it, 19with which Aaron and his sons are to wash their hands and feet. 20Whenever they enter the Tent of Meeting or approach the altar to minister by presenting an offering made by fire to the LORD, they must wash with water so that they will not die. 21Thus they are to wash their hands and feet so that they will not die; this shall be a permanent statute for Aaron and his descendants for the generations to come.”

The Anointing Oil

22Once again, The LORD said to Moses, 23“Take the finest spices: 500 shekelse of liquid myrrh, half as much (250 shekels) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekelsf of fragrant cane, 24500 shekels of cassia—all according to the sanctuary shekel—and a hing of olive oil. 25Prepare from these a holy anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer; it will be a holy anointing oil.

26Use this oil to anoint the Tent of Meeting, the Ark of the Testimony, 27the table and all its utensils, the lampstand and its utensils, the altar of incense, 28the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and the basin with its stand. 29You are to consecrate them so that they will be most holy. Whatever touches them will be holy. 30Anoint Aaron and his sons and consecrate them to serve Me as priests.

31And you are to tell the Israelites, ‘This will be My sacred anointing oil for the generations to come. 32It must not be used to anoint an ordinary man, and you must not make anything like it with the same formula. It is holy, and it must be holy to you. 33Anyone who mixes perfume like it or puts it on a layman shall be cut off from his people.’”

The Incense

34Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take fragrant spices—gum resin, onycha, galbanum, and pure frankincense—in equal measures, 35and make a fragrant blend of incense, the work of a perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy. 36Grind some of it into fine powder and place it in front of the Testimony in the Tent of Meeting, where I will meet with you. It shall be most holy to you. 37You are never to use this formula to make incense for yourselves; you shall regard it as sacred to the LORD. 38Anyone who makes something like it to enjoy its fragrance shall be cut off from his people.”

Footnotes:

2 a That is, about 1.5 feet in length and width, and 3 feet high (45 centimeters in length and width, and 90 centimeters high)
10 b Or purification offering
13 c That is, about 0.2 ounce or 5.7 grams; also in verse 15
13 d A gerah was about 0.02 ounce or 0.57 gram
23 e That is, about 12.5 pounds or 5.67 kilograms; also in verse 24
23 f That is, about 6.25 pounds or 2.84 kilograms
24 g A hin was a liquid measure of about 0.98 gallons or 3.7 liters

Exodus 31
Exodus 31 Par ▾ 

Bezalel and Oholiab the Craftsmen
(Exodus 35:30-35)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“See, I have appointed by name Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 3And I have filled him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom, understanding, and ability in all kinds of craftsmanship, 4to design artistic works in gold, silver, and bronze, 5to cut gemstones for settings, and to carve wood, so that he may be a master of every craft.

6Moreover, I have selected Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, as his assistant.

I have also given skill to all the craftsmen, that they may fashion all that I have commanded you: 7the Tent of Meeting, the Ark of the Testimony and the mercy seat upon it, and all the other furnishings of the tent— 8the table with its utensils, the pure gold lampstand with all its utensils, the altar of incense, 9the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the basin with its stand— 10as well as the woven garments, both the holy garments for Aaron the priest and the garments for his sons to serve as priests, 11in addition to the anointing oil and fragrant incense for the Holy Place. They are to make them according to all that I have commanded you.”

The Sign of the Sabbath
(Numbers 15:32-36)

12And the LORD said to Moses, 13“Tell the Israelites, ‘Surely you must observe My Sabbaths, for this will be a sign between Me and you for the generations to come, so that you may know that I am the LORD who sanctifies you. 14Observe the Sabbath, for it is holy to you. Everyone who profanes it must surely be put to death. Whoever does work on that day must be cut off from his people. 15For six days work may be done, but the seventh day must be a Sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must surely be put to death.

16The Israelites must observe the Sabbath, celebrating it as a lasting covenant for the generations to come. 17It is a sign between Me and the Israelites forever; for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, but on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed.’”

Moses Receives the Tablets

18When the LORD had finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the Testimony, tablets of stone inscribed by the finger of God.


Exodus 32
Exodus 32 Par ▾ 

The Golden Calf
(Deuteronomy 9:7-29)

1Now when the people saw that Moses was delayed in coming down from the mountain, they gathered around Aaron and said, “Come, make us gods who will go before us. As for this Moses who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him!”

2So Aaron told them, “Take off the gold earrings that are on your wives and sons and daughters, and bring them to me.”

3Then all the people took off their gold earrings and brought them to Aaron. 4He took the gold from their hands, and with an engraving tool he fashioned it into a molten calf. And they said, “O Israel, these are your gods, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!”

5When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before the calf and proclaimed: “Tomorrow shall be a feast to the LORD.”

6So the next day they arose, offered burnt offerings, and presented peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink, and got up to indulge in revelry.a

Moses Informed of Israel's Sin

7Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go down at once! For your people, whom you brought up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves. 8How quickly they have turned aside from the way I commanded them. They have made for themselves a molten calf and have bowed down to it, sacrificed to it, and said, ‘O Israel, this is your God, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.’”

9The LORD also said to Moses, “I have seen this people, and they are indeed a stiff-necked people. 10Now leave Me alone, so that My anger may burn against them and consume them. Then I will make you into a great nation.”

11But Moses entreated the LORD his God, saying, “O LORD, why does Your anger burn against Your people, whom You brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and a mighty hand? 12Why should the Egyptians declare, ‘He brought them out with evil intent, to kill them in the mountains and wipe them from the face of the earth’? Turn from Your fierce anger and relent from doing harm to Your people. 13Remember Your servants Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, to whom You swore by Your very self when You declared, ‘I will make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky, and I will give your descendants all this land that I have promised, and it shall be their inheritance forever.’”

14So the LORD relented from the calamity He had threatened to bring on His people.

Moses Descends with the Tablets

15Then Moses turned and went down the mountain with the two tablets of the Testimony in his hands. They were inscribed on both sides, front and back. 16The tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, engraved on the tablets.

17When Joshua heard the sound of the people shouting, he said to Moses, “The sound of war is in the camp.”

18But Moses replied:

“It is neither the cry of victory

nor the cry of defeat;

I hear the sound of singing!”

Moses Breaks the Tablets

19As Moses approached the camp and saw the calf and the dancing, he burned with anger and threw the tablets out of his hands, smashing them at the base of the mountain. 20Then he took the calf they had made, burned it in the fire, ground it to powder, and scattered the powder over the face of the water. Then he forced the Israelites to drink it.

21“What did this people do to you,” Moses asked Aaron, “that you have led them into so great a sin?”

22“Do not be enraged, my lord,” Aaron replied. “You yourself know that the people are intent on evil. 23They told me, ‘Make us gods who will go before us. As for this Moses who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him!’

24So I said to them, ‘Whoever has gold, let him take it off,’ and they gave it to me. And when I cast it into the fire, out came this calf!”

25Moses saw that the people were out of control, for Aaron had let them run wild and become a laughingstock to their enemies. 26So Moses stood at the entrance of the camp and said, “Whoever is for the LORD, come to me.”

And all the Levites gathered around him.

27He told them, “This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, says: ‘Each of you men is to fasten his sword to his side, go back and forth through the camp from gate to gate, and slay his brother, his friend, and his neighbor.’”

28The Levites did as Moses commanded, and that day about three thousand of the people fell dead.

29Afterward, Moses said, “Today you have been ordained for service to the LORD, since each man went against his son and his brother; so He has bestowed a blessing on you this day.”

Moses Intercedes for Israel

30The next day Moses said to the people, “You have committed a great sin. Now I will go up to the LORD; perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.”

31So Moses returned to the LORD and said, “Oh, what a great sin these people have committed; they have made gods of gold for themselves. 32Yet now, if You would only forgive their sin... But if not, please blot me out of the book that You have written.”

33The LORD replied to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against Me, I will erase from My book. 34Now go, lead the people to the place I told you. Behold, My angel shall go before you. But on the day I settle accounts, I will punish them for their sin.”

35And the LORD sent a plague on the people because of what they had done with the calf that Aaron had made.

Footnotes:

6 a Or to play

Exodus 33
Exodus 33 Par ▾ 

The Command to Leave Sinai
(Deuteronomy 1:1-8)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Leave this place, you and the people you brought up out of the land of Egypt, and go to the land I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob when I said, ‘I will give it to your descendants.’ 2And I will send an angel before you and drive out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 3Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey. But I will not go with you, because you are a stiff-necked people; otherwise, I might destroy you on the way.”

4When the people heard these bad tidings, they went into mourning, and no one put on any of his jewelry.

5For the LORD had said to Moses, “Tell the Israelites, ‘You are a stiff-necked people. If I should go with you for a single moment, I would destroy you. Now take off your jewelry, and I will decide what to do with you.’”

6So the Israelites remained stripped of their jewelry from Mount Horeb onward.

The Tent of Meeting

7Now Moses used to take the tent and pitch it at a distance outside the camp. He called it the Tent of Meeting, and anyone inquiring of the LORD would go to the Tent of Meeting outside the camp. 8Then, whenever Moses went out to the tent, all the people would stand at the entrances of their tents and watch Moses until he entered the tent. 9As Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and remain at the entrance, and the LORD would speak with Moses. 10When all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance to the tent, they would stand up and worship, each one at the entrance to his tent.

11Thus the LORD would speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks with his friend. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his young assistant Joshua son of Nun would not leave the tent.

The Glory of the LORD

12Moses said to the LORD, “Look, You have been telling me, ‘Lead this people up,’ but You have not let me know whom You will send with me. Yet You have said, ‘I know you by name, and you have found favor in My sight.’ 13Now if indeed I have found favor in Your sight, please let me know Your ways, that I may know You and find favor in Your sight. Remember that this nation is Your people.”

14And the LORD answered, “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”

15“If Your presence does not go with us,” Moses replied, “do not lead us up from here. 16For how then can it be known that Your people and I have found favor in Your sight, unless You go with us? How else will we be distinguished from all the other people on the face of the earth?”

17And the LORD said to Moses, “I will do this very thing you have asked, for you have found favor in My sight, and I know you by name.”

18Then Moses said, “Please show me Your glory.”

19“I will cause all My goodness to pass in front of you,” the LORD replied, “and I will proclaim My name—the LORD—before you. I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”

20And He added, “You cannot see My face, for no one can see Me and live.”

21The LORD continued, “There is a place near Me where you are to stand upon a rock, 22and when My glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft of the rock and cover you with My hand until I have passed by. 23Then I will take My hand away, and you will see My back; but My face must not be seen.”


Exodus 34
Exodus 34 Par ▾ 

The Tablets are Replaced
(Deuteronomy 10:1-11)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Chisel out two stone tablets like the original ones, and I will write on them the words that were on the first tablets, which you broke. 2Be ready in the morning, and come up on Mount Sinai to present yourself before Me on the mountaintop. 3No one may go up with you; in fact, no one may be seen anywhere on the mountain—not even the flocks or herds may graze in front of the mountain.”

4So Moses chiseled two stone tablets like the originals. He rose early in the morning, and taking the two stone tablets in his hand, he ascended Mount Sinai as the LORD had commanded him.

5And the LORD descended in a cloud, stood with him there, and proclaimed His name, the LORD. 6Then the LORD passed in front of Moses and called out:

“The LORD, the LORD God,

is compassionate and gracious,

slow to anger,

abounding in loving devotion and truth,

7maintaining loving devotion to a thousand generations,a

forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin.

Yet He will by no means excuse the guilty;

He will visit the iniquity of the fathers

on their children and grandchildren

to the third and fourth generations.”

8Moses immediately bowed down to the ground and worshiped. 9“O Lord,” he said, “if I have indeed found favor in Your sight, my Lord, please go with us. Although this is a stiff-necked people, forgive our iniquity and sin, and take us as Your inheritance.”

The LORD Renews the Covenant
(2 Corinthians 3:7-18; Joshua 8:30-35)

10And the LORD said, “Behold, I am making a covenant. Before all your people I will perform wonders that have never been done in any nation in all the world. All the people among whom you live will see the LORD’s work, for it is an awesome thing that I am doing with you.

11Observe what I command you this day. I will drive out before you the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 12Be careful not to make a treaty with the inhabitants of the land you are entering, lest they become a snare in your midst. 13Rather, you must tear down their altars, smash their sacred stones, and chop down their Asherah poles. 14For you must not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.

15Do not make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, for when they prostitute themselves to their gods and sacrifice to them, they will invite you, and you will eat their sacrifices; 16and when you take some of their daughters as brides for your sons, their daughters will prostitute themselves to their gods and cause your sons to do the same.

17You shall make no molten gods for yourselves.

18You are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. For seven days at the appointed time in the month of Abib, you are to eat unleavened bread as I commanded you. For in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.

19The first offspring of every womb belongs to Me, including all the firstborn males among your livestock, whether cattle or sheep. 20You must redeem the firstborn of a donkey with a lamb; but if you do not redeem it, break its neck. You must redeem all the firstborn of your sons. No one shall appear before Me empty-handed.

21Six days you shall labor, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even in plowing and harvesting seasons, you must rest.

22And you are to celebrate the Feast of Weeks with the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the turn of the year.b 23Three times a year all your males are to appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel. 24For I will drive out the nations before you and enlarge your borders, and no one will covet your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD your God.

25Do not offer the blood of My sacrifice along with anything leavened, and do not let any of the sacrifice from the Passover Feast remain until morning.

26Bring the best of the firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD your God.

You shall not cook a young goat in its mother’s milk.”

27The LORD also said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”

28So Moses was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant—the Ten Commandments.c

29And when Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of the Testimony in his hands, he was unaware that his face had become radiant from speaking with the LORD. 30Aaron and all the Israelites looked at Moses, and behold, his face was radiant. And they were afraid to approach him.

31But Moses called out to them; so Aaron and all the leaders of the congregation returned to him, and Moses spoke to them. 32And after this all the Israelites came near, and Moses commanded them to do everything that the LORD had told him on Mount Sinai.

33When Moses had finished speaking to them, he put a veil over his face. 34But whenever Moses went in before the LORD to speak with Him, he would remove the veil until he came out. And when he came out, he would tell the Israelites what he had been commanded, 35and the Israelites would see that the face of Moses was radiant. So Moses would put the veil back over his face until he went in to speak with the LORD.

Footnotes:

7 a Hebrew to thousands
22 b That is, in the autumn
28 c Hebrew the Ten Words

Exodus 35
Exodus 35 Par ▾ 

The Sabbath

1Then Moses assembled the entire congregation of the Israelites and said to them, “These are the things that the LORD has commanded you to do: 2For six days work shall be done, but on the seventh day you are to have a holy Sabbath of complete rest to the LORD. Anyone who does work on that day must be put to death. 3Do not light a fire in any of your dwellings on the Sabbath day.”

Materials for the Tabernacle

4Moses also told the entire congregation of the Israelites, “This is what the LORD has commanded: 5Take from among you an offering to the LORD. Let everyone whose heart is willing bring to the LORD an offering of gold and silver and bronze, 6of blue and purple and scarlet yarn, of fine linen and goat hair, 7of ram skins dyed red, fine leather,a and acacia wood, 8of olive oil for the light and spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense, 9and of onyx stones and gemstones to be mounted on the ephod and breastpiece.

The Skilled Craftsmen

10Let every skilled craftsman among you come and make everything that the LORD has commanded: 11the tabernacle with its tent and covering, its clasps and frames, its crossbars, posts, and bases; 12the ark with its poles and mercy seat, and the veil to shield it; 13the table with its poles, all its utensils, and the Bread of the Presence; 14the lampstand for light with its accessories and lamps and oil for the light; 15the altar of incense with its poles; the anointing oil and fragrant incense; the curtain for the doorway at the entrance to the tabernacle; 16the altar of burnt offering with its bronze grate, its poles, and all its utensils; the basin with its stand; 17the curtains of the courtyard with its posts and bases, and the curtain for the gate of the courtyard; 18the tent pegs for the tabernacle and for the courtyard, along with their ropes; 19and the woven garments for ministering in the holy place—both the sacred garments for Aaron the priest and the garments for his sons to serve as priests.”

The People Offer Gifts

20Then the entire congregation of the Israelites withdrew from the presence of Moses. 21And everyone whose heart stirred him and whose spirit prompted him came and brought an offering to the LORD for the work on the Tent of Meeting, for all its services, and for the sacred garments.

22So all who had willing hearts, both men and women, came and brought brooches and earrings, rings and necklaces, and all kinds of gold jewelry. And they all presented their gold as a wave offering to the LORD.

23Everyone who had blue, purple, or scarlet yarn, or fine linen, goat hair, ram skins dyed red, or articles of fine leather brought them. 24And all who could present an offering of silver or bronze brought it as a contribution to the LORD. Also, everyone who had acacia wood for any part of the service brought it.

25Every skilled woman spun with her hands and brought what she had spun: blue, purple, or scarlet yarn, or fine linen. 26And all the skilled women whose hearts were stirred spun the goat hair.

27The leaders brought onyx stones and gemstones to mount on the ephod and breastpiece, 28as well as spices and olive oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the fragrant incense.

29So all the men and women of the Israelites whose hearts prompted them brought a freewill offering to the LORD for all the work that the LORD through Moses had commanded them to do.

Bezalel and Oholiab
(Exodus 31:1-11)

30Then Moses said to the Israelites, “See, the LORD has called by name Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 31And He has filled him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom, understanding, and ability in all kinds of crafts, 32to make artistic designs for working in gold and silver and bronze, 33to cut gemstones for mounting, and to carve wood for work in every artistic craft.

34And the LORD has given both him and Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, the ability to teach others. 35He has filled them with skill to do all kinds of work as engravers, designers, embroiderers in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen, and as weavers—as artistic designers of every kind of craft.

Footnotes:

7 a Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals; also in verse 23

Exodus 36
Exodus 36 Par ▾ 

Offerings for the Tabernacle

1So Bezalel, Oholiab, and every skilled person are to carry out everything commanded by the LORD, who has given them skill and understanding to know how to perform all the work of constructing the sanctuary.”

2Then Moses summoned Bezalel, Oholiab, and every skilled person whom the LORD had gifted—everyone whose heart stirred him to come and do the work. 3They received from Moses all the contributions that the Israelites had brought to carry out the service of constructing the sanctuary.

Meanwhile, the people continued to bring freewill offerings morning after morning, 4so that all the skilled craftsmen who were doing all the work on the sanctuary left their work 5and said to Moses, “The people are bringing more than enough for doing the work the LORD has commanded us to do.”

6After Moses had given an order, they sent a proclamation throughout the camp: “No man or woman should make anything else as an offering for the sanctuary.” So the people were restrained from bringing more, 7since what they already had was more than enough to perform all the work.

The Curtains for the Tabernacle
(Exodus 26:1-14)

8All the skilled craftsmen among the workmen made the ten curtains for the tabernacle. They were made of finely spun linen, as well as blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, with a design of cherubim worked into them. 9The length of each curtain was twenty-eight cubits, and width of each curtain was four cubits;a all the curtains had the same measurements, 10and he joined five of the curtains together, and the other five he joined as well.

11He fashioned loops of blue yarn on the edge of the end curtain in the first set, and also on the end curtain in the second set. 12He made fifty loops on the one curtain and fifty loops on the end curtain of the second set, so that the loops lined up opposite one another. 13He also made fifty gold clasps to join the curtains to each other, so that the tabernacle was a single unit.

14He then made curtains of goat hair for the tent over the tabernacle—eleven curtains altogether. 15The length of each curtain was thirty cubits, and the width of each curtain was four cubits;b each of the eleven curtains had the same measurements. 16He joined five of the curtains together, and the other six together. 17He made fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in the first set, and fifty loops on the edge of the end curtain in the second set. 18He also made fifty bronze clasps to join the tent together as a unit.

19Additionally, he made for the tent a covering of ram skins dyed red, and over that a covering of fine leather.c

The Frames and Bases
(Exodus 26:15-30)

20Next, he constructed upright frames of acacia wood for the tabernacle. 21Each frame was ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide.d 22Two tenons were connected to each other for each frame. He made all the frames of the tabernacle in this way.

23He made the frames for the tabernacle as follows: twenty frames for the south side, 24along with forty silver bases to put under the twenty frames—two bases under each frame, one under each tenon.

25For the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, he made twenty frames, 26with their forty silver bases, two under each frame.

27For the west side of the tabernacle he made six frames. 28He also made two frames for the two back corners of the tabernacle. 29They were joined together from bottom to top into a single ring. He made both corners in this way. 30So there were eight frames with sixteen silver bases, two under each frame.

The Bars

31He also made crossbars of acacia wood: five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle, 32five for the frames on the other side, and five for those at the back of the tabernacle, to the west.

33He made the central crossbar to run through the center of the frames, from one end to the other. 34And he overlaid the frames with gold and made gold rings to hold the crossbars. He also overlaid the crossbars with gold.

The Veil
(Exodus 26:31-35)

35Next, he made the veil of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen, with cherubim skillfully worked into it.

36He also made four posts of acacia wood for it and overlaid them with gold, along with gold hooks; and he cast four silver bases for the posts.

The Curtain for the Entrance
(Exodus 26:36-37)

37For the entrance to the tent, he made a curtain embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen, 38together with five posts and their hooks.

He overlaid the tops of the posts and their bands with gold, and their five bases were bronze.

Footnotes:

9 a That is, about 42 feet long and 6 feet wide (13 meters long and 1.8 meters wide)
15 b That is, about 45 feet long and 6 feet wide (14 meters long and 1.8 meters wide)
19 c Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals (see 35:7)
21 d That is, about 15 feet long and 2.25 feet wide (4.5 meters long and 68 centimeters wide)

Exodus 37
Exodus 37 Par ▾ 

Constructing the Ark
(Exodus 25:10-16)

1Bezalel went on to make the ark of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high.a 2He overlaid it with pure gold, both inside and out, and made a gold molding all around it. 3And he cast four gold rings for its four feet, two on one side and two on the other. 4Then he made poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold. 5He inserted the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark for carrying it.

6He constructed a mercy seat of pure gold, two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. 7He made two cherubim of hammered of gold at the ends of the mercy seat, 8one cherub on one end of the mercy seat and one on the other, all made from one piece. 9And the cherubim had wings that spread upward. They faced each other and overshadowed the mercy seat with their wings, their faces looking toward the mercy seat.

The Table of Showbread
(Exodus 25:23-30; Leviticus 24:5-9)

10He made the table of acacia wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high.b 11He overlaid it with pure gold and made a gold molding all around it. 12He also made a rim around it a handbreadth widec and put a gold molding on the rim.

13He cast four gold rings for the table and fastened them to the four corners at its four legs. 14The rings were placed next to the frame as holders for the poles used to carry the table. 15He made the poles of acacia wood for carrying the table and overlaid them with gold.

16He also made the utensils for the table out of pure gold: its plates and dishes, as well as its bowls and pitchers for pouring drink offerings.

The Lampstand

17Then he made the lampstand out of pure hammered gold, all of one piece: its base and shaft, its ornamental cups, and its buds and petals. 18Six branches extended from the sides, three on one side and three on the other. 19There were three cups shaped like almond blossoms on the first branch, each with buds and petals, three on the next branch, and the same for all six branches that extended from the lampstand.

20On the lampstand were four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and petals. 21A bud was under the first pair of branches that extended from the lampstand, a bud under the second pair, and a bud under the third pair. 22The buds and branches were all of one piece with the lampstand, which was a single hammered piece of pure gold.

23He also made its seven lamps, its wick trimmers, and trays of pure gold. 24He made the lampstand and all its utensils from a talentd of pure gold.

The Altar of Incense
(Exodus 30:1-10)

25He made the altar of incense out of acacia wood. It was square, a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high.e Its horns were of one piece. 26And he overlaid it with pure gold, its top and its sides all around, and its horns. Then he made a gold molding all around it.

27He made two gold rings below the molding on opposite sides to hold the poles used to carry it. 28And he made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold.

29He also made the sacred anointing oil and the pure, fragrant incense, the work of a perfumer.

Footnotes:

1 a That is, about 3.75 feet long, 2.25 feet wide, and 2.25 feet high (1.1 meters long, 68 centimeters wide, and 68 centimeters high); similarly in verse 6
10 b That is, about 3 feet long, 1.5 feet wide, and 2.25 feet high (90 centimeters long, 45 centimeters wide, and 68 centimeters high)
12 c That is, about 2.9 inches or 7.4 centimeters
24 d That is, about 75.4 pounds or 34.2 kilograms
25 e That is, about 1.5 feet in length and width, and 3 feet high (45 centimeters in length and width, and 90 centimeters high)

Exodus 38
Exodus 38 Par ▾ 

The Altar of Burnt Offering
(Leviticus 1:1-17; Leviticus 8:18-21)

1Bezalel constructed the altar of burnt offering from acacia wood. It was square, five cubits long, five cubits wide, and three cubits high.a 2He made a horn at each of its four corners, so that the horns and altar were of one piece, and he overlaid the altar with bronze.

3He made all the altar’s utensils of bronze—its pots, shovels, basins, meat forks, and firepans. 4He made a grate of bronze mesh for the altar under its ledge, halfway up from the bottom.

5At the four corners of the bronze grate he cast four rings as holders for the poles. 6And he made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze. 7Then he inserted the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar for carrying it. He made the altar with boards so that it was hollow.

The Bronze Basin

8Next, he made the bronze basin and its stand from the mirrors of the women who served at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.

The Tabernacle Courtyard

9Then he constructed the courtyard. The south side of the courtyard was a hundred cubits longb and had curtains of finely spun linen, 10with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases, and with silver hooks and bands on the posts. 11The north side was also a hundred cubits long, with twenty posts and twenty bronze bases. The hooks and bands of the posts were silver. 12The west side was fifty cubits longc and had curtains, with ten posts and ten bases. The hooks and bands of the posts were silver. 13And the east side, toward the sunrise, was also fifty cubits long.

14The curtains of the one side of the entrance were fifteen cubits long,d with three posts and three bases. 15And the curtains for the other side were also fifteen cubits long, with three posts and three bases as well. 16All the curtains around the courtyard were made of finely spun linen. 17The bases for the posts were bronze, the hooks and bands were silver, and the plating for the tops of the posts was silver. So all the posts of the courtyard were banded with silver.

18The curtain for the entrance to the courtyard was embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. It was twenty cubits longe and, like the curtains of the courtyard, five cubits high,f 19with four posts and four bronze bases. Their hooks were silver, as well as the bands and the plating of their tops. 20All the tent pegs for the tabernacle and for the surrounding courtyard were bronze.

The Cost of the Tabernacle

21This is the inventory for the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the Testimony, as recorded at Moses’ command by the Levites under the direction of Ithamar son of Aaron the priest. 22Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything that the LORD had commanded Moses. 23With him was Aholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, designer, and embroiderer in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen.

24All the gold from the wave offering used for the work on the sanctuary totaled 29 talents and 730 shekels,g according to the sanctuary shekel.

25The silver from those numbered among the congregation totaled 100 talents and 1,775 shekels,h according to the sanctuary shekel— 26a beka per person, that is, half a shekel,i according to the sanctuary shekel, from everyone twenty years of age or older who had crossed over to be numbered, a total of 603,550 men.

27The hundred talents of silver were used to cast the bases of the sanctuary and the bases of the curtain—100 bases from the 100 talents, one talent per base.

28With the 1,775 shekels of silver, he made the hooks for the posts, overlaid their tops, and supplied bands for them.

29The bronze from the wave offering totaled 70 talents and 2,400 shekels.j 30He used it to make the bases for the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, the bronze altar and its bronze grating, all the utensils for the altar, 31the bases for the surrounding courtyard and the gate of the courtyard, and all the tent pegs for the tabernacle and the surrounding courtyard.

Footnotes:

1 a That is, about 7.5 feet in length and width, and 4.5 feet high (2.3 meters in length and width, and 1.4 meters high)
9 b That is, about 150 feet or 45.7 meters
12 c That is, about 75 feet or 23 meters
14 d That is, about 23 feet or 6.8 meters
18 e That is, about 30 feet or 9.1 meters
18 f That is, about 7.5 feet or 2.3 meters
24 g The total weight of the gold was about 2,193 pounds or 994 kilograms
25 h The total weight of the silver was about 7,545 pounds or 3,420 kilograms; also in verse 27
26 i That is, about 0.2 ounce or 5.7 grams
29 j The total weight of the bronze was about 5,310 pounds or 2,407 kilograms

Exodus 39
Exodus 39 Par ▾ 

The Ephod
(Exodus 28:6-14)

1From the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn the craftsmen made specially woven garments for ministry in the sanctuary, as well as the holy garments for Aaron, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

2Bezalel made the ephod out of gold, with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. 3They hammered out thin sheets of gold and cut threads from them to interweave with the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and fine linen—the work of a skilled craftsman. 4They made shoulder pieces for the ephod, which were joined to two of its corners for fastening it. 5And the skillfully woven waistband of the ephod was of one piece with the ephod, with the same workmanship of gold, with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

6They mounted the onyx stones in gold filigree settings, engraved like a seal with the names of the sons of Israel, 7and fastened them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the sons of Israel, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Breastpiece
(Exodus 28:15-30)

8He also made the breastpiece of gold like the ephod, using the work of a skilled craftsman, with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and finely spun linen. 9It was square and folded over double, a spana long and a span wide.

10And they mounted on it four rows of gemstones.b The first row had a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald; 11the second row had a turquoise, a sapphire, and a diamond; 12the third row had a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 13and the fourth row had a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper. These were mounted in gold filigree settings.

14The twelve stones corresponded to the names of the sons of Israel. Each stone was engraved like a seal with one of the names of the twelve tribes.

15For the breastpiece they made braided chains of pure gold cord. 16They also fashioned two gold filigree settings and two gold rings, and fastened the two rings to its two corners. 17Then they fastened the two gold chains to the two gold rings at the corners of the breastpiece, 18and they fastened the other ends of the two chains to the two filigree settings, attaching them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front.

19They made two other gold rings and put them at the two other corners of the breastpiece, on the inside edge next to the ephod.

20They made two more gold rings and attached them to the bottom of the shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, near the seam just above the woven waistband of the ephod. 21Then they tied the rings of the breastpiece to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue yarn, so that the breastpiece was above the waistband of the ephod and would not come loose from the ephod, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Additional Priestly Garments
(Exodus 28:31-43)

22They made the robe of the ephod entirely of blue cloth, the work of a weaver, 23with an opening in the center of the robe like that of a garment,c with a collar around the opening so that it would not tear.

24They made pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and finely spun linen on the lower hem of the robe. 25They also made bells of pure gold and attached them around the hem between the pomegranates, 26alternating bells and pomegranates around the lower hem of the robe to be worn for ministry, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

27For Aaron and his sons they made tunics of fine linen, the work of a weaver, 28as well as the turban of fine linen, the ornate headbands and undergarments of finely spun linen, 29and the sash of finely spun linen, embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

30They also made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and they engraved on it, like an inscription on a seal:

HOLY TO THE LORD.

31Then they fastened to it a cord of blue yarn it in order to mount it to the turban, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Moses Approves the Work

32So all the work for the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, was completed. The Israelites did everything just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

33Then they brought the tabernacle to Moses:

the tent with all its furnishings, its clasps, its frames, its crossbars, and its posts and bases;

34the covering of ram skins dyed red, the covering of fine leather,d and the veil of the covering;

35the Ark of the Testimony with its poles and the mercy seat;

36the table with all its utensils and the Bread of the Presence;

37the pure gold lampstand with its row of lamps and all its utensils, as well as the oil for the light;

38the gold altar, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense, and the curtain for the entrance to the tent;

39the bronze altar with its bronze grating, its poles, and all its utensils;

the basin with its stand; 40the curtains of the courtyard with its posts and bases, the curtain for the gate of the courtyard, its ropes and tent pegs, and all the equipment for the service of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting;

41and the woven garments for ministering in the sanctuary, both the sacred garments for Aaron the priest and the garments for his sons to serve as priests.

42The Israelites had done all the work just as the LORD had commanded Moses. 43And Moses inspected all the work and saw that they had accomplished it just as the LORD had commanded. So Moses blessed them.

Footnotes:

9 a That is, about 9 inches or 23 centimeters
10 b The precise identification of some of these gemstones is uncertain
23 c The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain; possibly coat of mail
34 d Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals

Exodus 40
Exodus 40 Par ▾ 

Setting Up the Tabernacle
(Exodus 25:1-9; Hebrews 9:1-10)

1Then the LORD said to Moses, 2“On the first day of the first month you are to set up the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting. 3Put the Ark of the Testimony in it and screen off the ark with the veil. 4Then bring in the table and set out its arrangement; bring in the lampstand as well, and set up its lamps.

5Place the gold altar of incense in front of the Ark of the Testimony, and hang the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 6Place the altar of burnt offering in front of the entrance to the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting. 7And place the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and put water in it.

8Set up the surrounding courtyard and hang the curtain for the entrance of the courtyard.

9Take the anointing oil and anoint the tabernacle and everything in it; consecrate it along with all its furnishings, and it shall be holy. 10Anoint the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils; consecrate the altar and it shall be most holy. 11Anoint the basin and its stand and consecrate them.

12Then bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting and wash them with water. 13And you are to clothe Aaron with the holy garments, anoint him, and consecrate him, so that he may serve Me as a priest. 14Bring his sons forward and clothe them with tunics. 15Anoint them just as you anointed their father, so that they may also serve Me as priests. Their anointing will qualify them for a perpetual priesthood throughout their generations.”

16Moses did everything just as the LORD had commanded him. 17So the tabernacle was set up on the first day of the first month of the second year.

18When Moses set up the tabernacle, he laid its bases, positioned its frames, inserted its crossbars, and set up its posts. 19Then he spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering over the tent, just as the LORD had commanded him.

20Moses took the Testimony and placed it in the ark, attaching the poles to the ark; and he set the mercy seat atop the ark. 21Then he brought the ark into the tabernacle, put up the veil for the screen, and shielded off the Ark of the Testimony, just as the LORD had commanded him.

22Moses placed the table in the Tent of Meeting on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the veil. 23He arranged the bread on it before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded him.

24He also placed the lampstand in the Tent of Meeting opposite the table on the south side of the tabernacle 25and set up the lamps before the LORD, just as the LORD had commanded him.

26Moses placed the gold altar in the Tent of Meeting, in front of the veil, 27and he burned fragrant incense on it, just as the LORD had commanded him. 28Then he put up the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 29He placed the altar of burnt offering near the entrance to the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the grain offering, just as the LORD had commanded him.

30He placed the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar and put water in it for washing; 31and from it Moses, Aaron, and his sons washed their hands and feet. 32They washed whenever they entered the Tent of Meeting or approached the altar, just as the LORD had commanded Moses.

33Then Moses set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and he hung the curtain for the entrance of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.

The Glory of the LORD
(Numbers 9:15-23)

34Then the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 35Moses was unable to enter the Tent of Meeting because the cloud had settled on it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.

36Whenever the cloud was lifted from above the tabernacle, the Israelites would set out through all the stages of their journey. 37If the cloud was not lifted, they would not set out until the day it was taken up. 38For the cloud of the LORD was over the tabernacle by day, and fire was in the cloud by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel through all their journeys.



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