Luke
The Bible Book by Book
Date. It was probably written about A. D. 60 or 63, certainly before the fall of Jerusalem, A. D. 70, and likely while Luke was with Paul in Rome or during the two years at Caesarea.

Author. The author is Luke, who also wrote Acts, and was a companion of Paul on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:11-40). He rejoins Paul at Philippi (Acts 20:1-7) on the return from the third missionary journey, remaining with him at Caesarea and on the way to Rome (Acts Chs. 20-28), He is called the "Beloved physician" (Col. 4:14) and Paul's "fellow laborer" (Philemon 24).

From the context of Col. 4:4 we learn that he was "not of the circumcision" and, therefore, a Gentile. From his preface (Lu. 1:1) we learn that he was not an eye witness of what he wrote. He is thought to be "the brother" whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches (2 Cor. 8:18), and, by tradition, is always declared to be a Gentile and proselyte. As is indicated by the gospel itself, he was the most cultured of all the gospel writers.

Characteristics and Purpose.

1. It Is a Gospel of Song and Praise. There are a number of songs such as the song of Mary (1:46-55), the song of Zacharias (1:68-79), the song of the angels (2:14) and the song of Simeon (2:29-33). There are many expressions of praise such as (2:2; 5:29; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 18:43; 23:47).

2. It Is a Gospel of Prayer. Jesus prays at his baptism, (3:21), after cleansing the leper (5:16), before calling the twelve (6:12), at his transfiguration (9:28), before teaching the disciples to pray (11:1), for his murderers as he was on the cross (23:34), with his last breath (23:46). Luke gives us Christ's command to pray (21:36) and two parables, the midnight friend (11:5-13) and the unjust judge (18:1-8) to show the certain and blessed results of continued prayer.

3. It Is a Gospel of Womanhood. No other gospel gives her anything like so large a place as Luke. Indeed, all of the first three chapters or a greater part of their contents may have been given him, as he "traced out accurately from the first" (1:3), by Mary and Elizabeth. He gives us the praise and prophecy of Elizabeth (1:42-42), the song of Mary (1:46-55). Anna and her worship (2:36-38), sympathy for the widow of Nain (7:12-15), Mary Magdella the sinner (7:36-50), the woman associates of Jesus (8:1-3), tender words to the woman with an issue of blood (8:48), Mary and Martha and their disposition (10:38-42). sympathy and help for the "daughter" of Abraham (13:16), the consolation of the daughters of Jerusalem (23:28). These references have been collected by others and are the most conspicuous ones and serve to show how large a place woman is given in this gospel.

4. It Is a Gospel of the Poor and Outcast. More than any other of the evangelists Luke reports those teachings and incidents in the life of our Savior which show how his work is to bless the poor and neglected and vicious. Among the more striking passages of this character are the oft repeated references to the publicans (3:12; 5:27, 29, 30, etc.), Mary Magdella, who was a sinner (7:36-50), the woman with an issue of blood (8:43-48), the harlots (15:30), the prodigal son (13:11-32), Lazarus, the beggar (16:13-31), the poor, maimed, halt and blind invited to the supper (14:7-24). the Story of Zacchaeus (19:1-9), the Savior's business declared to be to seek and save the lost (8:10), the dying robber saved (23:39-43).

5. It Is a Gentile Gospel. The book is everywhere filled with a world wide purpose not so fully expressed in the other evangelists. Here we have the angels, announcement of great joy which shall be to all people (2:10) and the song about Jesus as "a light for revelation to the Gentiles" (2:32). The genealogy traces Christ's lineage back to Adam (2:38) and thus connects him not with Abraham as a representative of humanity. The fuller account of the sending out of the seventy (10:1-24). the very number of whom signified the supposed number of the heathen nations, who were to go, not as the twelve to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but to all those cities whither Jesus himself would come, is suggestive of this broader purpose of Luke. The good Samaritan (10:25-37) is Christ's illustration of a true neighbor and in some way also intends to show the nature of Christ's work which was to be without nationality. Of the ten lepers healed (17:11-19) only one, a Samaritan, returned to render him praise, thus showing how others than the Jews would not only be blessed by him but would do worthy service for him. The Perean ministry, across the Jordan (9:51-18:4, probably 9:51-19:28). is a ministry to the Gentiles and shows how large a place Luke would give the Gentiles in the work and blessings of Jesus.

6. It Is a Gospel for the Greeks. If Matthew wrote for Jews and Mark for Romans, it is but natural that some one should write in such a way as to appeal, specially, to the Greeks as the other representative race. And, such the Christian writers of the first centuries thought to be Luke's purpose. The Greek was the representative of reason and humanity and felt that his mission was to perfect humanity. "The full grown Greek would be a perfect world man", able to meet all men on the common plane of the race. All the Greek gods were, therefore, images of some form of perfect humanity. The Hindu might worship an emblem of physical force, the Roman deify the Emperor and the Egyptian any and all forms of life, but the Greek adored man with his thought and beauty and speech, and, in this, had most nearly approached the true conception of God. The Jew would value men as the descendants of Abraham; the Roman according as they wielded empires, but the Greek on the basis of man as such.

The gospel for the Greek must, therefore, present the perfect man, and so Luke wrote about the Divine Man as the Savior of all men. Christ touched man at every point and is interested in him as man whether low and vile or high and noble. By his life he shows the folly of sin and the beauty of holiness. He brings God near enough to meet the longings of the Greek soul and thereby furnish him a pattern and brother suited for all ages and all people. The deeds of Jesus are kept to the background while much is made of the songs of others and the discourses of Jesus as they were calculated to appeal to the cultured Greek. If the Greek thinks he has a mission to humanity, Luke opens a mission ground enough for the present and offers him an immortality which will satisfy in the future.

7. It Is an Artistic Gospel. Renan calls Luke the most beautiful book in the world, while Dr, Robertson says "the charm of style and the skill in the use of facts place it above all praise". The delicacy and accuracy, picturesqueness and precision with which he sets forth the different incidents is manifestly the work of a trained historian. His is the most beautiful Greek and shows the highest touches of culture of all of the gospels.

Subject. Jesus the World's Savior.

Analysis.

Introduction. The dedication of the gospel, 1:1-4.

   I. The Savior's Manifestation, 1:5-4:13.

1. The announcement of the Forerunner, 1:5-25.

2. The announcement of the Savior. 1:26-38.

3. Thanksgiving of Mary and Elizabeth, 1:29-56.

4. The birth and childhood of the Forerunner, 1:37 end.

5. The birth of the Savior, 2:1-20.

6. The childhood of the Savior. 3:1-4:13.

  II. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Galilee, 4:14-9:50.

1. He preaches in the synagogue at Nazareth. 4:14-30.

2. He works in and around Capernaum, 4:31-6:11.

3. Work while touring Galilee, 6:12-9:50.

III. The Savior's Work and Teaching After Leaving Galilee Up to theEntrance Into Jerusalem, 9:31-19:27.

1. He journeys to Jerusalem, 9:51 end.

2. The mission of the Seventy and subsequent matters, 10:1-11:13.

3. He exposes the experience and practice of the day, 11:14-12 end.

4. Teachings, miracles warnings and parables, 13:1-18:30.

5. Incidents connected with his final approach to Jerusalem, 18:31-19:27.

  IV. The Savior's Work and Teaching in Jerusalem, 19:28-22:38.

1. The entrance to Jerusalem, 19:28 end.

2. Questions and answers. Ch. 20.

3. The widow's mites, 21:1-4.

4. Preparation for the end, 21:5-22:38.

   V. The Savior Suffers for the World, 22:39-23 end.

1. The agony in the garden, 22:39-46.

2. The betrayal and arrest, 22:47-53.

3. The trial. 22:54-23:26.

4. The cross, 23:27-49.

5. The burial, 23:30 end.

 VI. The Savior is Glorified, Ch. 24.

1. The resurrection, 1-12.

2. The appearance and teachings, 13-49.

3. The ascension, 50 end.

For Study and Discussion.

1. Six miracles peculiar to Luke. (1) The draught of fishes, 5:4-11. (2) The raising of the widow's son, 7:11-18. (3) The woman with the spirit of infirmity, 13:11-17. (4) The man with the dropsy, 14:1-6. (5) The ten lepers, 17:11-19. (6) The healing of Malchus' ear. 22:50-51.

2. Eleven parables, peculiar to Luke. (I) The two debtors, 7:41-43. (2) The good Samaritan, 10:25-37. (3) The importunate friend, 11:5-8. (4) The rich fool, 12:16-19. (5) The barren fig-tree, 13:6-9. (6) The lost piece of silver, 15:8-10. (7) The prodigal son, 15:11-32. (8) The unjust steward, 16:1-13. (9) The rich man and Lazarus, 18:19-31. (10) The unjust judge, 18:1-8. (11) The Pharisee and publican, 18:9-14.

3. Some other passages mainly peculiar to Luke. (1) Chs. 1-2 and 9:51-18:14 are mainly peculiar to Luke. (2) John the Baptist's answer to the people. 3:10-14. (3) The conversation with Moses and Elias, 9:30-31. (4) The weeping over Jerusalem, 19:41-44. (5) The bloody sweat, 22:44. (6) The sending of Jesus to Herod, 23:7-12. (7) The address to the daughters of Jerusalem, 23:27-31. (8) "Father forgive them", 23:34. (9) The penitent robber, 23:40-43. (10) The disciples at Emmaus, 24:13-31; (11) Particulars about the ascension. 24:50-53.

4. The following words and phrases should be studied, making a list of the references where each occurs and a study of each passage in which they occur with a view of getting Luke's conception of the term. (1) The "son of man" (23 times). (2) The "son of God" (7 times). (3) The "kingdom of God" (32 times). (4) References to law, lawyer, lawful (18 times). (5) Publican (11 times). (6) Sinner and sinners (16 times). Mr. Stroud estimates that 59 percent of Luke is peculiar to himself and Mr. Weiss figures that 541 have no incidences in the other gospels.



THE BIBLE BOOK BY BOOK: A MANUAL:
For the Outline Study of the Bible by Books by J.B. TIDELL, A.M., D.D. Professor of Biblical Literature in Baylor University, Waco, Texas
1916 BAYLOR UNIVERSITY PRESS Waco, Texas
Chapters
Luke 1. Introduction; John's and Jesus' Birth Foretold; Mary's Song; Zachariah's Prophecy

1. The preface of Luke to his whole gospel.
5. The conception of John the Baptist;
26. and of Jesus.
39. The prophecy of Elisabeth and of Mary, concerning Jesus.
57. The nativity and circumcision of John.
67. The prophecy of Zachariah, both of Jesus,
76. and of John.

Luke 2. Jesus' Birth; Announcement by Angels; Presentation at the Temple; Return to Nazareth; The Boy Jesus Visits the Temple

1. Augustus taxes all the Roman empire.
6. The nativity of Jesus.
8. An angel relates it to the shepherds, and many sing praises to God for it.
15. The shepherds glorify God.
21. Jesus is circumcised.
22. Mary purified.
25. Simeon and Anna prophesy of Jesus,
39. who increases in wisdom,
41. questions in the temple with the teachers,
51. and is obedient to his parents.

Luke 3. John the Baptist Preaches and Baptizes Jesus; Genealogy of Jesus

1. The preaching and baptism of John;
15. his testimony of Jesus;
19. Herod imprisons John;
21. Jesus, baptized, receives testimony from heaven.
23. The age and genealogy of Jesus from Joseph upwards.

Luke 4. Jesus' Temptation; Rejection at Nazareth; Public Ministry; Healings

1. The fasting and temptation of Jesus.
14. He begins to preach.
16. The people of Nazareth marvel at words, but seek to kill him.
33. He cures one possessed of a demon,
38. Peter's mother-in-law,
40. and various other sick persons.
41. The demons acknowledge Jesus, and are reproved for it.
42. He preaches through the cities of Galilee.

Luke 5. Jesus Calls First Disciples, Heals the Leper and Paralytic, Calls Matthew, Questioned about Fasting

1. Jesus teaches the people out of Peter's ship;
4. shows how he will make them fishers of men;
12. cleanses the leper;
16. prays in the desert;
17. heals a paralytic;
27. calls Matthew the tax collector;
29. eats with sinners, as being the physician of souls;
33. foretells the fasting and afflictions of the apostles after his ascension;
36. and illustrates the matter by the parable of patches.

Luke 6. Lord of the Sabbath; The Twelve Apostles; Beatitudes; Love for Enemies; Do not Judge; Tree and Fruits; House on the Rock

1. Jesus reproves the Pharisees;
12. chooses apostles;
17. heals the diseased;
20. preaches to his disciples before the people: the beattitudes;
27. Love your Enemy
37. Do not Judge
43. A Tree and Its Fruit
46. The House on the Rock

Luke 7. Jesus Heals a Centurion's Servant, Raises a Widow's Son, answer John's messengers; Mary Anoints Jesus

1. Jesus finds a greater faith in the centurion;
10. heals his servant, being absent;
11. raises from death the widow's son at Nain;
18. answers John's messengers with the declaration of his miracles;
24. testifies to the people what opinion he held of John;
31. compares this generation to the children in the marketplaces,
36. and allowing his feet to be washed and anointed by a woman who was a sinner,
44. he shows how he is a friend to sinners, to forgive them their sins, upon their repentance.

Luke 8. Parables of the Sower and Lamp; Jesus Calms the Storm, Heals the Demoniac, Raises a Dead Girl

1. Women minister unto Jesus of their own means.
4. Jesus, after he had preached from place to place,
9. explains the parable of the sower,
16. and the candle;
19. declares who are his mother, and brothers;
22. rebukes the winds;
26. casts the legion of demons out of the man into the herd of pigs;
37. is rejected by the Gadarenes;
43. heals the woman of her bleeding;
49. and raises Jairus's daughter from death.

Luke 9. Jesus Sends out the Twelve, Feeds 5000, Heals a Boy; Transfiguration; Cost of Following Jesus

1. Jesus sends his apostles to work miracles, and to preach.
7. Herod desires to see Jesus.
10. The apostles return.
12. Jesus feeds five thousand;
18. inquires what opinion the world had of him; foretells his passion;
23. proposes to all the pattern of his patience.
28. The transfiguration.
37. He heals the lunatic;
43. again forewarns his disciples of his passion;
46. commends humility;
51. bids them to show mildness toward all, without desire of revenge.
57. Many would follow him, but upon conditions.

Luke 10. Jesus Sends out the Seventy-two; Good Samaritan; Martha and Mary's House

1. Jesus sends out at once seventy disciples to work miracles, and to preach;
13. pronounces a woe against certain cities.
17. The seventy return with joy;
18. he shows them wherein to rejoice,
21. and thanks his Father for his grace;
23. magnifies the happy estate of his church;
25. teaches the lawyer how to attain eternal life,
30. and tells the parable of the good Samaritan;
38. reprimands Martha, and commends Mary her sister.

Luke 11. Instruction about Prayer; Casting out Demons; the Sign of Jonah; Woes upon Pharisees

1. Jesus teaches us to pray, and that instantly;
11. assuring us that God will give all good things to those who ask him.
14. He, casting out a demon, rebukes the blasphemous Pharisees;
27. and shows who are blessed;
29. preaches to the people;
37. and reprimands the outward show of holiness.

Luke 12. God Knows All; Parable of the Rich Fool; Anxiety; Watchfulness

1. Jesus preaches to his apostles to avoid hypocrisy
13. and warns against covetousness, by the parable of the man who set up greater barns.
22. We must not worry about earthly things,
31. but seek the kingdom of God;
33. give alms;
35. be ready at a knock to open to our Lord whensoever he comes.
41. Jesus' disciples are to see to their charges,
49. and look for persecution.
54. The people must take this time of grace;
57. because it is a fearful thing to die without reconciliation.

Luke 13. Call to Repent; Healing on the Sabbath; Parables of the Mustard Seed and the Yeast; Enter by the Narrow Door

1. Jesus preaches repentance upon the punishment of the Galilaeans and others.
6. The fruitless fig tree may not stand.
10. He heals the crooked woman;
18. shows the powerful working of the word, by the parable of the grain of mustard seed,
20. and of leaven;
22. exhorts to enter in at the strait gate;
31. and reproves Herod and Jerusalem.

Luke 14. Jesus Heals Again on the Sabbath; Parable of the Banquet; Cost of Discipleship

1. Jesus heals the dropsy on the Sabbath;
7. teaches humility;
12. to feast the poor;
15. under the parable of the great supper,
23. shows how worldly minded men shall be shut out of heaven.
25. Those who will be his disciples, to bear their cross must make their accounts beforehand,
31. lest with shame they revolt from him afterward;
34. and become altogether unprofitable, like salt that has lost its flavor.

Luke 15. Parables of the Lost Sheep, Lost Coin, and Prodigal Son

1. The parable of the lost sheep;
8. of the piece of silver;
11. of the prodigal son.

Luke 16. The Parables of the Shrewd Manager, and the Rich Man and Lazarus

1. The parable of the unjust steward.
14. Jesus reproves the hypocrisy of the covetous Pharisees.
19. The parable of the rich man and Lazarus the beggar.

Luke 17. Forgiveness and Faith; Cleansing of the Ten Lepers; Second Coming Foretold

1. Jesus teaches to avoid occasions of offense;
3. and to forgive one another.
5. The power of faith.
6. How we are bound to God.
11. Jesus heals ten lepers.
22. Of the kingdom of God, and the coming of the Son of Man.

Luke 18. Parables of the Persistent Widow, Pharisee and Tax Collector; The Rich Young Ruler; The Healing of a Blind Beggar

1. Of the importunate widow.
9. Of the Pharisee and the tax collector.
15. Of Children brought to Jesus.
18. A ruler would follow Jesus, but is hindered by his riches.
28. The reward of those who leave all for his sake.
31. He foretells his death;
35. and restores a blind man to sight.

Luke 19. Zacchaeus Converted; Parable of the Ten Minas; Triumphal Entry; Driving Traders from Temple

1. Of Zacchaeus a tax collector.
11. The ten minas.
28. Jesus rides into Jerusalem with triumph;
41. weeps over it;
45. drives the buyers and sellers out of the temple;
47. Teaching daily in it. The rulers seek to destroy him, but fear the people.

Luke 20. Jesus' Authority; Parable of the Tenants; Give to Caesar; Marriage at the Resurrection

1. Jesus confirms his authority by a question of John's baptism.
9. The parable of the vineyard.
19. Of giving tribute to Caesar.
27. He instructs the Sadducees, who denied the resurrection.
41. How Jesus is the Son of David.
45. He warns his disciples to beware of the scribes.

Luke 21. The Widow's Gift; Signs of the End of the Age

1. Jesus commends the poor widow.
5. He foretells the destruction of the temple, and of the city Jerusalem;
25. the signs also which shall be before the last day.
34. He exhorts them to be watchful.

Luke 22. Preparing the Passover; Jesus Arrested, Disowned by Peter

1. The leaders conspire against Jesus.
3. Satan prepares Judas to betray him.
7. The apostles prepare the Passover.
19. Jesus institutes his holy supper;
21. covertly foretells of the traitor;
24. rebukes the rest of his apostles from ambition;
31. assures Peter his faith should not fail;
34. and yet he should deny him thrice.
39. He prays in the mount, and sweats blood;
47. is betrayed with a kiss;
50. he heals Malchus' ear;
54. he is thrice denied by Peter;
63. shamefully abused;
66. and confesses himself to be the Son of God.

Luke 23. Jesus before Pilate and Herod; Jesus' Crucifixion and Burial

1. Jesus is accused before Pilate, and sent to Herod.
8. Herod mocks him.
12. Herod and Pilate become friends.
13. Barabbas is desired of the people,
24. and is released by Pilate, and Jesus is given to be crucified.
26. He tells the women, that lament him, the destruction of Jerusalem;
34. prays for his enemies.
39. Two criminals are crucified with him.
46. His death.
50. His burial.

Luke 24. The Resurrection; Road to Emmaus; Appearances to disciples, Ascension

1. Jesus' resurrection is declared by two angels to the women who come to the tomb.
9. They report it to others.
13. Jesus himself appears to the two disciples that went to Emmaus;
36. afterwards he appears to the apostles, and reproves their unbelief;
47. gives them a charge;
49. promises the Holy Spirit;
50. and so ascends into heaven.
Mark
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