Deuteronomy 2:30
New International Version
But Sihon king of Heshbon refused to let us pass through. For the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate in order to give him into your hands, as he has now done.

New Living Translation
“But King Sihon of Heshbon refused to allow us to pass through, because the LORD your God made Sihon stubborn and defiant so he could help you defeat him, as he has now done.

English Standard Version
But Sihon the king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him, for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, that he might give him into your hand, as he is this day.

Berean Study Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into your hand, as is the case this day.

King James Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as appeareth this day.

New King James Version
“But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through, for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into your hand, as it is this day.

New American Standard Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon was not willing for us to pass through his land; for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, in order to hand him over to you, as he is today.

NASB 1995
“But Sihon king of Heshbon was not willing for us to pass through his land; for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, in order to deliver him into your hand, as he is today.

NASB 1977
“But Sihon king of Heshbon was not willing for us to pass through his land; for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, in order to deliver him into your hand, as he is today.

Amplified Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon was not willing for us to travel through his land; for the LORD your God hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate, in order to hand him over to you, as he is today.

Christian Standard Bible
But King Sihon of Heshbon would not let us travel through his land, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate in order to hand him over to you, as has now taken place.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us travel through his land, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate in order to hand him over to you, as has now taken place.”

American Standard Version
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him; for Jehovah thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as at this day.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And Sihon the King of Kheshbon did not want us to cross over his border because LORD JEHOVAH your God hardened his spirit and he hardened his heart to deliver him into your hands as today.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And Seon king of Esebon would not that we should pass by him, because the Lord our God hardened his spirit, and made his heart stubborn, that he might be delivered into thy hands, as on this day.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And Sehon the king of Hesebon would not let us pass: because the Lord thy God had hardened his spirit, and fixed his heart, that he might be delivered into thy hands, as now thou seest.

English Revised Version
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as at this day.

Good News Translation
"But King Sihon would not let us pass through his country. The LORD your God had made him stubborn and rebellious, so that we could defeat him and take his territory, which we still occupy.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
But King Sihon of Heshbon wouldn't allow us to pass through. The LORD your God made him stubborn and overconfident in order to hand him over to you, as he has now done.

International Standard Version
But King Sihon of Heshbon did not allow us to pass through, because the LORD your God had hardened his spirit and made him arrogant, in order to deliver him into your control today.

JPS Tanakh 1917
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him; for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into thy hand, as appeareth this day.

Literal Standard Version
And Sihon king of Heshbon has not been willing to let us pass over by him, for your God YHWH has hardened his spirit and strengthened his heart, so as to give him into your hand as at this day.

NET Bible
But King Sihon of Heshbon was unwilling to allow us to pass near him because the LORD our God had made him obstinate and stubborn so that he might deliver him over to you this very day.

New Heart English Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him; for the LORD your God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into your hand, as at this day.

World English Bible
But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him; for Yahweh your God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into your hand, as at this day.

Young's Literal Translation
'And Sihon king of Heshbon hath not been willing to let us pass over by him, for Jehovah thy God hath hardened his spirit, and strengthened his heart, so as to give him into thy hand as at this day.

Additional Translations ...
Context
King Sihon Defeated
29just as the descendants of Esau who live in Seir and the Moabites who live in Ar did for us, until we cross the Jordan into the land that the LORD our God is giving us.” 30But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through, for the LORD your God had made his spirit stubborn and his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into your hand, as is the case this day. 31Then the LORD said to me, “See, I have begun to deliver Sihon and his land over to you. Now begin to conquer and possess his land.”…

Cross References
Romans 9:18
Therefore God has mercy on whom He wants to have mercy, and He hardens whom He wants to harden.

Exodus 4:21
The LORD instructed Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put within your power. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.

Numbers 21:23
But Sihon would not let Israel pass through his territory. Instead, he gathered his whole army and went out to confront Israel in the wilderness. When he came to Jahaz, he fought against Israel.

Deuteronomy 2:31
Then the LORD said to me, "See, I have begun to deliver Sihon and his land over to you. Now begin to conquer and possess his land."

Joshua 11:20
For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts to engage Israel in battle, so that they would be set apart for destruction and would receive no mercy, being annihilated as the LORD had commanded Moses.

1 Kings 12:15
So the king did not listen to the people, and indeed this turn of events was from the LORD, to fulfill the word He had spoken to Jeroboam son of Nebat through Ahijah the Shilonite.

Lamentations 3:65
Put a veil of anguish over their hearts; may Your curse be upon them!


Treasury of Scripture

But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD your God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into your hand, as appears this day.

for the Lord

Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

Exodus 11:10
And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.

Numbers 21:23
And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness: and he came to Jahaz, and fought against Israel.

obstinate

Isaiah 48:4
Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;









(30) The Lord thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate.--Jehovah gave the strength to Sihon, as He had done to Pharaoh, and as He does to all. Sihon was responsible for using the strength which God gave him in opposition to the Divine purposes. To "harden" a man's spirit is not necessarily a moral process any more than the hardening of steel. "Made obstinate" is the same verb used in Joshua 1:6, for "Be of a good courage." An unyielding spirit and a courageous heart are good or bad according to the use made of them. Sihon used them badly, Joshua used them well. God's gifts were the same to both. (See also Joshua 11:20.)

Verse 30. - Heshbon, the chief city of the Amorite king, Sihon. Some ruins on a hill east of the upper end of the Dead Sea, and bearing the name Chesban, mark the site of this once large and important city. Sihon rejected Moses' overtures of peace, because God had hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate; literally, had sharpened his heart, had made his determination keen. It is not to be supposed that any influence was directly exerted on him, to make him obdurate and persistent in his hostility to the people of God; the expression "he would not" indicates that it was of his own will that Sihon acted; but it was the will and purpose of God that Sihon should be destroyed, and his country taken by the Israelites, and so he was placed in circumstances by which, "given over to a reprobate mind," he was confirmed and strengthened m his determination to pursue a course which led to his destruction; like Pharaoh, by the circumstances in which God placed him, he found scope for the display and for the confirmation of a stubborn, pertinacious pride of spirit, which led ultimately to his ruin. Nothing so hardens the heart as resistance to God's overtures of peace. As appeareth this day; i.e. as present experience shows; in Sihon's refusing to let them pass, there was already an actual beginning of the fulfillment of God's purpose to deliver him into the hand of the Israelites.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
But Sihon
סִיחֹן֙ (sî·ḥōn)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 5511: Sihon -- a king of the Amorites

king
מֶ֣לֶךְ (me·leḵ)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 4428: A king

of Heshbon
חֶשְׁבּ֔וֹן (ḥeš·bō·wn)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's 2809: Heshbon -- a place East of the Jordan

would
אָבָ֗ה (’ā·ḇāh)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 14: To breathe after, to be acquiescent

not
וְלֹ֣א (wə·lō)
Conjunctive waw | Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's 3808: Not, no

let us pass through,
הַעֲבִרֵ֖נוּ (ha·‘ă·ḇi·rê·nū)
Verb - Hifil - Infinitive construct | first person common plural
Strong's 5674: To pass over, through, or by, pass on

for
כִּֽי־ (kî-)
Conjunction
Strong's 3588: A relative conjunction

the LORD
יְהוָ֨ה (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

your God
אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ (’ĕ·lō·he·ḵā)
Noun - masculine plural construct | second person masculine singular
Strong's 430: gods -- the supreme God, magistrates, a superlative

had made his spirit
רוּח֗וֹ (rū·ḥōw)
Noun - common singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 7307: Wind, breath, exhalation, life, anger, unsubstantiality, a region of the sky, spirit

stubborn
הִקְשָׁה֩ (hiq·šāh)
Verb - Hifil - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 7185: To be hard, severe or fierce

and his heart
לְבָב֔וֹ (lə·ḇā·ḇōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 3824: Inner man, mind, will, heart

obstinate,
וְאִמֵּץ֙ (wə·’im·mêṣ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 553: To be stout, strong, bold, alert

that
לְמַ֛עַן (lə·ma·‘an)
Conjunction
Strong's 4616: Purpose -- intent

He might give him
תִּתּ֥וֹ (tit·tōw)
Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 5414: To give, put, set

into your hands,
בְיָדְךָ֖ (ḇə·yā·ḏə·ḵā)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct | second person masculine singular
Strong's 3027: A hand

as is the case
הַזֶּֽה׃ (haz·zeh)
Article | Pronoun - masculine singular
Strong's 2088: This, that

this day.
כַּיּ֥וֹם (kay·yō·wm)
Preposition-k, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 3117: A day


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OT Law: Deuteronomy 2:30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not (Deut. De Du)
Deuteronomy 2:29
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