Exodus 12:29
New International Version
At midnight the LORD struck down all the firstborn in Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on the throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner, who was in the dungeon, and the firstborn of all the livestock as well.

New Living Translation
And that night at midnight, the LORD struck down all the firstborn sons in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn son of the prisoner in the dungeon. Even the firstborn of their livestock were killed.

English Standard Version
At midnight the LORD struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.

Berean Study Bible
Now at midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, as well as all the firstborn among the livestock.

New American Standard Bible
Now it came about at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle.

King James Bible
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

Christian Standard Bible
Now at midnight the LORD struck every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and every firstborn of the livestock.

Contemporary English Version
At midnight the LORD killed the first-born son of every Egyptian family, from the son of the king to the son of every prisoner in jail. He also killed the first-born male of every animal that belonged to the Egyptians.

Good News Translation
At midnight the LORD killed all the first-born sons in Egypt, from the king's son, who was heir to the throne, to the son of the prisoner in the dungeon; all the first-born of the animals were also killed.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Now at midnight the LORD struck every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and every firstborn of the livestock.

International Standard Version
And so at midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.

NET Bible
It happened at midnight--the LORD attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

New Heart English Bible
It happened at midnight, that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of livestock.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
At midnight the LORD killed every firstborn male in Egypt from the firstborn son of Pharaoh who ruled the land to the firstborn son of the prisoner in jail, and also every firstborn animal.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And it came to pass at midnight, that the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the first-born of cattle.

New American Standard 1977
Now it came about at midnight that the LORD struck all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the first-born of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the first-born of cattle.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the animals.

King James 2000 Bible
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

American King James Version
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

American Standard Version
And it came to pass at midnight, that Jehovah smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the first-born of cattle.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And it came to pass at midnight that the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharao that sat on the throne, to the first-born of the captive-maid in the dungeon, and the first-born of all cattle.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And it came to pass at midnight, the Lord slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharao, who sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive woman that was in the prison, and all the firstborn of cattle.

Darby Bible Translation
And it came to pass that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle.

English Revised Version
And it came to pass at midnight, that the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

Webster's Bible Translation
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, to the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the first-born of cattle.

World English Bible
It happened at midnight, that Yahweh struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of livestock.

Young's Literal Translation
And it cometh to pass, at midnight, that Jehovah hath smitten every first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh who is sitting on his throne, unto the first-born of the captive who is in the prison-house, and every first-born of beasts.
Study Bible
The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn
29Now at midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, as well as all the firstborn among the livestock. 30During the night Pharaoh got up—he and all his officials and all the Egyptians—and there was loud wailing in Egypt; for there was no house without someone dead.…
Cross References
Hebrews 11:28
By faith he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, so that the destroyer of the firstborn would not touch Israel's own firstborn.

Exodus 4:23
and I told you to let My son go so that he may worship Me. But you have refused to let him go, so I will kill your firstborn son!'"

Exodus 9:6
And the next day the LORD did just that. All the livestock of the Egyptians died, but not one animal belonging to the Israelites died.

Exodus 11:4
So Moses declared, "This is what the LORD says: 'About midnight I will go throughout Egypt,

Exodus 11:5
and every firstborn son in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the servant girl behind the hand mill, as well as the firstborn of all the cattle.

Exodus 12:28
And the Israelites went and did just what the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron.

Exodus 13:15
And when Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the LORD killed every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of man and beast. This is why I sacrifice to the LORD the firstborn male of every womb, but I redeem all the firstborn of my sons.'

Numbers 8:17
For every firstborn among the sons of Israel is Mine, both man and beast. I set them apart for Myself on the day I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt.

Numbers 33:4
who were burying all their firstborn, whom the LORD had struck down among them; for the LORD had executed judgment against their gods.

Job 34:20
They die in a moment, and at midnight; the people convulse and pass away; the mighty are removed without human hand.

Psalm 78:50
He cleared a path for His anger; He did not spare them from death but delivered their lives to the plague.

Psalm 78:51
He struck all the firstborn of Egypt, the virility in the tents of Ham.

Psalm 105:36
Then He struck all the firstborn in their land, the firstfruits of all their vigor.

Psalm 135:8
He struck down the firstborn of Egypt, of both man and beast.

Psalm 136:10
He struck down the firstborn of Egypt His loving devotion endures forever.

Habakkuk 3:5
Plague went before Him, and pestilence followed in His steps.

Treasury of Scripture

And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.

at midnight

Exodus 12:12
For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

Exodus 11:4
And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:

Exodus 13:15
And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.

the Lord smote.

Numbers 3:13
Because all the firstborn are mine; for on the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast: mine shall they be: I am the LORD.

Numbers 8:17
For all the firstborn of the children of Israel are mine, both man and beast: on the day that I smote every firstborn in the land of Egypt I sanctified them for myself.

Numbers 33:4
For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the LORD had smitten among them: upon their gods also the LORD executed judgments.

the first-born of Pharaoh

Exodus 4:23
And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.

Exodus 11:5
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

dungeon.

Isaiah 24:22
And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited.

Isaiah 51:14
The captive exile hasteneth that he may be loosed, and that he should not die in the pit, nor that his bread should fail.

Jeremiah 38:6,13
Then took they Jeremiah, and cast him into the dungeon of Malchiah the son of Hammelech, that was in the court of the prison: and they let down Jeremiah with cords. And in the dungeon there was no water, but mire: so Jeremiah sunk in the mire…







Lexicon
Now
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ (way·hî)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

at midnight
בַּחֲצִ֣י (ba·ḥă·ṣî)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 2677: The half, middle

the LORD
וַֽיהוָה֮ (Yah·weh)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

struck down
הִכָּ֣ה (hik·kāh)
Verb - Hifil - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5221: To strike

every
כָל־ (ḵāl)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

firstborn
בְּכוֹר֮ (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

male in the land
בְּאֶ֣רֶץ (bə·’e·reṣ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 776: Earth, land

of Egypt,
מִצְרַיִם֒ (miṣ·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4714: Egypt -- a son of Ham, also his descendants and their country in Northwest Africa

from the firstborn
מִבְּכֹ֤ר (mib·bə·ḵōr)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

of Pharaoh,
פַּרְעֹה֙ (par·‘ōh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6547: Pharaoh -- a title of Egypt kings

who sat
הַיֹּשֵׁ֣ב (hay·yō·šêḇ)
Article | Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3427: To sit down, to dwell, to remain, to settle, to marry

on
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

his throne,
כִּסְא֔וֹ (kis·’ōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3678: Seat of honor, throne

to
עַ֚ד (‘aḏ)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

the firstborn
בְּכ֣וֹר (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

of the prisoner
הַשְּׁבִ֔י (haš·šə·ḇî)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7628: Exiled, captured, exile, booty

in the dungeon,
בְּבֵ֣ית (bə·ḇêṯ)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1004: A house

as well as all
וְכֹ֖ל (wə·ḵōl)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the firstborn
בְּכ֥וֹר (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

among the livestock.
בְּהֵמָֽה׃ (bə·hê·māh)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 929: A dumb beast, any large quadruped, animal
THE TENTH PLAGUE.

(29, 30) The nature of the tenth plague is indubitable, but as to the exact agency which was employed there may be different views. In every family in which the firstborn child had been a male, that child was stricken with death. Pharaoh's firstborn son--the erpa suten sa--the heir to his throne, was taken; and so in all other families. Nobles, priests, tradesmen, artisans, peasants, fishermen--all alike suffered. In the hyperbolic language of the narrator, "there was not a house where there was not one dead." And the deaths took place "at midnight," in the weirdest hour, at the most silent time, in the deepest darkness. So it had been prophesied (Exodus 11:4); but the particular night had not been announced. As several days had elapsed since the announcement, the Egyptians may have been wrapt in fancied security. Suddenly the calamity fell upon them and "there was a great cry." Death did not come, as upon the host of Sennacherib, noiselessly, unperceivedly, but "with observation." Those who were seized woke up and aroused their relatives. There was a cry for help, a general alarm, a short, sharp struggle and then a death.

The visitation is ordinarily ascribed to God Himself (Exodus 4:23; Exodus 11:4; Exodus 12:12; Exodus 12:27; Exodus 12:29; Exodus 13:15, &c), but in Exodus 12:23 to "the destroyer." It has been already shown that this expression points to angelic agency. That agency, however, does not exclude a further natural one. As in 2 Samuel 24 the seventy thousand whom the destroying angel killed (Exodus 12:16) are said to have been slain by a pestilence (Exodus 12:15), so it may have been here. Pestilence often rages in Egypt in the spring of the year, and carries off thousands in a very short space. As with so many of the other plagues, God may here too have employed a natural agency. None the less would the plague have been miraculous--(1) in its intensity; (2) in its coming at the time prophesied, viz., midnight; (3) in its selection of victims, viz., the firstborn males only, and all of them; (4) in its avoidance of the Israelites; and (5) in its extension, as prophesied, to the firstborn of animals.

(29) All the firstborn.--The Hebrew word used applies only to males.

The firstborn of Pharaoh.--The law of primogeniture prevailed in Egypt, as elsewhere generally. The Pharaoh's eldest son was recognised as "hereditary crown prince," and sometimes associated in the kingdom during his father's lifetime. This had been the case with Lameses II., probably the Pharaoh from whom Moses fled (Exodus 2:15); but the practice was not common. In any case, however, the eldest son of the reigning monarch occupied a most important position, and his loss would be felt as a national calamity.

The firstborn of the captive.--The variation of phrase between this verse and Exodus 11:5 is curious, but appears not to be of any significance. The writer simply means, in both places, "all, from the highest to the lowest."

All the firstborn of cattle.--Rather, of beasts, as in Exodus 11:5. (On the reasons for beasts being included in the calamity, see the Note on that passage.)

Verses 29, 30. - THE TENTH PLAGUE. At last the time had come for the dealing of the final blow. Nine plagues had been sent, nine inflictions endured, and no serious effect had been produced. Once or twice Pharaoh had wavered, had made profession of submitting himself, had even acknowledged his sin. But each time he had relapsed into obstinacy. Now at length the fiat had gone forth for that last plague which had been announced the first (Exodus 4:23). Pharaoh's own son, his firstborn, the heir to his throne, was smitten with death, in common with all the other male Egyptians who had "opened the womb." What the effect on the king would have been, had he alone suffered, we cannot certainly say. As it was, the whole population of the country, nobles, tradesmen, peasants, suffered with him; and the feeling aroused was so intense that the popular movement left him no choice. The Egyptians everywhere "rose up in the night" (ver. 30), and raised "a great cry," and insisted that the Israelites should depart at once (ver. 33). Each man feared for himself, and felt his life insecure, so long as a single Israelite remained in the land. Verse 29. - At midnight. As prophesied by Moses (Exodus 11:4). The day had not been fixed, and this uncertainty must have added to the horror of the situation. The first-born of Pharaoh. We have no proof that the eldest son of Menephthah died before his father, unless we take this passage as proving it. He left a son, called Seti-Menephthah, or Seti II, who either succeeded him, or reigned after a short interval, during which the throne was held by Ammonmes, a usurper. The first-born of the captive who was in the dungeon. This phrase takes the place of another expression, viz. "the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill" (Exodus 11:5). In both cases, the general meaning is, "all, from the highest to the lowest." This is perhaps the whole that is in the writer's thought; but it is also true that captives in dungeons were in some cases employed in turning hand-mills (Judges 16:21). And all the first-born of cattle. Rather, "of beasts." There is no limitation of the plague to domesticated animals. 12:29-36 The Egyptians had been for three days and nights kept in anxiety and horror by the darkness; now their rest is broken by a far more terrible calamity. The plague struck their first-born, the joy and hope of their families. They had slain the Hebrews' children, now God slew theirs. It reached from the throne to the dungeon: prince and peasant stand upon the same level before God's judgments. The destroying angel entered every dwelling unmarked with blood, as the messenger of woe. He did his dreadful errand, leaving not a house in which there was not one dead. Imagine then the cry that rang through the land of Egypt, the long, loud shriek of agony that burst from every dwelling. It will be thus in that dreadful hour when the Son of man shall visit sinners with the last judgment. God's sons, his first-born, were now released. Men had better come to God's terms at first, for he will never come to theirs. Now Pharaoh's pride is abased, and he yields. God's word will stand; we get nothing by disputing, or delaying to submit. In this terror the Egyptians would purchase the favour and the speedy departure of Israel. Thus the Lord took care that their hard-earned wages should be paid, and the people provided for their journey.
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Alphabetical: about all and as At came captive cattle down dungeon Egypt firstborn from his in it land livestock LORD midnight Now of on Pharaoh prisoner sat struck that the throne to was well who

OT Law: Exodus 12:29 It happened at midnight that Yahweh struck (Exo. Ex) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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