John 19:17
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Carrying his own cross, he went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha).

New Living Translation
Carrying the cross by himself, he went to the place called Place of the Skull (in Hebrew, [Golgotha]).

English Standard Version
and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called The Place of a Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha.

Berean Study Bible
Carrying His own cross, He went out to The Place of the Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha.

Berean Literal Bible
And bearing His own cross, He went out to the place called the Place of the Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha,

New American Standard Bible
They took Jesus, therefore, and He went out, bearing His own cross, to the place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha.

King James Bible
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Carrying His own cross, He went out to what is called Skull Place, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.

International Standard Version
Carrying the cross all by himself, he went out to what is called The Place of a Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.

NET Bible
and carrying his own cross he went out to the place called "The Place of the Skull" (called in Aramaic Golgotha).

New Heart English Bible
He went out, carrying the cross himself, to the place called "The Place of a Skull," which is called in Hebrew, "Golgotha,"

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Then he took up his cross to the place called Qaraqpatha, but in Judean Aramaic it is called Gagultha,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He carried his own cross and went out [of the city] to a location called The Skull. (In Hebrew this place is called [Golgotha].)

New American Standard 1977
They took Jesus therefore, and He went out, bearing His own cross, to the place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And he, bearing his cross {Gr. stauros – stake}, went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha,

King James 2000 Bible
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha:

American King James Version
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

American Standard Version
They took Jesus therefore: and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And bearing his own cross, he went forth to that place which is called Calvary, but in Hebrew Golgotha.

Darby Bible Translation
And he went out, bearing his cross, to the place called [place] of a skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha;

English Revised Version
They took Jesus therefore: and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha:

Webster's Bible Translation
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha:

Weymouth New Testament
and He went out carrying His own cross, to the place called Skull-place--or, in Hebrew, Golgotha--

World English Bible
He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called "The Place of a Skull," which is called in Hebrew, "Golgotha,"

Young's Literal Translation
and bearing his cross, he went forth to the place called Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha;
Study Bible
The Crucifixion
16Then Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified, and the soldiers took Him away. 17Carrying His own cross, He went out to The Place of the Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha. 18There they crucified Him, and with Him two others, one on each side, with Jesus in the middle.…
Cross References
Genesis 22:6
Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So the two of them walked on together.

Matthew 27:32
Along the way they found a man from Cyrene, named Simon, and they forced him to carry the cross of Jesus.

Matthew 27:33
And when they came to a place called Golgotha, which means The Place of the Skull,

Mark 15:21
Now Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, was passing by on his way in from the country, and the soldiers forced him to carry the cross of Jesus.

Mark 15:22
They brought Jesus to a place called Golgotha, which means The Place of the Skull.

Luke 14:27
And whoever does not carry his cross and follow Me cannot be My disciple.

Luke 23:26
As the soldiers led Him away, they seized Simon of Cyrene on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him to carry behind Jesus.

Luke 23:33
When they came to the place called The Skull, they crucified Him there, along with the criminals, one on His right and the other on His left.

John 5:2
Now there is in Jerusalem near the Sheep Gate a pool with five covered colonnades, which in Aramaic is called Bethesda.

John 19:13
When Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat on the judgment seat at a place called the Stone Pavement, which in Aramaic is Gabbatha.
Treasury of Scripture

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

he.

Matthew 10:38 And he that takes not his cross, and follows after me, is not worthy of me.

Matthew 16:24 Then said Jesus to his disciples, If any man will come after me, …

Matthew 27:31-33 And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, …

Mark 8:34 And when he had called the people to him with his disciples also, …

Mark 10:21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said to him, One thing you …

Mark 15:21,22 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of …

Luke 9:23 And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny …

Luke 14:27 And whoever does not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.

Luke 23:26,33 And as they led him away, they laid hold on one Simon, a Cyrenian, …

went.

Leviticus 16:21,22 And Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, …

Leviticus 24:14 Bring forth him that has cursed without the camp; and let all that …

Numbers 15:35,36 And the LORD said to Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: …

1 Kings 21:13 And there came in two men, children of Belial, and sat before him: …

Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there …

Acts 7:58 And cast him out of the city, and stoned him: and the witnesses laid …

Hebrews 13:11-13 For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary …

Golgotha. Golgotha, of which [kranion] and Calvaria are merely translations, is supposed to have been a hill, or a rising on a greater hill, on the north-west of Jerusalem.

Matthew 27:33,34 And when they were come to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, …

Mark 15:21,22 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of …

Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there …

(17) For the way of the cross, comp. Matthew 27:31-34; Mark 15:20-23; Luke 23:26-33. For the present passage, comp. especially Note on the parallel words in Matthew 27:33.

Verses 17-24. -

(4) THE CRUCIFIXION. Love unto the uttermost. Verses 17, 18. - (a) The circumstances of the death. Verse 17. - Therefore they took (received) Jesus from the hands of the Gentile, leading the way in their accursed procession, gloating over their Victim. Παρέλαβον reminds us (Westcott) of the παρέλαβον, (John 1:11), where it is said, "His own received him not." They did not receive him in the fullness of his grace, but they did receive him to inflict the curse and shame and death for which they had plotted and clamored. This powerful suggestion is brought out by the amended text. At this point, when the sacred Sufferer left the Praetorium and was dragged into the rush of the vociferating crowd, the synoptic narrative becomes far fuller in detail. The terrible tragedy in-eludes the disrobing. The bleeding form is once more clothed with his own garments (Matthew 27:31; Mark 15:20). It is not necessary to suppose a second scourging (see ver. 1). The circumstance mentioned (Luke 23:26 and parallel passages) of Simon of Cyrene made to bear his cross after him, shows how Jesus in his human nature had suffered already. A second scourging (if we judge by all we can gather of such an infliction) would have been followed by immediate death, and would thus have snatched from them the realization of their inhuman purpose. The statement that, bearing his cross for himself, he went forth, shows that they tried to force him thus in his agony to endure this additional humiliation, and, from his physical exhaustion, were compelled to make use of the expedient described by the synoptists. Mark (Mark 15:22) introduces another most suggestive word, φέρουσιν αὐτὸν, literally, "they carry him" from the place where they compelled (ἀγγαρεύουσιον) Simon to take up his cross, and at least he hints, if he does not express, the terrible fact that they had, by their fell cruelty of all kinds, at length exhausted all the human physical strength of the Sufferer. John's language, though at first sight discrepant with Luke's, really explains it. Luke also describes the wailing of the daughters of Jerusalem, and the sublime self-forgetfulness with which Jesus turned their thoughts from his agony to themselves and their children. Matthew and Mark both relate another scene, which seems as if one gleam of pity had crossed some heart - "They offered him wine, mixed with narcotic gall," to stupefy his senses, and lull his physical agony. He did not put it by "with suicidal hand;" but, as Keble sang -

"Thou wilt feel all, that thou mayst pity all;
And rather wouldst thou wrestle with strong pain
Than overcloud thy soul,
So clear in agony,
Or lose no glimpse of heaven before the time."


(Christian Year.') He went forth to a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha. "He went forth" from the Praetorium along the Via Dolorosa, wheresoever it was, beyond the city wall (Hebrews 13:12, etc., "He suffered without the gate"). Moses had forbidden (Leviticus 24:14; Numbers 15:35) capital punishment within the camp (cf. 1 Kings 21:13; Acts 7:58). The traditional site of the place is far within the present walls in the north-western quarter of the city, not far from the gate of Damascus; and endless discussions have prevailed with respect to the line of the second city wall, which at that time must either have included or excluded the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The identification of the site of Golgotha is rendered difficult from the eagerness with which theories have been sustained.

(1) Ferguson's theory is that Constantine's" Church of the Resurrection" is to be found in the 'dome of the rock' in the temple enclosure! He urges that the tradition was moved thence to the "Church of the Holy Sepulcher" in the eleventh century, when Fatimite kaliphs drove the Christians away, and persecuted the pilgrims to such an extent as to produce the reaction of the Crusades.

(2) The ecclesiastical theory is that the tomb and all the awful and blessed associations are to be reckoned for somewhere within the buildings or ruins of the present church. The difficulties are great; for, instead of being "without the gate," or "nigh the city," it is situated in the heart of the present city, and it is very difficult to imagine or trace any line of wall which could have run in such a way as to exclude the supposed site of the tomb from the city.

(3) A modern theory (see 'Survey of Palestine') finds the tomb in the immediate vicinity of Jeremiah's grotto, to the north of the Damascus gate. This site has good claims, from the probability

(a) that it was the place of public execution;

(b) that the second wall of the city did correspond with the present wall;

(c) that there are reasons to think that it was built over and concealed from view until comparatively recent years.

Warren and Conder give a drawing of the tomb and its arrangement, which sustains the probability that it is the tomb once hallowed by the most stupendous event in the history of the world. Robinson said, "The place was probably upon a great road leading from one of the gates, and such a spot would only be found upon the west or north side of the city, on the roads leading to Joppa or Damascus." The word "Gulgotha" or "Gulgaltha" is the Aramaic (cf. Syriac Gagulta) form of Gulgolath, Hebrew for "skull," and may derive its name from the form of the mound or bare place where was the garden in which the rock-hewn tomb of Joseph had been excavated. The Vulgate translates the word Calvaria, a skull, from which our word "Calvary" is derived. The English version in Luke 23:33 thus translates the Greek word κρανίον, and from this passage the word has been naturalized in our language. There is no authority for the appellation "Mount Calvary." The name probably refers to the shape of the site where the event took place. From this verse we learn that Jesus went forth to the spot, and (John 19:20) John further says it was "nigh unto the city," therefore not within it. The same position relative to the city is obvious from Matthew 28:11, where the Roman guard came from the tomb εἰς τὴν πόλιν. The Romans were accustomed to execute their criminals in some conspicuous position, adjoining a traveled road, so that those passing by, as well as those who congregated for the purpose, might know and learn its meaning. They reached the chosen spot - And he bearing his cross,.... Which was usual for malefactors to do, as Lipsius (i) shows out of Artemidorus, and Plutarch; the former says,

"the cross is like to death, and he that is to be fixed to it, first bears it;''

and the latter says,

"and everyone of the malefactors that are punished in body, "carries out his own cross".''

So Christ, when he first went out to be crucified, carried his cross himself, until the Jews, meeting with Simon the Cyrenian, obliged him to bear it after him; that is, one part of it; for still Christ continued to bear a part himself: of this Isaac was a type, in carrying the wood on his shoulders for the burnt offering; and this showed that Christ was made sin, and a curse for us, and that our sins, and the punishment which belonged to us, were laid on him, and bore by him; and in this he has left us an example to go forth without the camp, bearing his reproach:

went forth in a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha: and signifies a man's skull: it seems, that as they executed malefactors here, so they buried them here; and in process of time, their bones being dug up to make room for others, their skulls, with other bones, lay up and down in this place; from whence it had its name in the Syriac dialect, which the Jews then usually spake: here some say Adam's skull was found, and that it had its name from thence. This was an ancient tradition, as has been observed in the notes on See Gill on Matthew 27:33, and See Gill on Luke 23:33 the Syriac writers have it (k), who say,

"when Noah went out of the ark there was made a distribution of the bones of Adam; to Shem, his head was given, and the place in which he was buried is called "Karkaphta": where likewise Christ was crucified;''

which word signifies a skull, as Golgotha does: and so likewise the Arabic writers (l); who affirm that Shem said these words to Melchizedek,

"Noah commanded that thou shouldst take the body of Adam, and bury it in the middle of the earth; therefore let us go, I and thou, and bury it; wherefore Shem and Melchizedek went to take the body of Adam, and the angel of the Lord appeared to them and went before them, till they came to the place Calvary, where they buried him, as the angel of the Lord commanded them:''

the same also had the ancient fathers of the Christian church; Cyprian (m) says, that it is a tradition of the ancients, that Adam was buried in Calvary under the place where the cross of Christ was fixed; and Jerom makes mention of it more than once; so Paula and Eustochium, in an epistle supposed to be dictated by him, or in which he was assisting, say (n), in this city, meaning Jerusalem, yea in this place, Adam is said to dwell, and to die; from whence the place where our Lord was crucified is called Calvary, because there the skull of the ancient man was buried: and in another place he himself says (o), that he heard one disputing in the church and explaining, Ephesians 5:14 of Adam buried in Calvary, where the Lord was crucified, and therefore was so called. Ambrose (p) also takes notice of it; the place of the cross, says he, is either in the midst of the land, that it might be conspicuous to all, or over the grave of Adam, as the Hebrews dispute: others say that the hill itself was in the form of a man's skull, and therefore was so called; it was situated, as Jerom says (q), on the north of Mount Zion, and is thought by some to be the same with the hill Gareb, in Jeremiah 31:39. It was usual to crucify on high hills, so Polycrates was crucified upon the highest top of Mount Mycale (r).

(i) De Cruce, l. 2. c. 5. p. 76. (k) Bar Bahluli apud Castel. Lexic. Polyglot. col. 3466. (l) Elmacinus, p. 13. Patricides, p. 12. apud Hottinger. Smegma Oriental. l. 1. c. 8. p. 257. (m) De Resurrectione Christi, p. 479. (n) Epist. Marcellae, fol. 42. L. Tom. I.((o) Comment. in Eph. v. 14. (p) Comment. in Luc. xx. 33. (q) De locis Hebraicis, fol. 92. F. (r) Valer. Maxim. l. 6. c. ult. Joh 19:17-30. Crucifixion and Death of the Lord Jesus.

17. And he bearing his cross—(See on [1908]Lu 23:26).

went forth—Compare Heb 13:11-13, "without the camp"; "without the gate." On arriving at the place, "they gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall [wine mingled with myrrh, Mr 15:23], and when He had tasted thereof, He would not drink" (Mt 27:34). This potion was stupefying, and given to criminals just before execution, to deaden the sense of pain.

Fill high the bowl, and spice it well, and pour

The dews oblivious: for the Cross is sharp,

The Cross is sharp, and He

Is tenderer than a lamb.

Keble.

But our Lord would die with every faculty clear, and in full sensibility to all His sufferings.

Thou wilt feel all, that Thou may'st pity all;

And rather would'st Thou wrestle with strong pain

Than overcloud Thy soul,

So clear in agony,

Or lose one glimpse of Heaven before the time,

O most entire and perfect Sacrifice,

Renewed in every pulse.

Keble.19:1-18 Little did Pilate think with what holy regard these sufferings of Christ would, in after-ages, be thought upon and spoken of by the best and greatest of men. Our Lord Jesus came forth, willing to be exposed to their scorn. It is good for every one with faith, to behold Christ Jesus in his sufferings. Behold him, and love him; be still looking unto Jesus. Did their hatred sharpen their endeavours against him? and shall not our love for him quicken our endeavours for him and his kingdom? Pilate seems to have thought that Jesus might be some person above the common order. Even natural conscience makes men afraid of being found fighting against God. As our Lord suffered for the sins both of Jews and Gentiles, it was a special part of the counsel of Divine Wisdom, that the Jews should first purpose his death, and the Gentiles carry that purpose into effect. Had not Christ been thus rejected of men, we had been for ever rejected of God. Now was the Son of man delivered into the hands of wicked and unreasonable men. He was led forth for us, that we might escape. He was nailed to the cross, as a Sacrifice bound to the altar. The Scripture was fulfilled; he did not die at the altar among the sacrifices, but among criminals sacrificed to public justice. And now let us pause, and with faith look upon Jesus. Was ever sorrow like unto his sorrow? See him bleeding, see him dying, see him and love him! love him, and live to him!
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