Exodus 10:1
New International Version
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials so that I may perform these signs of mine among them

New Living Translation
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Return to Pharaoh and make your demands again. I have made him and his officials stubborn so I can display my miraculous signs among them.

English Standard Version
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may show these signs of mine among them,

Berean Study Bible
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, that I may perform these miraculous signs of Mine among them,

New American Standard Bible
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may perform these signs of Mine among them,

King James Bible
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:

Christian Standard Bible
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials so that I may do these miraculous signs of mine among them,

Contemporary English Version
The LORD said to Moses: Go back to the king. I have made him and his officials stubborn, so that I could work these miracles.

Good News Translation
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go and see the king. I have made him and his officials stubborn, in order that I may perform these miracles among them

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials so that I may do these miraculous signs of Mine among them,

International Standard Version
Then the LORD told Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I've hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials in order to perform these signs of mine among them,

NET Bible
The LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display these signs of mine before him,

New Heart English Bible
The LORD said to Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs in the midst of them,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh. I have made him and his officials stubborn so that I can do these miraculous signs among them.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the LORD said unto Moses: 'Go in unto Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show these My signs in the midst of them;

New American Standard 1977
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may perform these signs of Mine among them,

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his slaves that I might show these my signs among them

King James 2000 Bible
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show these my signs before him:

American King James Version
And the LORD said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show these my signs before him:

American Standard Version
And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs in the midst of them,

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Go in to Pharao: for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that these signs may come upon them; in order

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord said to Moses: Go in to Pharao; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants: that I may work these my signs in him.

Darby Bible Translation
And Jehovah said to Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his bondmen, that I might do these my signs in their midst,

English Revised Version
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs in the midst of them:

Webster's Bible Translation
And the LORD said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants; that I might show these my signs before him:

World English Bible
Yahweh said to Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I may show these my signs in the midst of them,

Young's Literal Translation
And Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'Go in unto Pharaoh, for I have declared hard his heart, and the heart of his servants, so that I set these My signs in their midst,
Study Bible
The Eighth Plague: Locusts
1Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, that I may perform these miraculous signs of Mine among them, 2and that you may tell your children and grandchildren how severely I dealt with the Egyptians when I performed miraculous signs among them, so that you may know that I am the LORD.”…
Cross References
John 12:40
"He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, so that they cannot see with their eyes, and understand with their hearts, and turn, and I would heal them."

Romans 9:18
Therefore God has mercy on whom He wants to have mercy, and He hardens whom He wants to harden.

Exodus 4:21
The LORD instructed Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 7:13
Still, Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, just as the LORD had said.

Exodus 9:12
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had told Moses.

Joshua 11:20
For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts to engage Israel in battle, that they would be completely destroyed without mercy and be annihilated as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Treasury of Scripture

And the LORD said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might show these my signs before him:

I have hardened

Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

Exodus 7:13,14
And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said…

Exodus 9:27,34,35
And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked…

that I

Exodus 3:20
And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.

Exodus 7:4
But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

Exodus 9:16
And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.







Lexicon
Then the LORD
יְהוָה֙ (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

said
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר (way·yō·mer)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 559: To utter, say

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

Moses,
מֹשֶׁ֔ה (mō·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4872: Moses -- a great Israelite leader, prophet and lawgiver

“Go
בֹּ֖א (bō)
Verb - Qal - Imperative - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 935: To come in, come, go in, go

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

Pharaoh,
פַּרְעֹ֑ה (par·‘ōh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6547: Pharaoh -- a title of Egypt kings

for
כִּֽי־ (kî-)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: A relative conjunction

I
אֲנִ֞י (’ă·nî)
Pronoun - first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 589: I

have hardened
הִכְבַּ֤דְתִּי (hiḵ·baḏ·tî)
Verb - Hifil - Perfect - first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 3513: To be heavy, weighty, or burdensome

his heart
לִבּוֹ֙ (lib·bōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3820: The heart, the feelings, the will, the intellect, centre

and the hearts
לֵ֣ב (lêḇ)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3820: The heart, the feelings, the will, the intellect, centre

of his officials,
עֲבָדָ֔יו (‘ă·ḇā·ḏāw)
Noun - masculine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5650: Slave, servant

that
לְמַ֗עַן (lə·ma·‘an)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 4616: Purpose -- intent

I may perform
שִׁתִ֛י (ši·ṯî)
Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 7896: To put, set

these
אֵ֖לֶּה (’êl·leh)
Pronoun - common plural
Strong's Hebrew 428: These, those

miraculous signs of Mine
אֹתֹתַ֥י (’ō·ṯō·ṯay)
Noun - common plural construct | first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 226: A signal, as a, flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence

among them,
בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ׃ (bə·qir·bōw)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7130: The nearest part, the center
X.

THE EIGHTH PLAGUE.

(1-4) The eighth plague, like the third and fourth, was one where insect life was called in to serve God's purposes, and chastise the presumption of His enemies. The nature of the visitation is uncontested and incontestable--it was a terrible invasion of locusts. Locusts are an occasional, though not a frequent, scourge in Egypt. They are not bred there, and necessarily arrive from some foreign country. When they descend, their ravages are as severe as elsewhere. "In the present day," says Mr. Stuart Poole, "locusts suddenly appear in the cultivated land, coming from the desert in a column of great length. They fly across the country, darkening the air with their compact ranks, which are undisturbed by the constant attacks of kites, crows, and vultures, and making a strange whizzing sound, like that of fire, or many distant wheels. Where they alight they devour every green thing, even stripping the trees of their leaves. Rewards are offered for their destruction; but no labour can seriously reduce their numbers" (Dict. of the Bible, vol. ii., p. 887). C. Niebuhr witnessed two invasions--in 1761 and 1762; Denon witnessed another about the year 1800; and Tischendorf saw one recently. They always enter Egypt either from the south or from the east, and necessarily come with a wind, since they cannot possibly fly any considerable distance without one. It is probable that at different times different varieties of the locust visit the country; but all varieties are almost equally destructive. After the loss of their cattle by murrain and hail, and the ruin of the flax and barley crops by the latter agency, nothing was wanting to complete the desolation of the country and the impoverishment of its inhabitants but the ruin of the wheat and doora crops, which the locusts speedily effected.

(1) I have hardened . . . the heart of his servants.--They, too, had first hardened their own hearts (Exodus 9:34), and so deserved a penal hardening. A certain amount of responsibility rested on them. Had they allowed the miracles to have their full natural effect upon their minds, they would have been convinced that resistance was useless, and would have impressed their views upon the Pharaoh. Even in the most absolute governments public opinion has weight, and the general sentiment of the Court almost always carries the sovereign with it.

That I might shew these my signs.--There is nothing derogatory to the Divine Nature in a penal hardening being, as it were, utilised to increase the glory of God, and affect for good future generations of His people. The accumulation of plague upon plague, which the obduracy of Pharaoh and his subjects brought about, was of vast importance in presenting to Israel, and even to the surrounding nations, a manifestation of the tremendous power of God, calculated to impress them as nothing else would have done.

Verses 1-20. - THE EIGHTH PLAGUE. Notwithstanding his self-condemnation and acknowledgment of the righteousness of God in all the judgments that had been sent upon him (Exodus 9:27), Pharaoh no sooner found that the seventh plague had ceased than he reverted to his old obstinacy. He both wilfully hardened his own heart (Exodus 9:34); and God, by the unfailing operation of his moral laws, further blunted or hardened it (Exodus 10:1). Accordingly, it became necessary that his stubbornness should be punished by one other severe infliction. Locusts, God's "great army," as they are elsewhere called (Joel 2:25), were the instrument chosen, so that once more the judgment should seem to come from heaven, and that it should be exactly fitted to complete the destruction which the hail had left unaccomplished (ver. 5). Locusts, when they come in full force, are among the most terrible of all the judgments that can befall a country. "A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness" (Joel 2:3). They destroy every atom of foliage - crops, vegetables, shrubs, trees - even the bark of the fruit-trees suffers - the stems are injured, the smaller branches completely peeled and "made white" (Joel 1:7). When Moses threatened this infliction, his words produced at once a great effect. The officers of the court - "Pharaoh's servants," as they are called - for the first time endeavoured to exert an influence over the king - "Let the men go," they said; "knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?" (ver. 7). And the king so far yielded that - also for the first time - he let himself be influenced by the mere threat of a judgment. He would have let the Israelites depart, before the locusts came, if only they would have left their "little ones" behind them (vers. 8-11 ). Moses, however, could not consent to this limitation; and so the plague came in fall severity the locusts covered the whole face of the earth, so that the land was darkened with them (ver. 15); and all that the hail had left, including the whole of the wheat and doora harvests, was destroyed. Then Pharaoh made fresh acknowledgment of his sin, and fresh appeals for intercession - with the old result that the plague was removed, and that he remained as obdurate as ever (vers. 16-20). Verse 1. - Go in unto Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart. The word "I" is expressed in the original and is emphatic. It is not merely that Pharaoh has hardened himself (Exodus 9:34); but I have "dulled" or "hardened" him. Therefore condescend to see him once more, and to bear my message to him. The heart of his servants. Compare Exodus 9:34. As Pharaoh's determination began to waver the influence of the court officers increased. Hence the frequent mention of them in this part of the narrative. That I might shew them my signs. The "fierceness of man" was being "turned to God's praise." It resulted from the obstinacy of Pharaoh that more and greater miracles were wrought, more wonderful signs shown, and that by these means both the Israelites themselves, and the heathen nations in contact with them, were the more deeply impressed. 10:1-11 The plagues of Egypt show the sinfulness of sin. They warn the children of men not to strive with their Maker. Pharaoh had pretended to humble himself; but no account was made of it, for he was not sincere therein. The plague of locusts is threatened. This should be much worse than any of that kind which had ever been known. Pharaoh's attendants persuade him to come to terms with Moses. Hereupon Pharaoh will allow the men to go, falsely pretending that this was all they desired. He swears that they shall not remove their little ones. Satan does all he can to hinder those that serve God themselves, from bringing their children to serve him. He is a sworn enemy to early piety. Whatever would put us from engaging our children in God's service, we have reason to suspect Satan in it. Nor should the young forget that the Lord's counsel is, Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth; but Satan's counsel is, to keep children in a state of slavery to sin and to the world. Mark that the great foe of man wishes to retain him by the ties of affection, as Pharaoh would have taken hostages from the Israelites for their return, by holding their wives and children in captivity. Satan is willing to share our duty and our service with the Saviour, because the Saviour will not accept those terms.
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