The Bible Book by BookThe Author. From the evidence found in the gospel, we may learn several things about the author. (1) That he was a Jew. This is seen in his evident knowledge of Jewish opinions concerning such subjects as the Messiah, and his knowledge of their customs, such as the purification. (2) He was an eye-witness to most of what he relates. This is seen in his exact knowledge of time, as to the hour or time of day a thing occurred; in his knowledge of the number of persons or things present, as the division of his garments into four parts; in the vividness of the narrative which he could hardly have had without first having seen it all. (3) He was an apostle. This is seen in his knowledge of the thoughts of the disciples (2:11, 17); in his knowledge of the private words of the disciples to Jesus and among themselves (4:31, 33, etc.); in his knowledge of the private resorts of the disciples (11:54. etc.); and in his knowledge of the Lord's motives, etc. (2:24-25, etc.); and in his knowledge of Christ's feelings (11:33). (4) He was the son of Zebedee (Mar. 1:19-20), and was probably one of John's two disciples whom he turned to Jesus (1-40). (5) He is one of the three most prominent of the apostles, being several times especially honored (Matt. 17:1-3. etc.), and is prominent in the work of the church after Christ's ascension, as well as in all their work before his death: (6) He also wrote three epistles and Revelation. He outlived all the other apostles and is supposed to have died on the Isle of Patmos as an exile about 100 A.D.
The Times and Circumstances of the Writings. These are so different from those which influenced the other evangelists that one can hardly escape the feeling that John's gospel is colored accordingly. The gospel had been preached in all the Roman empire and Christianity was no longer considered a Jewish sect, attached to the Synagogue. Jerusalem had been overthrown and the temple destroyed. Christians had been sorely persecuted, but had achieved great triumphs in many lands. All the rest of the New Testament except Revelation had been written. Some had arisen, who disputed the deity of Jesus and while the gospel is not a mere polemic against that false teaching, it does, by establishing the true teaching thoroughly undermine the false. He perhaps wrote to Christians of all nationalities, whose history had by this time been enriched by the blood of martyrs for the faith. Instead of the Messiah in whom Jews would find a Savior or the mighty worker in whom the Roman would find him, or the Ideal Man in whom the Greeks would find him. John wrote concerning the eternal, Incarnate Word in whose Spiritual Kingdom each, having lost his narrowness and racial prejudice, could be forever united.
The Style and the Plan.
This gospel differs from the others in language and plan. It is both profound and simple and has several elements of style as follows: (1) Simplicity. The sentences are short and connected by coordinate conjunctions. There are but few direct quotations, and but few dependent sentences, and most of them show the sequence of things, either as a cause or a purpose. (2) Sameness. This arises from the method of treating each step in the narrative as if isolated and separate from all the rest rather than merging it into the complete whole. (3) Repetition, whether in the narrative proper or in the quoted words of the Lord, is very frequent. The following examples will illustrate this: "In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God." "The light shineth in darkness and the darkness comprehendeth it not." "I am the Good Shepherd; the Good Shepherd giveth his life." "Jesus then, when he saw her weeping and the Jews that were weeping with her." "If I bear witness of myself my witness is not true. There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true." Let the student gather a list of all such repetitions. (4) Parallelism, or statements expressing the same or similar truths, such as the following are common. "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you"; "Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid"; "I give unto them eternal life and they shall never perish." This parallelism, which at the same time becomes repetition, is seen in the way a subject or conclusion is stated and, afterelaboration, restated in a new and enlarged view, thus teaching the truth in a gradually unfolding beauty and force. An illustration is found in the statement, "I will raise him up in the last day," 6, 39, 70, 44. (5) Contrasts. The plan is more simple and more easily seen all along than is that of any other of the Evangelists. On the one hand, he shows how love and faith are developed in the believer until, in the end, Thomas, who was the most doubtful of all, could exclaim, "My Lord and my God." On the other hand, he shows the unbeliever advanced from mere indifference to a positive hatred that culminated in the crucifixion. This purpose is carried out by a process of contrasting and separating things that are opposites, such as (a) Light and darkness, (b) Truth and falsehood, (c) Good and evil, (d) Life and death, (e) God and Satan. In all of these he is convincing his reader that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God.
Characteristics and Purpose.
1. It Is a Gospel of the Feasts. Indeed, if subtract from it those miracles and teachings and other works performed in connection with the feasts, we should have only a few fragments left. The value of the book would be destroyed and the most beautiful and the profoundest teachings of the gospel lost.
The student will do well from the following list of feasts to endeavor to group around each all that John records as occurring in connection with it. (1) The Feast of the Passover (2:13, 23), First Passover, A. D. 27. (2) A Feast of the Jews (5:1), probably Purim. (3) Passover a Feast of the Jews (6:4), Second Passover, A. D. 28. (4) Feast of the Tabernacles (7:2). (5) Feast of the Dedication (10:22). (6) Passover (11:55-56; 12:1, 12, 20; 13:29; 18:28). Third Passover, A. D. 29.
2. It Is a Gospel of Testimony. John writes to prove that Jesus is the Christ. He assumes the attitude of a lawyer before a jury and introduces testimony until he fells certain of his case and then closes the testimony with the assurance that much more could be offered if it seemed necessary. There are seven lines of testimony. (1) The testimony of John the Baptist. (2) The testimony of certain other individuals. (3) The testimony of Jesus' works. (4) The testimony of Jesus himself (see the I am's). (5) The testimony of the scripture. (6) The testimony of the Father. (7) The testimony of the Holy Spirit.
3. It Is of Gospel of Belief. The purpose being to produce belief there are given: numerous examples of belief, showing the growth of faith; the secret of faith, such as hearing or receiving the word; the results of faith, such as eternal life, freedom, peace, power, etc.
4. It Is a Spiritual Gospel. It represents the deeper mediations of John, which are shaped so as to establish a great doctrine which, instead of history, became his great impulse. To John "history is doctrine" and he reviews it in the light of its spiritual interpretation. It furnished a great bulwark against the Gnostic teachers, who had come to deny the diety of Jesus. He also emphasized and elaborated the humanity of Jesus. His whole purpose is "not so much the historic record of the facts as the development of their inmost meaning."
5. It Is a Gospel of Symbolism. John was a mystic and delighted in mystic symbols. The whole book speaks in the language of symbols. The mystic numbers three and seven prevail throughout the book not only in the things and sayings recorded but in the arrangement of topics. Each of the Eight Miracles is used for a "sign" or symbol, as the feeding of the five thousand in which Jesus appears as the bread or support of life. The great allegories of the Good-Shepherd, the sheep-fold and the vine; the names used to designate Jesus as the Word, Light, the Way, the Truth, the Life, etc., all show how the whole gospel is penetrated with a spirit of symbolic representation.
6. It Is the Gospel of the Incarnation. "Matthew explains his messianic function; Mark his active works and Luke his character as Savior." John magnifies his person and everywhere makes us see "the word made flesh." God is at no great distance form us. He has become flesh. The word has come as the Incarnate Man. Jesus, this Incarnate Man, is God and as such fills the whole book, but he, nevertheless, hungers and thirsts and knows human experience. God has come down to man to enable him to rise up to God.
Subject: Jesus, the Christ, God's Son.
I. The Testimony of His Great Public Ministry, 1:19-12 end.
II. The Testimony of His Private Ministry with His Disciples, Chs. 13-17.
III. The Testimony of His Passion. Chs. 18-19.
IV. The Testimony of His Resurrection and Manifestation, Chs. 20-21.
For Study and Discussion.
(1) The events and discourses connected with each feast mentioned above. (2) The seven lines of testimony mentioned above. List examples of each. (3) The following miracles as "signs," pointing out what they symbolize about Jesus: (a) The Cana miracle, 2:1-11; (b) The nobleman's son, 4:48-54; (c) The impotent man, 5:1-16; (d) Feeding five thousand, 6:3-14; (e) Walking on the sea, 6:16-20; (f) Healing the blind man, 9:1-16; read all the chapter; (g) Raising Lazarus, Ch. 11; (h) The draft of fishes, 21:1-11. (4) The following discourses: (a) The conversation with Nicodemus, Ch. 3; (b) The conversation with the woman at the well, Ch. 4; (c) The discourse on the shepherd and the sheep, Ch. 10; (d) The discussions of chapter 13; (e) The discourse on the vine, Ch. 15; (f) The Lord's prayer, Ch. 17. (5) From the following passages find the cause or explanation of unbelief, 1:45; 3:11, 19, 20; 5:16, 40, 42, 44; 6:42, 52; 7:41, 42, 48; 8:13, 14, 45; 12:26, 44; 20:9. (6) From the following study the results of unbelief, 3:18, 20, 36; 4:13, 14; 6:35, 53, 58; 8:19, 34, 55; 14:1, 28; 15:5; 16:6, 9. (7) Make a list of all the night scenes of the book and study them. (8) Study each instance of someone worshiping Jesus. (9) Name each chapter of the book so as to indicate some important event in it-as the vine chapter or Good Shepherd chapter. (10) Find where and how many times each of the following words and phrases occurs and study them as time will admit. (1) Eternal life, 17 times, only 18 in all the other gospels, (2) believe, (3) believe on, (4) sent, (5) life, (6) sign or signs (Revised version), (7) work or works, (8) John the Baptist, (9) verily, always double and used by Jesus, (10) receive, received, etc., (11) witness, or testify, testimony, etc.. (12) truth, (13) manifest, manifested, (14) "I am" (spoken by Jesus).
For the Outline Study of the Bible by Books by J.B. TIDELL, A.M., D.D. Professor of Biblical Literature in Baylor University, Waco, Texas
1916 BAYLOR UNIVERSITY PRESS Waco, Texas
ChaptersJohn 1. In the beginning was the Word; The Testimony of John; Jesus calls Simon and Andrew, Philip and Nathanael
1. The divinity, humanity, office, and incarnation of Jesus Christ.
15. The testimony of John.
39. The calling of Simon and Andrew, Philip and Nathanael
John 2. Wedding at Cana; Jesus Clears the Temple
1. Jesus turns water into wine;
12. departs into Capernaum,
13. and to Jerusalem,
14. where he purges the temple of buyers and sellers.
18. He foretells his death and resurrection.
23. Many believe because of his miracles, but he will not trust himself with them.
John 3. Jesus Teaches Nicodemus: You Must be Born Again; John's Testimony about Jesus
1. Jesus teaches Nicodemus the necessity of being born again,
14. of faith in his death,
16. the great love of God toward the world,
18. and the condemnation for unbelief.
22. Jesus baptizes in Judea.
23. The baptism, witness, and doctrine of John concerning Jesus.
John 4. Jesus Testifies to the Samaritan Woman and Townspeople, Heals an Official's Son
1. Jesus talks with a woman of Samaria, and reveals his identity to her.
27. His disciples marvel.
31. He declares to them his zeal for God's glory.
39. Many Samaritans believe on him.
43. He departs into Galilee, and heals the ruler's son that lay sick at Capernaum.
John 5. The Pool of Bethesda; Testimony about Christ
1. Jesus on the Sabbath day cures him who was diseased thirty-eight years.
10. The Jews therefore object, and persecute him for it.
17. He answers for himself, and reproves them, showing by the testimony of his Father,
31. of John,
36. of his works,
39. and of the Scriptures, who he is.
John 6. Jesus Feeds Five Thousand, Walks on Water; "I am the Resurrection"; Many Desert Jesus; Peter Confesses Christ
1. Jesus feeds five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes.
15. Thereupon the people would have made him king;
16. but withdrawing himself, he walks on the sea to his disciples;
26. reproves the people flocking after him, and all the fleshly hearers of his word;
32. declares himself to be the bread of life to believers.
66. Many disciples depart from him.
68. Peter confesses him.
70. Judas is a devil.
John 7. Jesus Teaches at the Feast of Tabernacles; Diverse Opinions of Him among the People
1. Jesus reproves the ambition and boldness of his kinsmen;
10. goes up from Galilee to the feast of tabernacles;
14. teaches in the temple.
40. Various opinions of him among the people.
45. The Pharisees are angry that their officers took him not,
50. and chide with Nicodemus for taking his side.
John 8. The Woman Caught in Adultery; Jesus the Light of the World; The truth will set you free
1. Jesus delivers the woman taken in adultery.
12. He declares himself the light of the world, and justifies his doctrine;
31. promises freedom to those who believe;
33. answers the Jews who boasted of Abraham;
48. answers their reviling, by showing his authority and dignity;
59. and slips away from those who would stone him.
John 9. Jesus Heals a Blind Man; Pharisees Question His Authority; Jesus Affirms He Is the Son of God
1. The man born blind is restored to sight.
8. He is brought to the Pharisees.
13. They are offended at it;
35. but he is received of Jesus, and confesses him.
39. Who they are whom Jesus enlightens.
John 10. Parable of the Good Shepherd; Belief and Unbelief of the Jews
1. Jesus is the door, and the good shepherd.
19. Diverse opinions of him.
23. He proves by his works that he is Jesus the Son of God;
31. escapes the Jews;
39. and goes again beyond Jordan, where many believe on him.
John 11. Jesus Comforts Martha and Mary, Raises Lazarus; The Plot to Kill Jesus
1. Jesus raises Lazarus, four days buried.
45. Many Jews believe.
47. The high priests and Pharisees gather a council against Jesus.
49. Caiaphas prophesies.
54. Jesus hides himself.
55. At the Passover they enquire after him, and lay wait for him.
John 12. Jesus Anointed at Bethany; Enters Jerusalem; Sought by Greeks; Foretells His Death
1. Jesus excuses Mary anointing his feet.
9. The people flock to see Lazarus.
10. The chief priests consult to kill him.
12. Jesus rides into Jerusalem.
20. Greeks desire to see Jesus.
23. He foretells his death.
37. The people are generally blinded;
42. yet many chief rulers believe, but do not confess him;
44. therefore Jesus calls earnestly for confession of faith.
John 13. Jesus Washes His Disciples' Feet, Predicts His Betrayal and Peter's Denial
1. Jesus washes the disciples' feet, and exhorts them to humility and charity.
18. He foretells and discovers to John by a token, that Judas should betray him;
31. commands them to love one another;
36. and forewarns Peter of his denials.
John 14. Jesus Comforts His Disciples; "I am the way, the truth, and the life"; The Promise of the Holy Spirit
1. Jesus comforts his disciples with the hope of heaven;
5. professes himself the way, the truth, and the life, and one with the Father;
13. assures their prayers to be effectual;
15. requires obedience;
16. promises the Comforter;
27. and leaves his peace with them.
John 15. I am the vine and you are the Branches; If the world hates you remember it hated me first
1. The union of Jesus and his members shown under the parable of a vine.
18. The hatred of the world.
26. The office of the Holy Spirit.
John 16. Jesus Promises the Holy Spirit, Foretells His Death and Resurrection
1. Jesus comforts his disciples by the promise of the Holy Spirit, and his ascension;
23. assures their prayers made in his name to be acceptable.
33. Peace in Jesus, and in the world affliction.
John 17. Jesus Prays for Himself, His Disciples and all Believers
1. Jesus prays to his Father.
John 18. Judas Betrays Jesus; Peter Denies Him; Jesus Questioned by Annas and Pilate
1. Judas betrays Jesus.
6. The officers fall to the ground.
10. Peter cuts off Malchus' ear.
12. Jesus is taken, and led unto Annas and Caiaphas.
15. Peter's denial.
19. Jesus examined before Caiaphas.
25. Peter's second and third denial.
28. Jesus arraigned before Pilate.
36. His kingdom.
40. The Jews prefer Barabbas.
John 19. The Crown of Thorns; Jesus' Crucifixion and Burial
1. Jesus is scourged, crowned with thorns, and beaten.
4. Pilate is desirous to release him,
15. but being overcome with the outrage of the crowd, he delivers him to be crucified.
23. They cast lots for his garments.
25. He commends his mother to John.
28. He dies.
31. His side is pierced.
38. He is buried by Joseph and Nicodemus.
John 20. The Empty Tomb; Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene, His Disciples and Thomas
1. Mary comes to the tomb;
3. so do Peter and John, ignorant of the resurrection.
11. Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene,
19. and to his disciples.
24. The incredulity and confession of Thomas.
30. The Scripture is sufficient to salvation.
John 21. The Miraculous Catch at the Sea of Galilee; "Feed my Sheep"
1. Jesus appearing again to his disciples is known of them by the great catch of fish.
12. He dines with them;
15. earnestly commands Peter to feed his lambs and sheep;
18. foretells him of his death;
22. rebukes his curiosity.
24. The conclusion.