Exodus 4:21
New International Version
The LORD said to Moses, "When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

New Living Translation
And the LORD told Moses, “When you arrive back in Egypt, go to Pharaoh and perform all the miracles I have empowered you to do. But I will harden his heart so he will refuse to let the people go.

English Standard Version
And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the miracles that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

Berean Study Bible
The LORD instructed Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

King James Bible
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

New King James Version
And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh which I have put in your hand. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

New American Standard Bible
And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your power; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

NASB 1995
The LORD said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your power; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

NASB 1977
And the LORD said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your power; but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

Amplified Bible
The LORD said to Moses, “When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders (miracles) which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart and make him stubborn so that he will not let the people go.

Christian Standard Bible
The LORD instructed Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, make sure you do before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he won’t let the people go.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The LORD instructed Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, make sure you do all the wonders before Pharaoh that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he won't let the people go.

American Standard Version
And Jehovah said unto Moses, When thou goest back into Egypt, see that thou do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in thy hand: but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And LORD JEHOVAH said to Moshe, “When you have turned to go to Egypt, see all the wonders that I have done by your hands; do them before Pharaoh, and I shall harden his heart and he will not send away the people.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the Lord said to Moses, When thou goest and returnest to Egypt, see - all the miracles I have charged thee with, thou shalt work before Pharao: and I will harden his heart, and he shall certainly not send away the people.

Contemporary English Version
On the way the LORD said to Moses: When you get to Egypt, go to the king and work the miracles I have shown you. But I will make him so stubborn that he will refuse to let my people go.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord said to him as he was returning into Egypt: See that thou do all the wonders before Pharao, which I have put in thy hand: I shall harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.

English Revised Version
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest back into Egypt, see that thou do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.

Good News Translation
Again the LORD said to Moses, "Now that you are going back to Egypt, be sure to perform before the king all the miracles which I have given you the power to do. But I will make the king stubborn, and he will not let the people go.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The LORD said to Moses, "When you get back to Egypt, see that you show Pharaoh all the amazing things that I have given you the power to do. But I will make him stubborn so that he will not let the people go.

International Standard Version
Then the LORD told Moses, "When you set out to return to Egypt, keep in mind all the wonders that I've put in your power, so that you may do them before Pharaoh. But I'll harden his heart so that he won't let the people go.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the LORD said unto Moses: 'When thou goest back into Egypt, see that thou do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in thy hand; but I will harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.

Literal Standard Version
And YHWH says to Moses, “In your going to return to Egypt, see—all the wonders which I have put in your hand—that you have done them before Pharaoh, and I strengthen his heart, and he does not send the people away;

NET Bible
The LORD said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under your control. But I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go.

New Heart English Bible
The LORD said to Moses, "When you go back into Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go.

World English Bible
Yahweh said to Moses, "When you go back into Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have put in your hand, but I will harden his heart and he will not let the people go.

Young's Literal Translation
And Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'In thy going to turn back to Egypt, see -- all the wonders which I have put in thy hand -- that thou hast done them before Pharaoh, and I -- I strengthen his heart, and he doth not send the people away;

Additional Translations ...
Context
Moses Leaves for Egypt
20So Moses took his wife and sons, put them on a donkey, and headed back to Egypt. And he took the staff of God in his hand. 21The LORD instructed Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go. 22Then tell Pharaoh that this is what the LORD says: ‘Israel is My firstborn son,…

Cross References
John 12:40
"He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, so that they cannot see with their eyes, and understand with their hearts, and turn, and I would heal them."

Romans 9:18
Therefore God has mercy on whom He wants to have mercy, and He hardens whom He wants to harden.

Exodus 3:20
So I will stretch out My hand and strike the Egyptians with all the wonders I will perform among them. And after that, he will release you.

Exodus 7:3
But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I will multiply My signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

Exodus 7:13
Still, Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had said.

Exodus 8:32
But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time as well, and he would not let the people go.

Exodus 9:12
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had said to Moses.

Exodus 9:35
So Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the LORD had said through Moses.

Exodus 10:1
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, that I may perform these miraculous signs of Mine among them,

Exodus 10:20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let the Israelites go.

Exodus 10:27
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he was unwilling to let them go.

Exodus 11:9
The LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt."

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart so that he would not let the Israelites go out of his land.

Exodus 14:4
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart so that he will pursue them. But I will gain honor by means of Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD." So this is what the Israelites did.

Exodus 14:8
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt so that he pursued the Israelites, who were marching out defiantly.

Deuteronomy 2:30
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into your hand, as is the case this day.

Joshua 11:20
For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts to engage Israel in battle, so that they would be set apart for destruction and would receive no mercy, being annihilated as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Psalm 78:43
when He performed His signs in Egypt and His wonders in the fields of Zoan.

Psalm 105:25
whose hearts He turned to hate His people, to conspire against His servants.

Isaiah 63:17
Why, O LORD, do You make us stray from Your ways and harden our hearts from fearing You? Return, for the sake of Your servants, the tribes of Your heritage.


Treasury of Scripture

And the LORD said to Moses, When you go to return into Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in your hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

wonders.

Exodus 3:20
And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.

I will harden.

Exodus 7:3,13
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt…

Exodus 9:12,35
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses…

Exodus 10:1,20
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him: …









(21) All those wonders.--Not the "three signs" of Exodus 3:3-9, but the "portents" or "wonders "which were to be done before Pharaoh, and which had been alluded to in Exodus 3:20. These were, in the counsel of God, already "put into Moses' hand," though their exact nature was as yet unknown to Moses himself.

I will harden his heart.--The hardening of Pharaoh's heart has been the subject of much controversy. It is ascribed to God in this place, and again in Exodus 7:3; Exodus 9:12; Exodus 10:1; Exodus 10:20; Exodus 10:27; Exodus 14:4; Exodus 14:8; to Pharaoh in Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:32; and Exodus 9:34; to the action of the heart itself in Exodus 7:13; Exodus 7:22; Exodus 9:7; Exodus 9:35. It is conceivable that these may be simply three forms of speech, and that the actual operation was one and the same in every case. Or, three different modes of operation may be meant. It is in favour of the latter view, that each term has a period during which it is predominant. In the narrative of what happened, the action of the heart is itself predominant in the first period; that of Pharaoh on his heart in the second; that of God in the third. We may suppose that, at first, Pharaoh's nature was simply not impressed, and that then his heart is said to have "hardened itself," or "remained hard;" that after a while, he began to be impressed; but by an effort of his will controlled himself, and determined that he would not yield: thus "hardening his own heart;" finally, that after he had done this twice (Exodus 8:15; Exodus 8:32), God stepped in and "smote him with a spirit of blindness and infatuation," as a judgment upon him (Exodus 9:12), thus, finally, "hardening" him (comp. Romans 9:18). This divine action was repeated, on three subsequent occasions (Exodus 10:20; Exodus 10:27; Exodus 14:8), Pharaoh's time of probation being past, and God using him as a mere means of showing forth His glory. There is nothing in this contrary to the general teaching of the Scriptures, or to the Divine Perfection.

Verses 21-23. - And the Lord said, etc. Now that Moses had at last given up his own will and entered on the path of obedience, God comforted him with a fresh revelation,, and gave him fresh instructions as to what exactly he was to say to Pharaoh. The statements of ver. 21 are not new, being anticipated in Exodus 3:19-20; but the directions in vers. 22-23 are wholly new, and point to the greatest of all the miracles wrought in Egypt - the death of the firstborn. Verse 21. - All those wonders. The miracles wrought in Egypt are called nipheloth, "marvels," mophethim, "portents," and othoth, "signs." Mophethim, the word here used signifies something out of the ordinary course of nature, and corresponds to the Greek τέρατα and the Latin portenta. It is a different word from that used in Exodus 3:20. In "all these wonders" are included, not only the three signs of Exodus 4:3-9, but the whole series of miracles afterwards wrought in Egypt, and glanced at in Exodus 3:20. I will harden his heart. This expression, here used for the first time, and repeated so frequently in chs. 7-14, has given offence to many. Men, it is said, harden their own hearts against God; God does not actively interfere to harden the heart of anyone. And this is so far true, that a special interference of God on the occasion, involving a supernatural hardening of Pharaoh's heart, is not to be thought cf. But among the natural punishments which God has attached to sin, would seem to be the hardening of the entire nature of the man who sins. If men "do not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gives them up to a reprobate mind" (Romans 1:28); if they resist the Spirit, he "takes his holy Spirit from them" (Psalm 51:11); if they sin against light he withdraws the light; if they stifle their natural affections of kindness, compassion and the like, it is a law of his providence that those affections shall wither and decay. This seems to be the "hardening of the heart here intended - not an abnormal and miraculous interference with the soul of Pharaoh, but the natural effect upon his soul under God's moral government of those acts which he wilfully and wrongfully committed.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
The LORD
יְהוָה֮ (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

instructed
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר (way·yō·mer)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 559: To utter, say

Moses,
מֹשֶׁה֒ (mō·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 4872: Moses -- a great Israelite leader, prophet and lawgiver

“When you go
בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֙ (bə·leḵ·tə·ḵā)
Preposition-b | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | second person masculine singular
Strong's 1980: To go, come, walk

back
לָשׁ֣וּב (lā·šūḇ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's 7725: To turn back, in, to retreat, again

to Egypt,
מִצְרַ֔יְמָה (miṣ·ray·māh)
Noun - proper - feminine singular | third person feminine singular
Strong's 4714: Egypt -- a son of Ham, also his descendants and their country in Northwest Africa

see that
רְאֵ֗ה (rə·’êh)
Verb - Qal - Imperative - masculine singular
Strong's 7200: To see

you perform
וַעֲשִׂיתָ֖ם (wa·‘ă·śî·ṯām)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - second person masculine singular | third person masculine plural
Strong's 6213: To do, make

before
לִפְנֵ֣י (lip̄·nê)
Preposition-l | Noun - common plural construct
Strong's 6440: The face

Pharaoh
פַרְעֹ֑ה (p̄ar·‘ōh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 6547: Pharaoh -- a title of Egypt kings

all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the wonders
הַמֹּֽפְתִים֙ (ham·mō·p̄ə·ṯîm)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 4159: A miracle, a token, omen

that
אֲשֶׁר־ (’ă·šer-)
Pronoun - relative
Strong's 834: Who, which, what, that, when, where, how, because, in order that

I have put
שַׂ֣מְתִּי (śam·tî)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - first person common singular
Strong's 7760: Put -- to put, place, set

within your power.
בְיָדֶ֔ךָ (ḇə·yā·ḏe·ḵā)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct | second person masculine singular
Strong's 3027: A hand

But I
וַאֲנִי֙ (wa·’ă·nî)
Conjunctive waw | Pronoun - first person common singular
Strong's 589: I

will harden
אֲחַזֵּ֣ק (’ă·ḥaz·zêq)
Verb - Piel - Imperfect - first person common singular
Strong's 2388: To fasten upon, to seize, be strong, obstinate, to bind, restrain, conquer

his heart
לִבּ֔וֹ (lib·bōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 3820: The heart, the feelings, the will, the intellect, centre

so that he will not
וְלֹ֥א (wə·lō)
Conjunctive waw | Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's 3808: Not, no

let the people
הָעָֽם׃ (hā·‘ām)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 5971: A people, a tribe, troops, attendants, a flock

go.
יְשַׁלַּ֖ח (yə·šal·laḥ)
Verb - Piel - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 7971: To send away, for, out


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OT Law: Exodus 4:21 Yahweh said to Moses When you go (Exo. Ex)
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