Exodus 1:13
New International Version
and worked them ruthlessly.

New Living Translation
So the Egyptians worked the people of Israel without mercy.

English Standard Version
So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel work as slaves

Berean Study Bible
They worked the Israelites ruthlessly

King James Bible
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

New King James Version
So the Egyptians made the children of Israel serve with rigor.

New American Standard Bible
The Egyptians used violence to compel the sons of Israel to labor;

NASB 1995
The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;

NASB 1977
And the Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;

Amplified Bible
And the Egyptians made the Israelites serve rigorously [forcing them into severe slavery].

Christian Standard Bible
They worked the Israelites ruthlessly

Holman Christian Standard Bible
They worked the Israelites ruthlessly

American Standard Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the Egyptians tyrannised over the children of Israel by force.

Contemporary English Version
and made them work so hard

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Egyptians hated the children of Israel, and afflicted them and mocked them:

English Revised Version
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

GOD'S WORD® Translation
So they forced the Israelites to work hard as slaves.

International Standard Version
The Egyptians ruthlessly forced the Israelis to serve them,

JPS Tanakh 1917
And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour.

Literal Standard Version
and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigor,

NET Bible
and they made the Israelites serve rigorously.

New Heart English Bible
And the Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel labor,

World English Bible
The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,

Young's Literal Translation
and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigour,

Additional Translations ...
Study Bible
Oppression by a New King
12But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and flourished; so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites. 13They worked the Israelites ruthlessly 14and made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar, and with all kinds of work in the fields. Every service they imposed was harsh.…

Cross References
Genesis 15:13
Then the LORD said to Abram, "Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not their own, and they will be enslaved and mistreated four hundred years.

Exodus 1:14
and made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar, and with all kinds of work in the fields. Every service they imposed was harsh.

Leviticus 25:43
You are not to rule over them harshly, but you shall fear your God.

Deuteronomy 4:20
Yet the LORD has taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be the people of His inheritance, as you are today.

1 Kings 12:14
and spoke to them as the young men had advised, saying, "Whereas my father made your yoke heavy, I will add to your yoke. Whereas my father scourged you with whips, I will scourge you with scorpions."


Treasury of Scripture

And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

no reference









(13) With rigour.--Forced labour in Egypt was of a very severe character. Those condemned to it worked from morning to night under the rod of a task-master, which was freely applied to their legs or backs, if they rested their weary limbs for a moment. (See Records of the Past, vol. viii. p. 149; Chabas, Melanges Egyptolo-giques, vol. ii. p. 121). The heat of the sun was great; the burthens which the labourers had to carry were heavy, and the toil was incessant. Death often resulted from the, excessive work. According to Herodotus, a single monarch, Neco, destroyed in this way 120,000 of his subjects (Herod, ii. 158).

Verse 13. - The Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour. The word translated rigour is a very rare one. It is derived from a root which means "to break in pieces, to crush." The "rigour" would be shown especially in the free use of the stick by the taskmaster, and in the prolongation of the hours of work.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Lexicon
They worked
וַיַּעֲבִ֧דוּ (way·ya·‘ă·ḇi·ḏū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hifil - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5647: To work, to serve, till, enslave

the Israelites
בְּנֵ֥י (bə·nê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 1121: A son

ruthlessly
בְּפָֽרֶךְ׃ (bə·p̄ā·reḵ)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6531: Harshness, severity


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OT Law: Exodus 1:13 The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children (Exo. Ex)
Exodus 1:12
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