Exodus 12:38
New International Version
Many other people went up with them, and also large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds.

New Living Translation
A rabble of non-Israelites went with them, along with great flocks and herds of livestock.

English Standard Version
A mixed multitude also went up with them, and very much livestock, both flocks and herds.

Berean Study Bible
And a mixed multitude also went up with them, along with great droves of livestock, both flocks and herds.

King James Bible
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

New King James Version
A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds—a great deal of livestock.

New American Standard Bible
A mixed multitude also went up with them, along with flocks and herds, a very large number of livestock.

NASB 1995
A mixed multitude also went up with them, along with flocks and herds, a very large number of livestock.

NASB 1977
And a mixed multitude also went up with them, along with flocks and herds, a very large number of livestock.

Amplified Bible
A mixed multitude [of non-Israelites from foreign nations] also went with them, along with both flocks and herds, a very large number of livestock.

Christian Standard Bible
A mixed crowd also went up with them, along with a huge number of livestock, both flocks and herds.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
An ethnically diverse crowd also went up with them, along with a huge number of livestock, both flocks and herds.

American Standard Version
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Also many mixed companies went up with them and very many flocks and oxen and cattle.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And a great mixed company went up with them, and sheep and oxen and very much cattle.

Contemporary English Version
Many other people went with them as well, and there were also a lot of sheep, goats, and cattle.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And a mixed multitude without number went up also with them, sheep and herds and beasts of divers kinds, exceeding many.

English Revised Version
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Good News Translation
A large number of other people and many sheep, goats, and cattle also went with them.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Many other people also went with them, along with large numbers of sheep, goats, and cattle.

International Standard Version
A mixed multitude also went up with them, along with a very large number of livestock, including sheep and cattle.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Literal Standard Version
and a great rabble has also gone up with them, and flock and herd—very much livestock.

NET Bible
A mixed multitude also went up with them, and flocks and herds--a very large number of cattle.

New Heart English Bible
A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock.

World English Bible
A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock.

Young's Literal Translation
and a great rabble also hath gone up with them, and flock and herd -- very much cattle.

Additional Translations ...
Context
The Exodus Begins
37The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth with about 600,000 men on foot, besides women and children. 38And a mixed multitude also went up with them, along with great droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. 39Since their dough had no leaven, the people baked what they had brought out of Egypt into unleavened loaves. For when they had been driven out of Egypt, they could not delay and had not prepared any provisions for themselves.…

Cross References
Exodus 10:9
"We will go with our young and old," Moses replied. "We will go with our sons and daughters, and with our flocks and herds, for we must hold a feast to the LORD."

Exodus 17:3
But the people thirsted for water there, and they grumbled against Moses: "Why have you brought us out of Egypt--to make us and our children and livestock die of thirst?"

Numbers 11:4
Meanwhile, the rabble among them had a strong craving for other food, and again the Israelites wept and said, "Who will feed us meat?

Numbers 20:19
"We will stay on the main road," the Israelites replied, "and if we or our herds drink your water, we will pay for it. There will be no problem; only let us pass through on foot."

Numbers 32:1
Now the Reubenites and Gadites, who had very large herds and flocks, surveyed the lands of Jazer and Gilead, and they saw that the region was suitable for livestock.

Deuteronomy 3:19
But your wives, your children, and your livestock--I know that you have much livestock--may remain in the cities I have given you,

Joshua 8:35
There was not a word of all that Moses had commanded that Joshua failed to read before the whole assembly of Israel, including the women, the little ones, and the foreigners who lived among them.

Nehemiah 13:3
As soon as the people heard this law, they excluded from Israel all of foreign descent.


Treasury of Scripture

And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

and a mixed multitude.

Numbers 11:4
And the mixt multitude that was among them fell a lusting: and the children of Israel also wept again, and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat?

Zechariah 8:23
Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.









(38) A mixed multitude went up also with them.--Nothing is told us of the component elements of this "mixed multitude." We hear of them as "murmuring" in Numbers 11:4, so that they seem to have remained with Israel. Some may have been Egyptians, impressed by the recent miracles; some foreigners held to servitude, like the Israelites, and glad to escape from their masters. It is noticeable that the Egyptian writers, in their perverted accounts of the Exodus, made a multitude of foreigners (Hyksos) take part with the Hebrews.

Verse 38. - A mixed multitude went up also with them. Kalisch supposes that these strangers were native Egyptians, anxious to escape the tyranny of the kings. Canon Cook suggests that they were "remains of the old Semitic population" of the Eastern provinces. Perhaps it is more probable that they consisted of fugitives from other subject races (as the Shartana) oppressed by the Pharaohs. We have again mention of this "mixed multitude" in Numbers 11:4, where we find that they were the first to regret the "flesh and the fish, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlick" which they had eaten in Egypt freely (ib. 5). They thus set a bad example, which the Israelites followed. And flocks, and herds, even very much cattle. Compare Exodus 10:26. It has been noticed that this is important, as lessening the difficulties connected with the sustentation of the Israelites in the wilderness. But it increases, on the other hand, the difficulties connected with the march, and with the possibility of finding pasture for such large flocks and herds in the Sinaitic peninsula.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
And a mixed
עֵ֥רֶב (‘ê·reḇ)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 6154: Arabia -- mixture, mixed company

multitude
רַ֖ב (raḇ)
Adjective - masculine singular
Strong's 7227: Much, many, great

also
וְגַם־ (wə·ḡam-)
Conjunctive waw | Conjunction
Strong's 1571: Assemblage, also, even, yea, though, both, and

went up
עָלָ֣ה (‘ā·lāh)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's 5927: To ascend, in, actively

with them,
אִתָּ֑ם (’it·tām)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's 854: Nearness, near, with, by, at, among

along with great droves of
כָּבֵ֥ד (kā·ḇêḏ)
Adjective - masculine singular
Strong's 3515: Heavy

livestock,
מִקְנֶ֖ה (miq·neh)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4735: Something bought, property, livestock, acquisition

both flocks
וְצֹ֣אן (wə·ṣōn)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - common singular
Strong's 6629: Small cattle, sheep and goats, flock

and herds.
וּבָקָ֔ר (ū·ḇā·qār)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 1241: Beef cattle, ox, a herd


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