Exodus 18:13
New International Version
The next day Moses took his seat to serve as judge for the people, and they stood around him from morning till evening.

New Living Translation
The next day, Moses took his seat to hear the people’s disputes against each other. They waited before him from morning till evening.

English Standard Version
The next day Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from morning till evening.

Berean Study Bible
The next day Moses took his seat to judge the people, and they stood around him from morning until evening.

New American Standard Bible
It came about the next day that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood about Moses from the morning until the evening.

New King James Version
And so it was, on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood before Moses from morning until evening.

King James Bible
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.

Christian Standard Bible
The next day Moses sat down to judge the people, and they stood around Moses from morning until evening.

Contemporary English Version
The next morning Moses sat down at the place where he decided legal cases for the people, and everyone crowded around him until evening.

Good News Translation
The next day Moses was settling disputes among the people, and he was kept busy from morning till night.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The next day Moses sat down to judge the people, and they stood around Moses from morning until evening.

International Standard Version
The next day Moses sat down to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from morning until evening.

NET Bible
On the next day Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from morning until evening.

New Heart English Bible
It happened on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from the morning to the evening.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The next day Moses was settling disagreements among the people. The people stood around Moses from morning until evening.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood about Moses from the morning unto the evening.

New American Standard 1977
And it came about the next day that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood about Moses from the morning until the evening.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And it came to pass another day that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood before Moses from the morning unto the evening.

King James 2000 Bible
And it came to pass on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.

American King James Version
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning to the evening.

American Standard Version
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood about Moses from the morning unto the evening.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And it came to pass after the morrow that Moses sat to judge the people, and all the people stood by Moses from morning till evening.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the next day Moses sat, to judge the people, who stood by Moses from morning until night.

Darby Bible Translation
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood by Moses from the morning to the evening.

English Revised Version
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood about Moses from the morning unto the evening.

Webster's Bible Translation
And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning to the evening.

World English Bible
It happened on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from the morning to the evening.

Young's Literal Translation
And it cometh to pass on the morrow, that Moses sitteth to judge the people, and the people stand before Moses, from the morning unto the evening;
Study Bible
Jethro Advises Moses
13The next day Moses took his seat to judge the people, and they stood around him from morning until evening. 14When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he asked, “What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone as judge, with all the people standing around you from morning till evening?”…
Cross References
Exodus 18:12
Then Moses' father-in-law Jethro brought a burnt offering and sacrifices to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses' father-in-law in the presence of God.

Exodus 18:14
When his father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he asked, "What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone as judge, with all the people standing around you from morning till evening?"

Treasury of Scripture

And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning to the evening.

Judges 5:10
Speak, ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit in judgment, and walk by the way.

Job 29:7
When I went out to the gate through the city, when I prepared my seat in the street!

Isaiah 16:5
And in mercy shall the throne be established: and he shall sit upon it in truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.







Lexicon
The next day
מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת (mim·mā·ḥo·rāṯ)
Preposition-m | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4283: The morrow, tomorrow

Moses
מֹשֶׁ֖ה (mō·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4872: Moses -- a great Israelite leader, prophet and lawgiver

took his seat
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב (way·yê·šeḇ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3427: To sit down, to dwell, to remain, to settle, to marry

to judge
לִשְׁפֹּ֣ט (liš·pōṭ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 8199: To judge, pronounce sentence, to vindicate, punish, to govern, to litigate

the people,
הָעָ֑ם (hā·‘ām)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5971: A people, a tribe, troops, attendants, a flock

and they stood
וַיַּעֲמֹ֤ד (way·ya·‘ă·mōḏ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5975: To stand, in various relations

around
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

[him]
מֹשֶׁ֔ה (mō·šeh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4872: Moses -- a great Israelite leader, prophet and lawgiver

from
מִן־ (min-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 4480: A part of, from, out of

morning
הַבֹּ֖קֶר (hab·bō·qer)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1242: Dawn, morning

until
עַד־ (‘aḏ-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

evening.
הָעָֽרֶב׃ (hā·‘ā·reḇ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6153: Evening
(13) On the morrow.--The day following Jethro's arrival.

Moses sat to judge the people.--The office of prince, or ruler, was in early times regarded as including within it that of judge. Rulers in these ages were sometimes even called "judges," as were those of Israel from Joshua to Samuel, and those of Carthage at a later date (suffetes). Ability to judge was thought to mark out a person as qualified for the kingly office (Herod. i. 97). Moses, it would seem, had, from the time that he became chief of his nation, undertaken the hearing of all complaints and the decision of all causes. He held court days from time to time, when the host was stationary, and judged all the cases that were brought before him. No causes were decided by any one else. Either it had not occurred to him that the duty might be discharged by deputy, or he had seen reasons against the adoption of such an arrangement. Perhaps he had thought his countrymen unfit as yet for the difficult task. At any rate, he had acted as sole judge, and had, no doubt, to discharge the duty pretty frequently. Knowing that there was much business on hand, he did not allow the visit of his near connection to interfere with his usual habits, but held his court just as if Jethro had not been there.

The people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.--So great was the number of causes, or so difficult were they of decision, that Moses was occupied the whole day in deciding them. Following the usual Oriental practice, he began early in the morning, and found himself compelled to continue until nightfall. It is not clear whether his "sessions" were always of this length, or whether on this occasion the ordinary time was exceeded. Some have suggested that the division of the Amalekite spoil would naturally have led to disputes, and so to complaints.

Verses 13-26. - JETHRO'S ADVICE TO MOSES, AND ITS ADOPTION. The office of ruler in ancient times, whether exercised by a king, a prince, or a mere chieftain, was always understood to include within it the office of judge. In the Greek ideal of the origin of kingly government (Herod. 1:96), the able discharge of judicial functions marks the individual out for sovereignty. The successors of Moses, like the chief rulers of Carthage, bore the title of "Judges" (shophetim, suffetes). Moses, it appears, had from the time when he was accepted as leader by the people (Exodus 4:29-31), regarded himself as bound to hear and decide all the causes and complaints which arose among the entire Israelite people. He had net delegated his authority to any one. This can scarcely have been because the idea had not occurred to him, for the Egyptian kings ordinarily decided causes by judges nominated ad hoc. Perhaps he had distrusted the ability of his countrymen - so recently slaves - to discharge such delicate functions. At any rate, he had reserved the duty wholly to himself (ver. 18). This course appeared to Jethro unwise. No man could, he thought, in the case of so great a nation, singly discharge such an office with satisfaction to himself and others. Moses would "wear himself away" with the fatigue; and he would exhaust the patience of the people through inability to keep pace with the number of cases that necessarily arose. Jethro therefore recommended the appointment of subordinate judges, and the reservation by Moses of nothing but the right to decide such cases as these judges should, on account of their difficulty, refer to him (ver. 22) On reflection, Moses accepted this course as the best open to him under the circumstances, and established a multiplicity of judges, under a system which will be discussed in the comment on verse 25. Verse 13. - On the morrow. The day after Jethro's arrival. Moses sat to judge the people. Moses, i.e., took his seat in an accustomed place, probably at the door of his tent, and. was understood to be ready to hear and decide causes. The people stood by Moses. A crowd of complainants soon collected, and kept Moses employed incessantly from the morning, when he had taken his seat, until the evening, i.e., until nightfall. It is conjectured that many complaints may have arisen out of the division of the spoil of the Amalekites. 18:13-27 Here is the great zeal and the toil of Moses as a magistrate. Having been employed to redeem Israel out of the house of bondage, he is a further type of Christ, that he is employed as a lawgiver and a judge among them. If the people were as quarrelsome one with another as they were with God, no doubt Moses had many causes brought before him. This business Moses was called to; it appears that he did it with great care and kindness. The meanest Israelite was welcome to bring his cause before him. Moses kept to his business from morning to night. Jethro thought it was too much for him to undertake alone; also it would make the administration of justice tiresome to the people. There may be over-doing even in well-doing. Wisdom is profitable to direct, that we may neither content ourselves with less than our duty, nor task ourselves beyond our strength. Jethro advised Moses to a better plan. Great men should not only study to be useful themselves, but contrive to make others useful. Care must be taken in the choice of the persons admitted into such a trust. They should be men of good sense, that understood business, and that would not be daunted by frowns or clamours, but abhorred the thought of a bribe. Men of piety and religion; such as fear God, who dare not to do a base thing, though they could do it secretly and securely. The fear of God will best fortify a man against temptations to injustice. Moses did not despise this advice. Those are not wise, who think themselves too wise to be counselled.
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Alphabetical: about and around as came day evening for from him his It judge morning Moses next people sat seat serve stood that The they till to took until

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