Romans 9:18
New International Version
Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.

New Living Translation
So you see, God chooses to show mercy to some, and he chooses to harden the hearts of others so they refuse to listen.

English Standard Version
So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

Berean Study Bible
Therefore God has mercy on whom He wants to have mercy, and He hardens whom He wants to harden.

Berean Literal Bible
So then, He shows mercy to whom He wants, and He hardens whom He wants.

New American Standard Bible
So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

King James Bible
Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Christian Standard Bible
So then, he has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy and he hardens whom he wants to harden.

Contemporary English Version
Everything depends on what God decides to do, and he can either have pity on people or make them stubborn.

Good News Translation
So then, God has mercy on anyone he wishes, and he makes stubborn anyone he wishes.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
So then, He shows mercy to those He wants to, and He hardens those He wants to harden.

International Standard Version
Therefore, God has mercy on whomever he chooses, and he hardens the heart of whomever he chooses.

NET Bible
So then, God has mercy on whom he chooses to have mercy, and he hardens whom he chooses to harden.

New Heart English Bible
So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
So then, he shows compassion on whomever he will, and whomever he will, he hardens.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Therefore, if God wants to be kind to anyone, he will be. If he wants to make someone stubborn, he will.

New American Standard 1977
So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Therefore he has mercy on whom he will have mercy, and he hardens whom he will.

King James 2000 Bible
Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

American King James Version
Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

American Standard Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will be hardeneth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardeneth.

Darby Bible Translation
So then, to whom he will he shews mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

English Revised Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Webster's Bible Translation
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Weymouth New Testament
This is a proof that wherever He chooses He shows mercy, and wherever he chooses He hardens the heart.

World English Bible
So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires.

Young's Literal Translation
so, then, to whom He willeth, He doth kindness, and to whom He willeth, He doth harden.
Study Bible
God's Sovereign Choice
17For the Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display My power in you, and that My name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” 18Therefore God has mercy on whom He wants to have mercy , and He hardens whom He wants to harden . 19One of you will say to me, “Then why does God still find fault? For who can resist His will?”…
Cross References
Exodus 4:21
The LORD instructed Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 7:3
But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I will multiply My signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

Exodus 9:12
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not listen to them, just as the LORD had told Moses.

Exodus 10:1
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, that I may perform these miraculous signs of Mine among them,

Exodus 10:20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let the Israelites go.

Exodus 10:27
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he was not willing to let them go.

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart so that he would not let the Israelites go out of his land.

Exodus 14:4
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart so that he will pursue them. But I will gain honor by means of Pharaoh and all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD." So this is what the Israelites did.

Exodus 14:17
And I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them. Then I will gain honor by means of Pharaoh and all his army and chariots and horsemen.

Deuteronomy 2:30
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate, that He might give him into your hands, as is the case this day.

Joshua 11:20
For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts to engage Israel in battle, that they would be completely destroyed without mercy and be annihilated as the LORD had commanded Moses.

John 12:40
"He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts, so that they cannot see with their eyes, and understand with their hearts, and turn, and I would heal them."

Romans 11:7
What then? What Israel was seeking, it failed to obtain, but the elect did. The others were hardened,

Romans 11:25
I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you will not be conceited: A hardening in part has come to Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.

Treasury of Scripture

Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardens.

hath.

Romans 9:15,16
For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion…

Romans 5:20,21
Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound: …

Ephesians 1:6
To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

will he.

Romans 1:24-28
Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: …

Romans 11:7,8
What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded …

See on

Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

Exodus 7:13
And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

Deuteronomy 2:30
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as appeareth this day.







Lexicon
Therefore
ἄρα (ara)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 686: Then, therefore, since. Probably from airo; a particle denoting an inference more or less decisive.

[God] has mercy
ἐλεεῖ (eleei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1653: To pity, have mercy on. From eleos; to compassionate.

on whom
ὃν (hon)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

He wants [to have mercy ],
θέλει (thelei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 2309: To will, wish, desire, be willing, intend, design.

and
δὲ (de)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 1161: A primary particle; but, and, etc.

He hardens
σκληρύνει (sklērynei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 4645: To harden, make hard, make stubborn. From skleros; to indurate, i.e. render stubborn.

whom
ὃν (hon)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

He wants [ to harden ].
θέλει (thelei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 2309: To will, wish, desire, be willing, intend, design.
(18) Summary conclusion from the above.

He hardeneth.--The doctrine of the divine sovereignty is here expressed in its most trenchant and logical form. In Exodus 8:32; Exodus 9:34; Exodus 13:15, &c., the hardening of Pharaoh's heart is attributed to his own act. That act may, however, be regarded as a part of the design of Providence. God's decrees include human free-will, without destroying it. But how they do this we cannot say.

9:14-24 Whatever God does, must be just. Wherein the holy, happy people of God differ from others, God's grace alone makes them differ. In this preventing, effectual, distinguishing grace, he acts as a benefactor, whose grace is his own. None have deserved it; so that those who are saved, must thank God only; and those who perish, must blame themselves only, Hos 13:9. God is bound no further than he has been pleased to bind himself by his own covenant and promise, which is his revealed will. And this is, that he will receive, and not cast out, those that come to Christ; but the drawing of souls in order to that coming, is an anticipating, distinguishing favour to whom he will. Why does he yet find fault? This is not an objection to be made by the creature against his Creator, by man against God. The truth, as it is in Jesus, abases man as nothing, as less than nothing, and advances God as sovereign Lord of all. Who art thou that art so foolish, so feeble, so unable to judge the Divine counsels? It becomes us to submit to him, not to reply against him. Would not men allow the infinite God the same sovereign right to manage the affairs of the creation, as the potter exercises in disposing of his clay, when of the same lump he makes one vessel to a more honourable, and one to a meaner use? God could do no wrong, however it might appear to men. God will make it appear that he hates sin. Also, he formed vessels filled with mercy. Sanctification is the preparation of the soul for glory. This is God's work. Sinners fit themselves for hell, but it is God who prepares saints for heaven; and all whom God designs for heaven hereafter, he fits for heaven now. Would we know who these vessels of mercy are? Those whom God has called; and these not of the Jews only, but of the Gentiles. Surely there can be no unrighteousness in any of these Divine dispensations. Nor in God's exercising long-suffering, patience, and forbearance towards sinners under increasing guilt, before he brings utter destruction upon them. The fault is in the hardened sinner himself. As to all who love and fear God, however such truths appear beyond their reason to fathom, yet they should keep silence before him. It is the Lord alone who made us to differ; we should adore his pardoning mercy and new-creating grace, and give diligence to make our calling and election sure.
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