David
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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
David

well-beloved, dear

Smith's Bible Dictionary
David

(well-beloved), the son of Jesse. His life may be divided into three portions:

  1. His youth before his introduction to the court of Saul;
  2. His relations with Saul;
  3. His reign.
  4. The early life of David contains in many important respects the antecedents of his future career. It appears that David was the youngest son, probably the youngest child, of a family of ten, and was born in Bethlehem B.C. 1085. The first time that David appears in history at once admits us to the whole family circle. The annual sacrificial feast is being held when Samuel appears, sent by God to anoint one of Jesse's sons as they pass before him, (1 Samuel 16:6-10) Samuel sends for the youngest, David, who was "keeping the sheep," and anoints him. (1 Samuel 16:11-13) As David stood before Samuel we are enabled to fix his appearance at once in our minds. He was of short stature, with red or auburn hair, such as is not unfrequently seen in his countrymen of the East at the present day. In later life he wore a beard. His bright eyes are specially mentioned, (1 Samuel 16:12) and generally he was remarkable for the grace of his figure and countenance ("fair of eyes," "comely," "goodly,") (1 Samuel 16:12,18; 17:42) well made and of immense strength and agility. His swiftness and activity made him like a wild gazelle, his feet like hart's feet, and his arms strong enough to break a bow of steel. (Psalms 18:33,34) After the anointing David resumes his accustomed duties, and the next we know of him he is summoned to the court to chase away the king's madness by music, (1 Samuel 16:14-19) and in the successful effort of David's harp we have the first glimpse into that genius for music and poetry which was afterwards consecrated in the Psalms. After this he returned to the old shepherd life again. One incident alone of his solitary shepherd life has come down to us --his conflict with the lion and the bear in defence of his father's flocks. (1 Samuel 17:34,35) It was some years after this that David suddenly appears before his brothers in the camp of the army, and hears the defiant challenge of the Philistine giant Goliath. With his shepherd's sling and five small pebbles he goes forth and defeats the giant. (1 Samuel 17:40-51)
  5. Relations with Saul. --We now enter on a new aspect of David's life. The victory over Goliath had been a turning point of his career. Saul inquired his parentage, and took him finally to his court. Jonathan was inspired by the romantic friendship which bound the two youths together to the end of their lives. Unfortunately David's fame proved the foundation of that unhappy jealousy of Saul towards him which, mingling with the king's constitutional malady, poisoned his whole future relations to David. His position in Saul's court seems to have been first armor-bearer, (1 Samuel 16:21; 18:2) then captain over a thousand, (1 Samuel 18:13) and finally, on his marriage with Michal, the king's second daughter, he was raised to the high office of captain of the king's body-guard, second only, if not equal, to Abner, the captain of the host, and Jonathan, the heir apparent. David was not chiefly known for his successful exploits against the Philistines, by one of which he won his wife, and rove back the Philistine power with a blow from which it only rallied at the disastrous close of Saul's reign. He also still performed from time to time the office of minstrel; but the successive attempts of Saul upon his life convinced him that he was in constant danger. He had two faithful allies, however, in the court --the son of Saul, his friend Jonathan, and the daughter of Saul, his wife Michal. Warned by the one and assisted by the other, he escaped by night, and was from thenceforward a fugitive. He at first found a home at the court of Achish, among the Philistines; but his stay was short. Discovered possibly by "the sword of Goliath," his presence revived the national enmity of the Philistines against their former conqueror, and he only escaped by feigning madness. (1 Samuel 21:13) His first retreat was the cave of Adullam. In this vicinity he was joined by his whole family, (1 Samuel 22:1) and by a motley crowd of debtors and discontented men, (1 Samuel 22:2) which formed the nucleus of his army. David's life for the next few years was made up of a succession of startling incidents. He secures an important ally in Abiathar, (1 Samuel 23:6) his band of 400 at Adullam soon increased to 600, (1 Samuel 23:13) he is hunted by Saul from place to place like a partridge. (1 Samuel 23:14,22,25-29; 24:1-22; 26) He marries Abigail and Ahinoam. (1 Samuel 25:42,43) Finally comes the new of the battle of Gilboa and the death of Saul and Jonathan. 1Sam 31. The reception of the tidings of the death of his rival and of his friend, the solemn mourning, the vent of his indignation against the bearer of the message, the pathetic lamentation that followed, will close the second period of David's life. (2 Samuel 1:1-27)
  6. David's reign. --
  7. As king of Judah at Hebron, 7 1/2 years. (2 Samuel 2:1; 2 Samuel 5:5) Here David was first formally anointed king. (2 Samuel 2:4) To Judah his dominion was nominally confined. Gradually his power increased, and during the two years which followed the elevation of Ish-bosheth a series of skirmishes took place between the two kingdoms. Then rapidly followed the successive murders of Abner and of Ish-bosheth. (2 Samuel 3:30; 4:5) The throne, so long waiting for him, was now vacant, and the united voice of the whole people at once called him to occupy it. For the third time David was anointed king, and a festival of three days celebrated the joyful event. (1 Chronicles 12:39) One of David's first acts after becoming king was to secure Jerusalem, which he seized from the Jebusites and fixed the royal residence there. Fortifications were added by the king and by Joab, and it was known by the special name of the "city of David." (2 Samuel 5:9; 1 Chronicles 11:7) The ark was now removed from its obscurity at Kirjath-jearim with marked solemnity, and conveyed to Jerusalem. The erection of the new capital at Jerusalem introduces us to a new era in David's life and in the history of the monarchy. He became a king on the scale of the great Oriental sovereigns of Egypt and Persia, with a regular administration and organization of court and camp; and he also founded an imperial dominion which for the first time realize the prophetic description of the bounds of the chosen people. (Genesis 15:18-21) During the succeeding ten years the nations bordering on his kingdom caused David more or less trouble, but during this time he reduced to a state of permanent subjection the Philistines on the west, (2 Samuel 8:1) the Moabites on the east, (2 Samuel 8:2) by the exploits of Benaiah, (2 Samuel 23:20) the Syrians on the northeast as far as the Euphrates, (2 Samuel 8:3) the Edomites, (2 Samuel 8:14) on the south; and finally the Ammonites, who had broken their ancient alliance, and made one grand resistance to the advance of his empire. (2 Samuel 10:1-19; 12:26-31) Three great calamities may be selected as marking the beginning, middle and close of David's otherwise prosperous reign, which appear to be intimated in the question of Gad, (2 Samuel 24:13) "a three-years famine, a three-months flight or a three-days pestilence." a. Of these the first (the three-years famine) introduces us to the last notices of David's relations with the house of Saul, already referred to. b. The second group of incidents contains the tragedy of David's life, which grew in all its parts out of the polygamy, with its evil consequences, into which he had plunged on becoming king. Underneath the splendor of his last glorious campaign against the Ammonites was a dark story, known probably at that time only to a very few --the double crime of adultery with Bath-sheba and the virtual murder of Uriah. The clouds from this time gathered over David's fortunes, and henceforward "the sword never departed from his house." (2 Samuel 12:10) The outrage on his daughter Tamar, the murder of his eldest son Amnon, and then the revolt of his best-beloved Absalom, brought on the crisis which once more sent him forth as wanderer, as in the days when he fled from Saul. (2 Samuel 15:18) The final battle of Absalom's rebellion was fought in the "forest of Ephraim," and terminated in the accident which led to the young man's death; and, though nearly heartbroken at the loss of his son, David again reigned in undisturbed peace at Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 20:1-22) c. The closing period of David's life, with the exception of one great calamity, may be considered as a gradual preparation for the reign of his successor. This calamity was the three-days pestilence which visited Jerusalem at the warning of the prophet Gad. The occasion which led to this warning was the census of the people taken by Joab at the king's orders, (2 Samuel 24:1-9; 1 Chronicles 21:1-7; 27:23,24) which was for some reason sinful in God's sight. 2Sam 24. A formidable conspiracy to interrupt the succession broke out in the last days of David's reign; but the plot was stifled, and Solomon's inauguration took place under his father's auspices. (1 Kings 1:1-53) By this time David's infirmities had grown upon him. His last song is preserved --a striking union of the ideal of a just ruler which he had placed before him and of the difficulties which he had felt in realizing it. (2 Samuel 23:1-7) His last words to his successor are general exhortations to his duty. (1 Kings 2:1-9) He died, according to Josephus, at the age of 70, and "was buried in the city of David." After the return from the captivity, "the sepulchres of David" were still pointed out "between Siloah and the house of the mighty men," or "the guard-house." (Nehemiah 3:16) His tomb, which became the general sepulchre of the kings of Judah, was pointed out in the latest times of the Jewish people. The edifice shown as such from the Crusades to the present day is on the southern hill of modern Jerusalem commonly called Mount Zion, under the so-called "Coenaculum;" but it cannot be identified with the tomb of David, which was emphatically within the walls.
ATS Bible Dictionary
David

Beloved, the youngest son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, born in Bethlehem B. C. 1085; one of the most remarkable men in either sacred of secular history. His life is fully recorded in 1 Samuel 16:1 1 Kings 2:46. He was "the Lord's anointed," chosen by God to be king of Israel instead of Saul, and consecrated to that office by the venerable prophet Samuel long before he actually came to the throne, 1 Samuel 16:1-13, for which God prepared him by the gift of his Spirit, and a long course of vicissitudes and dangers. In his early pastoral life he distinguished himself by his boldness, fidelity, and faith in God; and while yet a youth was summoned to court, as one expert in music, valiant, prudent in behavior, and comely in person. He succeeded in relieving from time to time the mind of king Saul, oppressed by a spirit of melancholy and remorse, and became a favorite attendant; but on the breaking out of war with the Philistines he seems to have been released, and to have returned to take care of his father's flock. Providence soon led him to visit the camp, and gave to his noble valor and faith the victory over the giant champion Goliath. He returned to court crowned with honor, received a command in the army, acquitted himself well on all occasions, and rapidly gained the confidence and love of the people. The jealousy of Saul, however, at length drove him to seek refuge in the wilderness of Judea; where he soon gathered a band of six hundred men, whom he kept in perfect control and employed only against the enemies of the land. He was still pursued by Saul with implacable hostility; and as he would not lift his hand against his king, though he often had him in his power, he at length judged it best to retire into the land of the Philistines. Here he was generously received; but had found the difficulties of his position such as he could not honorably meet, when the death of Saul and Jonathon opened the way for him to the promised throne.

He was at once chosen king over the house of Judah, at Hebron; and after about seven years of hostilities was unanimously chosen king by all the tribes of Israel, and established himself at Jerusalem-the founder of a royal family which continued till the downfall of the Jewish state. His character as a monarch is remarkable for fidelity to God, and to the great purposes for which he was called to so responsible a position. The ark of God he conveyed to the Holy City with the highest demonstrations of honor and of joy. The ordinances of worship were remodeled and provided for with the greatest care. He administered justice to the people with impartiality, and gave a strong impulse to the general prosperity of the nation. His wisdom and energy consolidated the Jewish kingdom; and his warlike skill enabled him not only to resist with success the assaults of invaders, but to extend the bounds of the kingdom over the whole territory promised in prophecy-from the Red sea and Egypt to the Euphrates, Genesis 15:18 Joshua 1:3. With the spoils he took in war he enriched his people, and provided abundant materials for the magnificent temple he purposed to build in honor of Jehovah, but which it was Solomon a privilege to erect.

David did not wholly escape the demoralizing influences of prosperity and unrestricted power. His temptations were numerous and strong; and though his general course was in striking contrast with that of the kings around him, he fell into grievous sins. Like others in those days, he had embittered by the evil results of polygamy. His crimes in the case of Uriah and Bathsheba were heinous indeed; but on awaking from his dream of folly, he repented in dust and ashes, meekly submitted to reproof and punishment, and sought and found mercy from God. Thenceforth frequent afflictions reminded him to be humble and self-distrustful. There were discords, profligacy, and murder in his own household. The histories of Tamar, Amnon, and Absalom show what anguish must have rent their father's heart. The rebellions of Absalom, Sheba, and Adonijah, the famine and plague that afflicted his people, the crimes of Joab, etc., led him to cry out, "O that I had wings, like a dove; then would I fly away, and be at rest." Yet his trials bore good fruit. His firmness and decision of character, his humility, nobleness, and piety shine in his last acts, on the occasion of Adonijah's rebellion. His charge to Solomon respecting the forfeited lives of Joab and Shimei, was the voice of justice and not of revenge. His preparations for the building of the temple, and the public service in which he devoted all to Jehovah, and called on all the people to bless the Lord God of their fathers, crown with singular beauty and glory the life of this eminent servant of God. After a reign of forty years, he died at the age of seventy-one.

The mental abilities and acquirements of David were of a high order; his general conduct was marked by generosity, integrity, fortitude, activity, and perseverance; and his religious character eminently adorned by sincere, fervent, and exalted piety. He was statesman, warrior, and poet all in one. In his Psalms he frankly reveals his whole heart. They are inspired poems, containing many prophetic passages, and wonderfully fitted to guide the devotions of the people of God so long as he has a church on earth. Though first sung by Hebrew tongues in the vales of Bethlehem and on the heights of Zion, they sound as sweetly in languages then unknown, and are dear to Christian hearts all around the world. In introducing them into the temple service, David added an important and edification to the former ritual.

In his kingly character, David was a remarkable type of Christ; and his conquests foreshadowed those of Christ's kingdom. His royal race was spiritually revived in the person of our Savior, who was descended from him after the flesh, and who is therefore called "the Son of David," and is said to sit upon his throne.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash of 2 Samuel 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1 Samuel 16:12; 17:42).

His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history, doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock, beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Samuel 17:34, 35).

While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Samuel 16:1-13). There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Samuel 16:13, 14).

Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword (1 Samuel 17). The result was a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron.

David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened Saul's jealousy (1 Samuel 18:6-16), which he showed in various ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various stratagems sought his death (1 Samuel 18-30). The deep-laid plots of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm friendship was formed.

A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to Ramah (1 Samuel 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time. This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward David (1 Samuel 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as he expected that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam (22:1-4; 1 Chronicles 12:8-18). Here in a short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed (2 Samuel 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.

In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David, Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Comp. Psalm 52.

Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1 Samuel 23:1-14); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Comp. Psalm 31. While encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement (23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Samuel 23:29). Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail (1 Samuel 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.

Saul again went forth (1 Samuel 26) in pursuit of David, who had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to the throne.

Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge among the Philistines (1 Samuel 27). He was welcomed by the king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived among his followers for some time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on the south of Judah.

Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Samuel 1). An Amalekite brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet. David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Samuel 1:18-27). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of Jasher" (q.v.).

David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron under divine direction (2 Samuel 2:1-4). There they were cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was now about thirty years of age.

But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies, led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner. Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2 Samuel 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron. Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all Israel (4:1-12).

David king over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:1-5; 1 Chronicles 11:1-3). The elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron, as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim. Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.

David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new capital (2 Samuel 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it home (1 Samuel 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Numbers 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Comp. Psalm 24. Here it was placed in a new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chronicles 16) carefully set in order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."

David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Samuel 8). In a few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway (2 Samuel 8:3-13; 10).

David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery (2 Samuel 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim, the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Samuel 7:1-17; 12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his spiritual recovery.

Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the throne (2 Samuel 12:24, 25).

Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious message (2 Samuel 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving (18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chronicles 22:9; 28:3).

A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Samuel 13). This was the beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom, afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Samuel 14).

After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years' famine (2 Samuel 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Samuel 24), in which no fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.

Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne. Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king. David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:13-20), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Samuel 18:1-8). Absalom's army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab (9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel (19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to death, and so the revolt came to an end.

The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed away. During those years he seems to have been principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his successor to build (1 Chronicles 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent, and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Samuel 23:1-7).

After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Samuel 5:5; 1 Chronicles 3:4) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years, "and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed out on Mount Zion.

Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah (1 Samuel 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the collection. (see PSALMS.)

"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had striven to act justly to all (2 Samuel 8:15). His weak indulgence to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Samuel 5:5). Israel at his accession had reached the lowest point of national depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.

David, City of

(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1 Chronicles 11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem generally (1 Kings 3:1; 8:1), It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over the Tyropoeon valley.

(2) Bethlehem is called the "city of David" (Luke 2:4, 11), because it was David's birth-place and early home (1 Samuel 17:12).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
DAVID

da'-vid (dawidh, or dawidh, "beloved"; Daueid, also in New Testament, Dauid, Dabid; see Thayer's Lexicon):

I. NAME AND GENEALOGY

II. EARLY YEARS

1. Shepherd

2. Slinger

3. Harpist

4. Poet

5. Psalmist

6. Tribesman

III. IN THE SERVICE OF SAUL

1. David First Meets Saul

2. His First Exploit

3. Envy of Saul and Flight of David

4. Jonathan and David

IV. DAVID IN EXILE

1. David as Outlaw

2. David Joins the Philistines

V. DAVID AS KING

1. Civil War

2. Conquests Abroad

3. Political Situation

4. The Ark

VI. DOMESTIC LIFE

1. His Wives and Children

2. Domestic Troubles

VII. HIS OFFICIALS

1. Prophets

2. Priests

3. Military Officers

4. Other Officials

5. Mutual Rivalry

VIII. PERSONAL CHARACTER OF DAVID

1. Chronicles

2. Psalms

3. Complex Character

4. Physical Courage

5. Moral Courage

6. Prudence

7. Strategy

8. Nobility

9. David in Relation to His Family

10. David in Relation to His Friends

11. His Success

12. His Foreign Friends

13. Nemesis

14. References in the New Testament

LITERATURE.

I. Name and Genealogy.

This name, which is written "defectively" in the older books, such as those of Samuel, but fully with the yodh in Chronicles and the later books, is derived, like the similar name Jedidish (2 Samuel 12:25), from a root meaning "to love." The only person who bears this name in the Bible is the son of Jesse, the second king of Israel. His genealogy is given in the table appended to the Book of Ruth (Ruth 4:18-22). Here the following points are to be noted: David belonged to the tribe of Judah: his ancestor Nahshon was chieftain of the whole tribe (Numbers 1:7; Numbers 2:3 1 Chronicles 2:10) and brother-in-law of Aaron the high priest (Exodus 6:23). As no other descendants of Nahshon are mentioned, his authority probably descended to Jesse by right of primogeniture. This supposition is countenanced by the fact that Salma (Salmon), the name of the son of Nahshon and father of Boaz, is also the name of a grandson of Caleb who became "father" of Bethlehem, the home of Jesse (1 Chronicles 2:51). David was closely connected with the tribe of Moab, the mother of his grandfather Obed being Ruth the Moabitess. Of the wife or wives of Jesse we know nothing, and consequently are without information upon a most interesting point-the personality of the mother of David; but that she too may have been of the tribe of Moab is rendered probable by the fact that, when hard pressed, David placed his parents under the protection of the king of that country (1 Samuel 22:3, 1).

II. Early Years.

The home of David when he comes upon the stage of history was the picturesque town of Bethlehem.

1. Shepherd:

There his family had been settled for generations, indeed ever since the Israelite nation had overrun the land of Canaan. His father was apparently not only the chief man of the place, but he seems to have been chieftain of the whole clan to which he belonged-the clan of Judah. Although the country round Bethlehem is more fertile than that in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, the inhabitants joined to the cultivation of the soil the breeding of cattle (Luke 2:8). David's father, not only cultivated his ancestral fields, but kept flocks of sheep and goats as well. The flocks were sent out every day to pasture in the neighboring valleys attended by the herdsmen armed so as to defend themselves and their charge, not only against marauders from the surrounding deserts, but also from the lions and bears with which the country was then infested. David seems to have been in the habit of accompanying his father's servants in their task (1 Samuel 17:20, 22), and on occasion would be left in full charge by himself. Nor was his post at such times a sinecure. He had not only to keep a sharp lookout for thieves, but on more than one occasion had with no other weapon than his shepherd's club or staff to rescue a lamb from the clutches of a lion or a bear (1 Samuel 17:34). Such adventures, however, must have been rare, and David must often have watched eagerly the lengthening of the shadow which told of the approach of sunset, when he could drive his charge into the zariba for the night and return home. There is, indeed, no life more monotonous and enervating than that of an eastern shepherd, but David must have made good use of his idle time. He seems, in fact, to have made such good use of it as to have neglected his handful of sheep. The incidents of which he boasted to Saul would not have occurred, had his proper occupation taken up all his thoughts; but, like King Alfred, his head seems to have been filled with ideas far removed from his humble task.

2. Slinger:

David, like Nelson, does not seem to have known what it was to be afraid, and it was not to be expected that he could be satisfied with the lot of the youngest of eight sons of the now aged chief (1 Samuel 17:12 1 Chronicles 2:13). In the East every man is a soldier, and David's bent was in that direction. The tribesmen of Benjamin near whose border his home was situated were famed through all Israel as slingers, some of whom could sling at a hair and not miss (Judges 20:16). Taught, perhaps, by one of these, but certainly by dint of constant practice, David acquired an accuracy of aim which reminds one of the tales of William Tell or Robin Hood (1 Samuel 17:49).

3. Harpist:

Another of the pastimes in the pursuit of which David spent many an hour of his youthful days was music. The instrument which he used was the "harp" (Hebrew kinnor). This instrument had many forms, which may be seen on the Assyrian and Egyptian monuments; but the kind used by David was probably like the modern Arabic, rubaba, having only one or two strings, played not with a plectrum (Ant., VII, xii, 3) but by the hand (compare 1 Samuel 16:23, etc., which do not exclude a quill). Whatever the nature of the instrument was, David acquired such proficiency in playing it that his fame as a musician soon spread throughout the countryside (1 Samuel 16:18). With the passing of time he becomes the Hebrew Orpheus, in whose music birds and mountains joined (compare Koran, chapter 21).

4. Poet:

To the accompaniment of his lyre David no doubt sang words, either of popular songs or of lyrics of his own composition, in that wailing eastern key which seems to be an imitation of the bleating of flocks. The verses he sang would recount his own adventures or the heroic prowess of the warrior of his clan, or celebrate the loveliness of some maiden of the tribe, or consist of elegies upon those slain in battle. That the name of David was long connected with music the reverse of sacred appears from the fact that Amos denounces the people of luxury of his time for improvising to the sound of the viol, inventing instruments of music, like David (6:5). (It is not clear to which clause "like David" belongs, probably to both.) The only remains of the secular poetry of David which have come down to us are his elegies on Saul and Jonathan and on Abner (2 Samuel 1:19-27; 2 Samuel 3:33, 14), which show him to have been a true poet.

5. Psalmist:

Did David also compose religious verses? Was he "the sweet psalmist of Israel" (2 Samuel 23:1)? In the oldest account which we have, contained in the books of Samuel, David appears as a musician and as a secular poet only, for it is obvious the poetical passages, 2 Samuel 22:1-23:7, do not belong to the original form of that book but are thrust in in the middle of a long list of names of David's soldiers. The position is the same in Amos 6:5. It is in the later books and passages that sacred music and psalms begin to be ascribed to him. Perhaps the earliest instance is the passage just cited containing the "last words" of David (2 Samuel 23:1-7). The Chronicler (about 300 B.C.) seems to put parts of Psalms 105; 96, and 106 into the mouth of David (1 Chronicles 16:7), and Nehemiah 12:36 regards him apparently as the inventor of the instruments used in the Temple service (1 Chronicles 23:5), or as a player of sacred music. So too in the Septuagint psalter (Psalm 150:2) we read, "My hands made an organ, my fingers fashioned a psaltery"; and gradually the whole of the Psalms came to be ascribed to David as author. In regard to this question it must be remembered that in the East at any rate there is no such distinction as that of sacred and secular. By sacred poetry we mean poetry which mentions the name of God or quotes Scripture, but the Hebrew or Arab poet will use the name of God as an accompaniment to a dance, and will freely sprinkle even comic poetry with citations from his sacred book. David must have composed sacred poems if he composed at all, and he would use his musical gift for the purposes of religion as readily as for those of amusement and pleasure (2 Samuel 6:14, 15). Whether any of our psalms was composed by David is another question. The titles cannot be considered as conclusive evidence, and internal proofs of his authorship are wanting. Indeed the only psalm which claims to have been written by David is the 18th (= 2 Samuel 22). One cannot help wishing that the 23rd Psalm had been sung by the little herd lad as he watched his father's flocks and guarded them from danger.

6. Tribesman:

There are sayings of Mohammed that the happiest life is that of the shepherd, and that no one became a prophet who had not at one time tended a flock of sheep. What Mohammed meant was that the shepherd enjoys leisure and solitude for reflection and for plunging into those day dreams out of which prophets are made. If David, like the Arab poet Tarafa, indulged in sport, in music and in poetry, even to the neglect of his charge, he must have sought out themes on which to exercise his muse; and it must have been with no little chagrin that he learnt that whereas the tribes of Ephraim, Benjamin, Naphtali, Manasseh, Issachar, Zebulun, Levi, Dan, and even the non-Israelite tribes of Kenaz and the debatable land of Gilead could boast of having held the hegemony of Israel and led the nation in battle, his own tribe of Judah had played a quite subordinate part, and was not even mentioned in the national war song of Deborah. As contrasted with the poets of these tribes he could boast in his verses only of Ibzan who belonged to his own town of Bethlehem (Judges 12:8). The Jerahmeelites were no doubt a powerful clan, but neither they nor any other of the subdivisions of Judah had ever done anything for the common good. Indeed, when the twelve pathfinders had been sent in advance into Canaan, Judah had been represented by Caleb, a member of the Uitlander tribe of Kenaz (Numbers 13:6). He became apparently the adopted son of Hezron and so David might claim kinship with him, and through him with Othniel the first of the judges (Judges 1:13). David thus belonged to the least efficient of all the Israelite tribes except one, and one which, considering its size and wealth, had till now failed to play a worthy part in the confederacy. It is difficult to believe that the young David never dreamed of a day when his own tribe should take its true place among its fellows, and when the deliverer of Israel from its oppressors should belong for once to the tribe of Judah.

III. In the Service of Saul.

The earliest events in the career of David are involved in some obscurity.

1. David First Meets Saul:

This is due mainly to what appears to be an insoluble difficulty in 1 Samuel 16 and 17. In chapter 16, David is engaged to play before Saul in order to dispel is melancholy, and becomes his squire or armor-bearer (16:21), whereas in the following chapter he is unknown to Saul, who, after the death of Goliath, asks Abner who he is, and Abner replies that he does not know (17:55). This apparent contradiction may be accounted for by the following considerations:

(a) 16:14-23 may be inserted out of its chronological order for the sake of the contrast with the section immediately preceding-"the spirit of Yahweh came mightily upon David from that day forward. the spirit of Yahweh departed from Saul" (16:13, 14);

(b) the fact of David becoming Saul's squire does not imply constant personal attendance upon him; the text says David became an (not his) armor-bearer to Saul. The king would have many such squires: Joab, though only commander-in-chief, had, it seems, eighteen (2 Samuel 23:37 reads "armor-bearers");

(c) David would not play before Saul every day: his presence might not be required for a space of weeks or months;

(d) Saul's failure to recognize David may have been a result of the `evil spirit from Yahweh' and Abner's denial of knowledge may have been feigned out of jealousy. If we accept all the statements of the dramatis personae in these narratives we shall not get very far.

2. His First Exploit:

The facts seem to have been somewhat as follows: It had become evident that Saul was not equal to the task to which he had been set-the task of breaking the Philistine power, and it became the duty of Samuel, as the vicar of Yahweh and as still holding very large powers, to look about for a successor. He turned to the tribe of Judah (the full brother of his own ancestor Levi), a tribe which was fast becoming the most powerful member of the federation. The headman of this clan was Jesse of Bethlehem. His name was well known in the country-Saul does not require to be told who he is (1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 17:58)-but he was by this time advanced in years (1 Samuel 17:12). He had, however, many sons. Old men in the East often foretell a great future for a young boy (compare Luke 2:34). Samuel saw that David was formed of other clay than his brothers, and he anointed him as he had done Saul (1 Samuel 10:1). But whereas the anointing of Saul was done surreptitiously and for a definite purpose which was explained at the time (1 Samuel 10:1), that of David was performed before his whole family, but with what object he was not told (1 Samuel 16:13). His brothers do not seem to have thought the matter of much consequence (compare 1 Samuel 17:28), and all David could conclude from it was that he was destined to some high office-perhaps that of Samuel's successor (compare 1 Kings 19:15, 16). It would have the effect of nerving him for any adventure and raising his hopes high and steeling his courage. Whether by accident or by contrivance he became attached to Saul as minstrel (compare 2 Kings 3:15) and subsequently as one of his armor-bearers. He would probably be at this time about twenty years of age. It must have been after an interval of some months that an event happened which made it impossible for Saul ever again to forget the existence of David. This was the famous duel between David and the Philistine Goliath, which saved the situation for Saul for the time (1 Samuel 17). In regard to this narrative it must be noted that 1 Samuel 17:12-31, 41, 50, 55-58 and 18:1-5 are lacking in the best manuscript of the Septuagint, that is, the sending of David from Bethlehem and his fresh introduction to Saul and Saul's failure to recognize him are left out. With the omission of these verses all the difficulties of the narrative vanish. For the reason why David could not wear the armor offered him was not because he was still a child, which is absurd in view of the fact that Saul was exceptionally tall (1 Samuel 9:2), but because he had had no practice with it (1 Samuel 17:39). It is ridiculous to suppose that David was not at this time full-grown, and that two armies stood by while a child advanced to engage a giant. The event gained for David the reputation won in modern times at the cannon's mouth, but also the devoted friendship of Jonathan and the enmity of Saul (1 Samuel 18:1-9).

The next years of David's life were spent in the service of Saul in his wars with the Philistines. David's success where Saul had failed, however, instead of gratifying only inflamed the jealousy of the latter, and he determined to put David out of the way. More than once he attempted to do so with his own hand (1 Samuel 18:11; 1 Samuel 19:10), but he also employed stratagem. It came to his ears that his daughter Michal, as well as his son Jonathan, loved David, and Saul undertook to give her to David on the condition of his killing one hundred Philistines.

3. Envy of Saul and Flight of David:

The gruesome dowry was paid, and David became Saul's son-in-law. The Hebrew text states that Saul first offered his elder daughter to David, and then failed to implement his promise (1 Samuel 18:17-19, 21), but this passage is not found in the Greek. David's relation to Saul did not mitigate the hatred of the latter; indeed his enmity became so bitter that David determined upon flight. With the help of stratagem on the part of Michal, this was effected and David went to Samuel at Ramah for counsel and advice (1 Samuel 19:18). There Saul pursued him, but when he came into the presence of the prophet, his courage failed and he was overcome by the contagion of the prophetic ecstasy (1 Samuel 19:24) as he had been on a previous occasion (1 Samuel 10:11). David returned to Gibeah, while the coast was clear, to meet Jonathan, but Saul also returned immediately, his hatred more intense than before. David then continued his flight and came to Ahimelech, the priest at Nob (1 Samuel 21:1). It is sometimes supposed that we have here two inconsistent accounts of David's flight, according to one of which he fled to Samuel at Ramah, and according to the other to Ahimelech at Nob; but there is no necessity for such a supposition, and even if it were correct, it would not clear up all the difficulties of the narrative. There is evidently much in these narratives that is left untold and our business should be to fill up the gaps in a way consistent with what we are given. That Saul made sure that David would not return is shown by the fact that he gave his daughter Michal to a man of the tribe of Benjamin as wife (1 Samuel 25:44).

4. Jonathan and David:

The relation existing between Jonathan and David was one of pure friendship. There was no reason why it should not be so. A hereditary monarchy did not yet exist in Israel. The only previous attempt to establish such an institution-that of Gideon's family (Judges 9)-though not of Gideon himself (1 Samuel 8:22)-had ended in failure. The principle followed hitherto had been that of election by the sheikhs or caids of the clans. To this Saul owed his position, for the lot was a kind of ballot. Moreover, behind all national movements there lay the power of the prophets, the representatives of Yahweh. Saul was indebted for his election to Samuel, just as Barak was to Deborah (Judges 4:6). Like the judges who preceded him he had been put forward to meet a definite crisis in the national affairs-the rise of the Philistine power (1 Samuel 9:16). Had he succeeded in crushing these invaders, the newly-established kingdom would in the absence of this bond of union have dissolved again into its elements, as had happened on every similar occasion before. He was the only judge who had failed to accomplish the task for which he was appointed, and he was the only one who had been appointed on the understanding that his son should succeed him, for this constitutes the distinction between king and judge. Moreover, not only was Saul aware that he had failed, but he saw before him the man who was ready to step into his place and succeed. His rival had, besides, the backing of the mass of the people and of Samuel who was still virtual head of the state and last court of appeal. It is not to be wondered at that Saul was hostile to David. Jonathan, on the other hand, acquiesced in the turn things had taken and bowed to what he believed to be the inevitable. Such was his love for David that he asked only to be his wazeer (vizier) when David came to the throne (1 Samuel 23:17). David's position was perhaps the most difficult imaginable. He had to fight the battles of a king whose one idea was to bring about his ruin. He was the bosom friend of a prince whom he proposed to supplant in his inheritance. His hope of salvation lay in the death of his king, the father of his wife and of his best friend. The situation would in ordinary circumstances be intolerable, and it would have been impossible but for the fact that those concerned were obsessed by a profound belief in Fate. Jonathan bore no grudge against David for aiming at the throne, because to the throne he was destined by the will of Yahweh. To David it would never occur that he had the choice of declining the high destiny in store for him. Had he had the power to refuse what he believed to be the decree of Fate, he would hardly escape censure for his ambition and disloyalty.

IV. David in Exile.

1. David as Outlaw:

From the moment of his flight David became an outlaw and remained so until the death of Saul. This period of his career is full of stirring adventures which remind us of Robert Bruce or William Wallace of Scotland. Like King Arthur and other heroes he carried a famous sword-the sword of Goliath (1 Samuel 21:9). Having obtained it of Ahimelech, he for the first time left Israelite territory and went to the Philistine city of Gath (1 Samuel 21:10). Not feeling safe here he left and took up his abode in the cave of Adullam (1 Samuel 22:1) in the country of Judah, almost within sight of his native Bethlehem. This cave was admirably suited to the outlaw's purpose and no doubt David had many a time explored its recesses when a boy. Here he was joined by his parents and brothers, with their servants, as well as by all sorts of persons who were at war with the government, debtors, fugitives from justice, and discontented persons generally. David thus became the chief of a band of outlaws who numbered about 400. Of such stuff some of his bravest soldiers were made (2 Samuel 23:13). He had an augur, too, to direct his actions, and, after the massacre of the priests at Nob, a priest, Abiathar, carrying an ephod with which to cast lots (1 Samuel 22:5; 1 Samuel 23:6). During this period he supported himself and his men by making raids on the Philistine outposts and levying blackmail on his own countrymen (1 Samuel 25:2) in return for giving them his protection from the Philistines (1 Samuel 23:1). Hard pressed both by Saul and the Philistines (who had established themselves even in Bethlehem) he committed his parents to the keeping of the king of Moab, and began to rove as a freebooter through the country (1 Samuel 23:5, 15, 25, 29). On two occasions David had Saul in his power, but refused to seize the opportunity of taking his life (1 Samuel 24-26). Here again there are no adequate grounds for supposing we have two accounts of one and the same incident. During his wandering David's followers increased in numbers (compare 1 Samuel 22:2; 1 Samuel 23:13; 1 Samuel 25:13). His chief lieutenant was his nephew Abishai, the son of his sister Zeruiah, but his brothers, Joab and Asahel, do not seem to have joined David yet. Another of his nephews, Jonathan the son of Shimei (Shammah), is mentioned (2 Samuel 21:21; compare 1 Samuel 16:9) and the Chronicler thinks many other knights joined him during this period (1 Chronicles 11:10). The position of David at this time was very similar to that of the brigand Raisuli of late in Morocco. That there was some stability in it is shown by his taking two wives at this time-Ahinoam and Abigail (1 Samuel 25:42, 43).

2. David Joins the Philistines:

David now, abandoning all hope of ever conciliating the king (1 Samuel 27:1), made a move which shows at once his reckless daring and consummate genius. He offered the services of himself and his little army of 600 men to the enemies of his country. The town of Gath appears to have been an asylum for fugitive Israelites (1 Kings 2:39). David's first impulse on his flight from Saul had been to seek safety there (1 Samuel 21:10-15). Then, however, he was the hero of Israel, whose assassination would be the highest gain to the Philistines; now he was the embittered antagonist of Saul, and was welcomed accordingly. Achish placed at his disposal the fortified town of Ziklag in the territory of the now extinct tribe of Simeon, and there he and his followers, each of whom had his family with him, took up their quarters for sixteen months (1 Samuel 27:6, 7). The advantages to David were many. He was safe at last from the persecution of Saul (1 Samuel 27:4); he could secure ample supplies by making raids upon the Amalekites and other tribes hostile to Israel toward the South (1 Samuel 27:8); and if the opportunity presented itself he could deal a serious blow at the Philistine arms. The position was no doubt a precarious one. It could last just as long as David could hoodwink Achish by persuading him that his raids were directed against his own tribe (1 Samuel 27:10). This he succeeded in doing so completely that Achish would have taken him with him on the campaign which ended in the decisive battle of Gilboa, but the other chiefs, fearing treachery, refused to allow him to do so. David was forced to return with his followers to Ziklag, only to find that town razed to the ground and all the women and children carried off by his old enemies the Amalekites (1 Samuel 30:1, 2). By the time he had recovered the spoil and returned in triumph to Ziklag the battle of Gilboa had been fought and Saul was slain. The conduct of David in his relations with the Philistines was not more reprehensible than that of the Cid who allied himself with Al-Mu'taman of Saragossa, or of Coriolanus who went over to the Volsci. David composed upon the death of Saul and Jonathan an elegy every sentence of which has become classic.

V. David as King.

1. Civil War: David immediately removed from Ziklag and took up his quarters at Hebron, where he was at once anointed king over his own tribe of Judah. Thus began the cleavage between Judah and Israel. Here he was joined, apparently for the first time, by his nephew Joab. Abner, however, loyal to his former master, had Esh-baal (1 Chronicles 8:33), son of Saul, anointed king over the remaining tribes at Mahanaim, a fortified town East of the Jordan. War continued between David and Abner for several years, fortune always favoring David. Seeing things were going against him Abner forced Esh-baal into a personal quarrel with himself and then transferred his allegiance and persuaded his side to transfer theirs to David (2 Samuel 3:21). He did not reap the fruit of his defection, as he was immediately after assassinated by Joab in revenge for the death of Asahel whom Abner had killed in self-defence (2 Samuel 3:27). Deprived of his chief support Esh-baal also fell a victim to assassination (2 Samuel 4:2). David denounced both crimes with apparent sincerity. He composed an elegy and fasted for Abner (2 Samuel 3:33) and avenged the death of Esh-baal (2 Samuel 4:9). Yet these acts of violence laid the sovereignty of all Israel at his feet. Of the male heirs of Saul there remained only a son of Jonathan, Merib-baal (1 Chronicles 8:34) who was a crippled child of 7. David was therefore elected king over the nation (2 Samuel 5:1).

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DAVID, ROOT OF

root (he rhiza Daueid, Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16): Root here means stock, family, descendant, hence, "the Root of David" is that which descended from David, not that from which David descended. Jesus Christ in His human nature and family connections was a descendant of David, a member of his family.

TOWER OF DAVID

(Songs 4:4).

See JERUSALEM.

CITY OF DAVID

See ZION.

DAVID, CITY OF

See ZION.

DAVID, TOWER OF

tou'-er. See JERUSALEM.

ROOT OF DAVID

See DAVID, ROOT OF.

Greek
1138. Dabid -- David.
... 1137, 1138. Dabid. 1139 . David. ... Word Origin variant reading for Dauid, qv.
David. Of Hebrew origin (David); Dabid (ie David), the Israelite king -- David. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1138.htm - 6k

1160b. Dauid -- David, king of Isr.
... Dauid. 1161 . David, king of Isr. Transliteration: Dauid Short Definition: David.
Word Origin of Hebrew origin David Definition David, king of Isr. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1160b.htm - 5k

4672. Solomon -- Solomon, a son of David and king of Isr.
... Solomon. 4673 . Solomon, a son of David and king of Isr. ... Word Origin of Hebrew
origin Shelomoh Definition Solomon, a son of David and king of Isr. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4672.htm - 6k

2421. Iessai -- Jesse, the father of King David
... Jesse, the father of King David. Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable
Transliteration: Iessai Phonetic Spelling: (es-es-sah'-ee) Short Definition: Jesse ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2421.htm - 6k

2492b. Iobed -- Obed, the grandfather of King David
... 2492a, 2492b. Iobed. 2493 . Obed, the grandfather of King David.
Transliteration: Iobed Short Definition: Obed. Word Origin of Hebrew ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2492b.htm - 5k

1180. dekatessares -- fourteen
... Mt 1:17: "So all the generations from Abraham to David are generations; from David
to the deportation to Babylon, generations; and from the deportation to ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1180.htm - 7k

3481. Natham -- Nathan, an Israelite
... of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Natham Phonetic Spelling:
(nath-an') Short Definition: Nathan Definition: Nathan, son of David, and an ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3481.htm - 6k

4061. peritome -- circumcision
... Theof physical circumcision relates to , the Messiah (the Christ) -- the one prophesied
to incarnate through the physical line of David (the tribe of Judah). ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4061.htm - 7k

8. Abiathar -- Abiathar, an Israelite
... Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Abiathar Phonetic Spelling: (ab-ee-ath'-ar)
Short Definition: Abiathar Definition: Abiathar, a priest in King David's time. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/8.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
1732. David -- perhaps "beloved one," a son of Jesse
David or David. 1731, 1732. David or David. 1733 . perhaps "beloved one,"
a son of Jesse. Transliteration: David or David Phonetic ...
/hebrew/1732.htm - 6k

37. Abital -- "my father is (the) dew," a wife of David
... 36, 37. Abital. 38 . "my father is (the) dew," a wife of David. Transliteration:
Abital Phonetic Spelling: (ab-ee-tal') Short Definition: Abital. ...
/hebrew/37.htm - 6k

1162. Boaz -- "quickness," an ancestor of David, also a pillar ...
... Boaz. 1163 . "quickness," an ancestor of David, also a pillar before the temple.
Transliteration: Boaz Phonetic Spelling: (bo'-az) Short Definition: Boaz. ...
/hebrew/1162.htm - 6k

5052. Nogah -- a son of David
... Nogah. 5053 . a son of David. Transliteration: Nogah Phonetic Spelling: (no'-gah)
Short Definition: Nogah. ... The same as nogahh; Nogah, a son of David -- Nogah. ...
/hebrew/5052.htm - 6k

5698. Eglah -- "heifer," a wife of David
... "heifer," a wife of David. Transliteration: Eglah Phonetic Spelling: (eg-law') Short
Definition: Eglah. ... Eglah. The same as eglah; Eglah, a wife of David -- Eglah ...
/hebrew/5698.htm - 6k

3448. Yishay -- father of David
... 3447, 3448. Yishay. 3449 . father of David. Transliteration: Yishay Phonetic
Spelling: (yee-shah'-ee) Short Definition: Jesse. Word ...
/hebrew/3448.htm - 6k

2294. Chaggith -- "festal," a wife of David
... 2293, 2294. Chaggith. 2295 . "festal," a wife of David. Transliteration: Chaggith
Phonetic Spelling: (khag-gheeth') Short Definition: Haggith. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/2294.htm - 6k

8010. Shelomoh -- David's son and successor to his throne
... 8009, 8010. Shelomoh. 8011 . David's son and successor to his throne.
Transliteration: Shelomoh Phonetic Spelling: (shel-o-mo') Short Definition: Solomon. ...
/hebrew/8010.htm - 6k

3507. Yithream -- a son of David
... 3506, 3507. Yithream. 3508 . a son of David. Transliteration: Yithream
Phonetic Spelling: (yith-reh-awm') Short Definition: Ithream. ...
/hebrew/3507.htm - 6k

474. Elishua -- "God is salvation," a son of David
... 473, 474. Elishua. 475 . "God is salvation," a son of David. Transliteration:
Elishua Phonetic Spelling: (el-ee-shoo'-ah) Short Definition: Elishua. ...
/hebrew/474.htm - 6k

Library

The Psalms of David
The Psalms of David. <. The Psalms of David Isaac Watts. Produced by Lewis
Jones. Table of Contents. Title Page. Transcriber's Note. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/watts/the psalms of david/

David
David. <. David Charles Kingsley. Transcribed by David Price, email
ccx074@coventry.ac.uk Table of Contents. Title Page. DAVID: FIVE SERMONS. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/kingsley/david/

The Life of David
The Life of David. <. The Life of David Alexander Maclaren. Produced
by Colin Bell, Thomas Strong and the Online Distributed ...
//christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/the life of david/

David and Jonathan.
... DAVID AND JONATHAN. Jonathan was the son of Saul, the king. He loved David greatly,
and regretted that his father, through jealousy, sought David's life. ...
/.../anonymous/mother stories from the old testament/david and jonathan.htm

David and Araunah.
... DAVID AND ARAUNAH. After David had reigned may years, he numbered the people
of Israel. This was wrong; and God sent a pestilence ...
/.../anonymous/mother stories from the old testament/david and araunah.htm

David and Goliath.
... DAVID AND GOLIATH. How attentively David looks at the stones in his hand. ... Meanwhile
Jesse had sent David to the Israelites' camp to see after his brethren. ...
/.../anonymous/mother stories from the old testament/david and goliath.htm

David and Nathan
... THE SECOND BOOK OF SAMUEL DAVID AND NATHAN. 'And David said unto Nathan,
I have sinned against the Lord. And Nathan said unto David ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture f/david and nathan.htm

The History of David
... BIBLE STORIES AND RELIGIOUS CLASSICS THE HISTORY OF DAVID. Here followeth
how David reigned after Saul, and governed Israel. Shortly ...
/.../wells/bible stories and religious classics/the history of david.htm

How David Prevailed.
... XXXIV. HOW DAVID PREVAILED. "So David prevailed over the Philistine!""
1 Samuel 17:50. Yes, he did, but he would not have done ...
//christianbookshelf.org/champness/broken bread/xxxiv how david prevailed.htm

The Song of David
... BIBLE STORIES AND RELIGIOUS CLASSICS THE SONG OF DAVID. He sang of God,
the mighty source Of all things, the stupendous force On ...
/.../wells/bible stories and religious classics/the song of david.htm

Thesaurus
David (1052 Occurrences)
... While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged with his flocks,
Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having been guided thither by ...
/d/david.htm - 93k

David's (142 Occurrences)
... Multi-Version Concordance David's (142 Occurrences). Matthew 22:42 "What think you
about the Christ," He said, "whose son is He?" "David's," they replied. ...
/d/david's.htm - 37k

Stronghold (68 Occurrences)
... (WEB ASV DBY RSV NIV). 1 Samuel 22:4 He brought them before the king of Moab; and
they lived with him all the while that David was in the stronghold. ...
/s/stronghold.htm - 25k

A'chish (17 Occurrences)
... A'chish (17 Occurrences). 1 Samuel 21:10 David arose, and fled that day for
fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king of Gath. (See RSV). ...
/a/a'chish.htm - 11k

Kei'lah (16 Occurrences)
... (See RSV). 1 Samuel 23:1 And they told David, saying: 'Behold, the Philistines are
fighting against Keilah, and they rob the threshing-floors.' (See RSV). ...
/k/kei'lah.htm - 10k

Araunah (14 Occurrences)
... The destroying angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of
the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor ...
/a/araunah.htm - 13k

Keilah (16 Occurrences)
...David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Samuel 23:1-8); but the
inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they sought to deliver him up to ...
/k/keilah.htm - 15k

Ziba (13 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Post; statue, "a servant of the house of Saul" (2 Samuel
9:2), who informed David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive. ...
/z/ziba.htm - 14k

Ahim'elech (16 Occurrences)
... 1 Samuel 21:1 Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the priest; and Ahimelech came
to meet David trembling, and said unto him: 'Why art thou alone, and no man ...
/a/ahim'elech.htm - 11k

Ahinoam (7 Occurrences)
... (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1 Samuel 25:43; 27:3). She was the
mother of Amnon (2 Samuel 3:2). (See 1 Samuel 30:5, 18; 2 Samuel 2:2.). Int. ...
/a/ahinoam.htm - 10k

Concordance
David (1052 Occurrences)

Matthew 1:1
The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 1:6
Jesse became the father of King David. David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 1:17
So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the exile to Babylon fourteen generations; and from the carrying away to Babylon to the Christ, fourteen generations.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 1:20
But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, don't be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 9:27
As Jesus passed by from there, two blind men followed him, calling out and saying, "Have mercy on us, son of David!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 12:3
But he said to them, "Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 12:23
All the multitudes were amazed, and said, "Can this be the son of David?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 15:22
Behold, a Canaanite woman came out from those borders, and cried, saying, "Have mercy on me, Lord, you son of David! My daughter is severely demonized!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 20:30
Behold, two blind men sitting by the road, when they heard that Jesus was passing by, cried out, "Lord, have mercy on us, you son of David!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 20:31
The multitude rebuked them, telling them that they should be quiet, but they cried out even more, "Lord, have mercy on us, you son of David!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 21:9
The multitudes who went before him, and who followed kept shouting, " Hosanna to the son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 21:15
But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the son of David!" they were indignant,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 22:42
saying, "What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?" They said to him, "Of David."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 22:43
He said to them, "How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 22:45
"If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 2:25
He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry-he, and those who were with him?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 10:47
When he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to cry out, and say, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 10:48
Many rebuked him, that he should be quiet, but he cried out much more, "You son of David, have mercy on me!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 11:10
Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 12:35
Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 12:36
For David himself said in the Holy Spirit,'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 12:37
Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?" The common people heard him gladly.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 1:27
to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 1:32
He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 1:69
and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 2:4
Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 2:11
For there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 3:31
the son of Melea, the son of Menan, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 3:32
the 'son' of David, the 'son' of Jesse, the 'son' of Obed, the 'son' of Booz, the 'son' of Salmon, the 'son' of Nahshon,
(YLT)

Luke 6:3
Jesus, answering them, said, "Haven't you read what David did when he was hungry, he, and those who were with him;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 18:38
He cried out, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 18:39
Those who led the way rebuked him, that he should be quiet; but he cried out all the more, "You son of David, have mercy on me!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 20:41
He said to them, "Why do they say that the Christ is David's son?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 20:42
David himself says in the book of Psalms,'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 20:44
"David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 7:42
Hasn't the Scripture said that the Christ comes of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 1:16
"Brothers, it was necessary that this Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 2:25
For David says concerning him,'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 2:29
"Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 2:34
For David didn't ascend into the heavens, but he says himself,'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit by my right hand,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 4:25
who by the mouth of your servant, David, said,'Why do the nations rage, and the peoples plot a vain thing?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 7:45
which also our fathers, in their turn, brought in with Joshua when they entered into the possession of the nations, whom God drove out before the face of our fathers, to the days of David,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 7:46
David obtained favour with God, and asked leave to provide a dwelling-place for the God of Jacob.
(WEY NAS)

Acts 13:22
When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified,'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 13:34
"Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus:'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 13:36
For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 15:16
'After these things I will return. I will again build the tabernacle of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 1:3
concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 4:6
Even as David also pronounces blessing on the man to whom God counts righteousness apart from works,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Romans 11:9
David says, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, a stumbling block, and a retribution to them.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Timothy 2:8
Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my Good News,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 4:7
he again defines a certain day, today, saying through David so long a time afterward (just as has been said), "Today if you will hear his voice, don't harden your hearts."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 11:32
What more shall I say? For the time would fail me if I told of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel, and the prophets;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 3:7
"To the angel of the assembly in Philadelphia write: "He who is holy, he who is true, he who has the key of David, he who opens and no one can shut, and who shuts and no one opens, says these things:
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 5:5
One of the elders said to me, "Don't weep. Behold, the Lion who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome; he who opens the book and its seven seals."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 22:16
I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you for the assemblies. I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ruth 4:17
The women, her neighbors, gave him a name, saying, "There is a son born to Naomi;" and they named him Obed. He is the father of Jesse, the father of David.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ruth 4:22
and Obed became the father of Jesse, and Jesse became the father of David.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:13
Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers: and the Spirit of Yahweh came mightily on David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:19
Therefore Saul sent messengers to Jesse, and said, "Send me David your son, who is with the sheep."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:20
Jesse took a donkey loaded with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a young goat, and sent them by David his son to Saul.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:21
David came to Saul, and stood before him. He loved him greatly; and he became his armor bearer.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:22
Saul sent to Jesse, saying, "Please let David stand before me; for he has found favor in my sight."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 16:23
It happened, when the evil spirit from God was on Saul, that David took the harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:12
Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man was an old man in the days of Saul, stricken in years among men.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:14
David was the youngest; and the three eldest followed Saul.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:15
Now David went back and forth from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:17
Jesse said to David his son, "Now take for your brothers an ephah of this parched grain, and these ten loaves, and carry them quickly to the camp to your brothers;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:20
David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the place of the wagons, as the army which was going forth to the fight shouted for the battle.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:22
David left his baggage in the hand of the keeper of the baggage, and ran to the army, and came and greeted his brothers.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:23
As he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the ranks of the Philistines, and spoke according to the same words: and David heard them.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:26
David spoke to the men who stood by him, saying, "What shall be done to the man who kills this Philistine, and takes away the reproach from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?"
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:28
Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spoke to the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, "Why have you come down? With whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your pride, and the naughtiness of your heart; for you have come down that you might see the battle."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:29
David said, "What have I now done? Is there not a cause?"
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:31
When the words were heard which David spoke, they rehearsed them before Saul; and he sent for him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:32
David said to Saul, "Let no man's heart fail because of him. Your servant will go and fight with this Philistine."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:33
Saul said to David, "You are not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him; for you are but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 17:34
David said to Saul, "Your servant was keeping his father's sheep; and when a lion or a bear came, and took a lamb out of the flock,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:37
David said, "Yahweh who delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine." Saul said to David, "Go; and Yahweh shall be with you."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:38
Saul dressed David with his clothing. He put a helmet of brass on his head, and he clad him with a coat of mail.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:39
David strapped his sword on his clothing, and he tried to move; for he had not tested it. David said to Saul, "I can't go with these; for I have not tested them." David took them off.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:41
The Philistine came on and drew near to David; and the man who bore the shield went before him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:42
When the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him; for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and withal of a fair face.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:43
The Philistine said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?" The Philistine cursed David by his gods.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:44
The Philistine said to David, "Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the sky, and to the animals of the field."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 17:45
Then said David to the Philistine, "You come to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin: but I come to you in the name of Yahweh of Armies, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:48
It happened, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew near to meet David, that David hurried, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:49
David put his hand in his bag, took a stone, and slung it, and struck the Philistine in his forehead; and the stone sank into his forehead, and he fell on his face to the earth.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

1 Samuel 17:50
So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and struck the Philistine, and killed him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:51
Then David ran, and stood over the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of its sheath, and killed him, and cut off his head therewith. When the Philistines saw that their champion was dead, they fled.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:54
David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armor in his tent.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:55
When Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said to Abner, the captain of the army, "Abner, whose son is this youth?" Abner said, "As your soul lives, O king, I can't tell."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:57
As David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 17:58
Saul said to him, "Whose son are you, you young man?" David answered, "I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 18:1
It happened, when he had made an end of speaking to Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 18:2
And that day Saul took David and would not let him go back to his father's house.
(BBE NIV)

1 Samuel 18:3
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 18:4
Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that was on him, and gave it to David, and his clothing, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his sash.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 18:5
David went out wherever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and it was good in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 18:6
It happened as they came, when David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tambourines, with joy, and with instruments of music.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

David

David: A Prophetic Name for Christ

David: After Three Months, David Brings the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem With Dancing and Great Joy

David: Anointed King Over all Israel, After Reigning Over Judah at Hebron for Seven Years and Six Months

David: Assembles Thirty-Thousand Men to Escort the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem With Music and Thanksgiving

David: Consigns Seven Sons of Saul to the Gibeonites to be Killed to Atone for Saul's Persecution of the Gibeonites

David: David Rebukes the Priests for not Showing Loyalty Amid the Complaints of the People Against Him

David: Desires to Build a Temple, is Forbidden, But Receives God's Promise That his Seed should Reign Forever

David: King of Israel

David: King of Israel is Chastised With Grievous Affliction on Account of his Crime

David: King of Israel is Defrauded of Merab, and Given Michal to Marry

David: King of Israel is Rebuked by the Prophet Nathan

David: King of Israel is Refused Permission to Accompany the Philistines to Battle Against the Israelites

David: King of Israel: A Shepherd

David: King of Israel: Abner Revolts from Ish-Bosheth, and Joins David, But is Killed by Joab

David: King of Israel: About This Time Writes

David: King of Israel: Absalom's Defeat and Death

David: King of Israel: Absalom's Return

David: King of Israel: Absalom's Usurpation

David: King of Israel: Adonijah Usurps the Sceptre; Solomon Appointed to the Throne

David: King of Israel: After Living for One Year and Four Months at Ziklag

David: King of Israel: Age of, at Death

David: King of Israel: Amasa is Killed

David: King of Israel: Ammonites Defeated and Tortured

David: King of Israel: Amnon's Crime, his Murder by Absalom, and Absalom's Flight

David: King of Israel: Anointed King, While a Youth, by the Prophet Samuel, and Inspired

David: King of Israel: At Hebron

David: King of Israel: At Jerusalem

David: King of Israel: At This Time Probably Writes

David: King of Israel: At This Time, Probably, David Composes

David: King of Israel: At This Time, Probably, David Writes

David: King of Israel: Barzillai Rewarded

David: King of Israel: Builds a Palace

David: King of Israel: Buries Saul's Bones, and the Bones of his Sons

David: King of Israel: Chosen of God

David: King of Israel: Chronicles of, Written by Samuel, Nathan, and Gad

David: King of Israel: Civil and Military officers of

David: King of Israel: Commits Adultery With Bath-Sheba

David: King of Israel: Conducts a Campaign Against, and Defeats the Philistines

David: King of Israel: Conducts an Expedition Against Amalekites, Misstates the Facts to Achish

David: King of Israel: Conquers the Philistines, Moabites, and Syria

David: King of Israel: Covenants With Saul

David: King of Israel: Crosses the Jordan River

David: King of Israel: David As Musician

David: King of Israel: David As Poet

David: King of Israel: David As Prophet

David: King of Israel: David Goes to Hebron, and is Anointed King by Judah

David: King of Israel: David is Terrified, and Leaves the Ark at the House of Obed-Edom

David: King of Israel: David Wages War Against and Defeats Ish-Bosheth

David: King of Israel: David's Flight from Jerusalem

David: King of Israel: Death and Burial of Saul and his Sons

David: King of Israel: Death of

David: King of Israel: Death of his Infant Son (Born from Bath-Sheba)

David: King of Israel: Defeats the Philistines

David: King of Israel: Delivers his Charge to Solomon

David: King of Israel: Demands the Restoration of Michal, his Wife

David: King of Israel: Descendants of

David: King of Israel: Described to Saul

David: King of Israel: Detailed As Armor-Bearer and Musician at Saul's Court

David: King of Israel: Devoutness of

David: King of Israel: Discreetness of

David: King of Israel: Escapes by Way of Nob, where he Obtains Shewbread and Goliath's Sword from Abimelech

David: King of Israel: Escapes to Gath

David: King of Israel: Fame of

David: King of Israel: Flees to Achish and Lives in Ziklag

David: King of Israel: Friendship of, With Hiram, King of Tyre

David: King of Israel: Genealogy of

David: King of Israel: Goes to En-Gedi

David: King of Israel: Goes to the Wilderness of Ziph, is Betrayed to Saul

David: King of Israel: He Probably Writes, at This Time

David: King of Israel: Interpretation and Fulfillment of This Prophecy

David: King of Israel: Ish-Bosheth, Son of Saul, Crowned

David: King of Israel: Jesus Called Son of

David: King of Israel: Jonathan Intercedes For

David: King of Israel: Judah Accused by the Ten Tribes of Stealing Him Away

David: King of Israel: Justice in the Administration of

David: King of Israel: Kills a Lion and a Bear

David: King of Israel: Kills Goliath

David: King of Israel: Kills the Murderer of Saul

David: King of Israel: Lamentation Over Saul

David: King of Israel: Laments the Death of Absalom

David: King of Israel: Last Words of

David: King of Israel: Length of Reign, Forty Years

David: King of Israel: Lists of his Heroes, and of Their Exploits

David: King of Israel: Lives in the Wilderness of Ziph, Has Opportunity to Kill Saul, But Only Takes his Spear

David: King of Israel: Makes Amasa General

David: King of Israel: Makes Conquest of Jerusalem

David: King of Israel: Makes Second Covenant With Jonathan

David: King of Israel: Marries Abishag

David: King of Israel: Marries Nabal's Widow, Abigail, and Ahinoam

David: King of Israel: Meekness of

David: King of Israel: Mephibosheth Begs for the King's Favor

David: King of Israel: Merciful

David: King of Israel: Michal Rebukes Him for his Religious Enthusiasm

David: King of Israel: Offers Sacrifice, Distributes Gifts, and Blesses the People

David: King of Israel: Organized the Tabernacle Service

David: King of Israel: Philistines Make War Against, and are Defeated by Him

David: King of Israel: Popularity and Discreetness of

David: King of Israel: Probably Composes

David: King of Israel: Probably Writes

David: King of Israel: Probably Writes Psalms Eleven at This Period of his Life

David: King of Israel: Prophecies Concerning Him and his Kingdom

David: King of Israel: Prospered of God

David: King of Israel: Punishes Ish-Bosheth's Murderers

David: King of Israel: Rebuked by Joab

David: King of Israel: Recruits an Army of Insurgents, Goes to Moab, Returns to Hareth

David: King of Israel: Refrains from Killing Saul

David: King of Israel: Repents of his Crime and Confesses his Guilt

David: King of Israel: Rescues the People of Ziklag, Who had been Captured by the Amalekites

David: King of Israel: Returns to Jerusalem

David: King of Israel: Returns, and Jonathan Makes Covenant With Him

David: King of Israel: Saul Attempts to Kill Him

David: King of Israel: Saul is Diverted from Pursuit of

David: King of Israel: Saul's Jealousy of

David: King of Israel: Saves Keilah

David: King of Israel: Sends Commissioners With a Message of Sympathy to Hanun, Son of the King of Ammon

David: King of Israel: Sepulchre of

David: King of Israel: Sheba's Conspiracy Against David, and his Death

David: King of Israel: Shimei Begs for Clemency

David: King of Israel: Shimei Curses Him

David: King of Israel: Solomon is Born To

David: King of Israel: Takes Bath-Sheba to be his Wife

David: King of Israel: Takes the Military Strength of Israel Without Divine Authority, and is Reproved

David: King of Israel: The List of Men Who Join Him

David: King of Israel: The List of Those Who Join Him at Hebron

David: King of Israel: The Love of Jonathan For

David: King of Israel: Treats Mephibosheth, the Lame Son of Saul, With Great Kindness

David: King of Israel: Type of Christ

David: King of Israel: Uzzah is Struck Down when he Attempts to Steady the Ark of the Covenant

David: King of Israel: Wickedly Causes the Death of Uriah

David: King of Israel: Wives of

David: King of Israel: Writes

David: King of Israel: Writes a Psalm on the Betrayal

Epic: David's War Song

Iconoclasm: Destroyed by David

Magnanimity: David to Saul

Nepotism of David

Related Terms

David's (142 Occurrences)

Stronghold (68 Occurrences)

A'chish (17 Occurrences)

Kei'lah (16 Occurrences)

Araunah (14 Occurrences)

Keilah (16 Occurrences)

Ziba (13 Occurrences)

Ahim'elech (16 Occurrences)

Ahinoam (7 Occurrences)

Son-in-law (14 Occurrences)

Stringed (34 Occurrences)

Ziklag (13 Occurrences)

Seeketh (60 Occurrences)

Zobah (15 Occurrences)

Asketh (40 Occurrences)

Ziph (9 Occurrences)

Sympathy (15 Occurrences)

Saveth (36 Occurrences)

Ahithophel (17 Occurrences)

Asahel (17 Occurrences)

Kindly (57 Occurrences)

Shammah (8 Occurrences)

Quantity (18 Occurrences)

Korahites (7 Occurrences)

Aramean (17 Occurrences)

Ahin'o-am (7 Occurrences)

Ascents (21 Occurrences)

Zeru'iah (24 Occurrences)

Ahimelech (17 Occurrences)

Sang (28 Occurrences)

Sons (2429 Occurrences)

Zeruiah (25 Occurrences)

Ziphites (4 Occurrences)

Amasai (5 Occurrences)

Attentively (35 Occurrences)

Ahith'ophel (15 Occurrences)

Amasa (13 Occurrences)

Shimea (6 Occurrences)

Shephatiah (13 Occurrences)

Shim'ei (40 Occurrences)

Spear (55 Occurrences)

Amal'ekites (24 Occurrences)

Supporting (31 Occurrences)

Aramaeans (49 Occurrences)

Smiting (76 Occurrences)

Kirjathjearim (17 Occurrences)

Kirjath-jearim (17 Occurrences)

Amalekite (12 Occurrences)

Azmaveth (8 Occurrences)

Avenged (34 Occurrences)

Ahijah (23 Occurrences)

Ahimaaz (15 Occurrences)

Saluted (11 Occurrences)

Shavsha (1 Occurrence)

Spakest (12 Occurrences)

Sepulchers (15 Occurrences)

Sela-hammahlekoth (1 Occurrence)

Sweareth (34 Occurrences)

Selahammahlekoth (1 Occurrence)

Sepulchres (17 Occurrences)

Shimei (43 Occurrences)

Seer (21 Occurrences)

Apparel (38 Occurrences)

Slept (74 Occurrences)

Seeks (48 Occurrences)

Succeeded (81 Occurrences)

Asaph (47 Occurrences)

Zion (169 Occurrences)

Shields (44 Occurrences)

Amalekites (36 Occurrences)

Saul's (79 Occurrences)

Shouting (83 Occurrences)

Arameans (61 Occurrences)

Singing (65 Occurrences)

Zebadiah (9 Occurrences)

Kir'iath-je'arim (18 Occurrences)

Valued (27 Occurrences)

Ahithophel's (5 Occurrences)

Servants (763 Occurrences)

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