2 Samuel 23:13
New International Version
During harvest time, three of the thirty chief warriors came down to David at the cave of Adullam, while a band of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.

New Living Translation
Once during the harvest, when David was at the cave of Adullam, the Philistine army was camped in the valley of Rephaim. The Three (who were among the Thirty--an elite group among David's fighting men) went down to meet him there.

English Standard Version
And three of the thirty chief men went down and came about harvest time to David at the cave of Adullam, when a band of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.

Berean Study Bible
At harvest time, three of the thirty chief men went down to David at the cave of Adullam, while a company of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim.

New American Standard Bible
Then three of the thirty chief men went down and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam, while the troop of the Philistines was camping in the valley of Rephaim.

King James Bible
And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.

Christian Standard Bible
Three of the thirty leading warriors went down at harvest time and came to David at the cave of Adullam, while a company of Philistines was camping in the Valley of Rephaim.

Contemporary English Version
One year at harvest time, the Three Warriors went to meet David at Adullam Cave. The Philistine army had set up camp in Rephaim Valley

Good News Translation
Near the beginning of harvest time three of "The Thirty" went down to Adullam Cave, where David was, while a band of Philistines was camping in Rephaim Valley.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Three of the 30 leading warriors went down at harvest time and came to David at the cave of Adullam, while a company of Philistines was camping in the Valley of Rephaim.

International Standard Version
One day while the Philistine army was camping in the valley of giants, three of the 30 leaders joined David at the cave of Adullam.

NET Bible
At the time of the harvest three of the thirty leaders went down to David at the cave of Adullam. A band of Philistines was camped in the valley of Rephaim.

New Heart English Bible
Three of the Thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines was camped in the valley of Rephaim.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
At harvest time three of the thirty leading men came to David at the cave of Adullam when a troop from the Philistine army was camping in the valley of Rephaim.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines were encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

New American Standard 1977
Then three of the thirty chief men went down and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam, while the troop of the Philistines was camping in the valley of Rephaim.

Jubilee Bible 2000
These three, who were of the thirty chief, went down and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam, and the camp of the Philistines was pitched in the valley of Rephaim.

King James 2000 Bible
And three of the thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

American King James Version
And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.

American Standard Version
And three of the thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And three out of the thirty went down, and came to Cason to David, to the cave of Odollam; and there was an army of the Philistines, and they encamped in the valley of Raphain.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Moreover also before this the three who were princes among the thirty, went down and came to David in the harvest time into the cave of Odollam: and the camp of the Philistines was in the valley of the giants.

Darby Bible Translation
And three of the thirty chiefs went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam, when the troop of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

English Revised Version
And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines were encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

Webster's Bible Translation
And three of the thirty chiefs went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

World English Bible
Three of the thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

Young's Literal Translation
And three of the thirty heads go down and come unto the harvest, unto David, unto the cave of Adullam, and the company of the Philistines are encamping in the valley of Rephaim,
Study Bible
David's Mighty Men
12But Shammah took his stand in the middle of the field, defended it, and struck down the Philistines. So the LORD brought about a great victory. 13At harvest time, three of the thirty chief men went down to David at the cave of Adullam, while a company of Philistines was encamped in the Valley of Rephaim. 14At that time David was in the stronghold, and the garrison of the Philistines was at Bethlehem.…
Cross References
1 Samuel 22:1
So David left Gath and took refuge in the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and the rest of his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there.

2 Samuel 5:18
Now the Philistines had come and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim.

Micah 1:15
I will again bring a conqueror against you, O inhabitant of Mareshah. The glory of Israel will come to Adullam.

Treasury of Scripture

And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.

three, etc.

1 Chronicles 11:15-19
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim…

2 Samuel 23:8
These be the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.

Exodus 14:7
And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them.

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the cave

Joshua 12:15
The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;

Joshua 15:35
Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah,

1 Samuel 22:1
David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.

the valley

2 Samuel 5:18,22
The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim…

1 Chronicles 11:15
Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

1 Chronicles 14:9
And the Philistines came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.







Lexicon
At
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

harvest time,
קָצִיר֙ (qā·ṣîr)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7105: Severed, harvest, the crop, the time, the reaper, a limb

three
שְׁלֹשָׁ֜ה (šə·lō·šāh)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7970: Thirty, thirtieth

of the thirty
מֵהַשְּׁלֹשִׁ֣ים (mê·haš·šə·lō·šîm)
Preposition-m, Article | Number - common plural
Strong's Hebrew 7970: Thirty, thirtieth

chief men
רֹ֗אשׁ (rōš)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7218: The head

went down
וַיֵּרְד֨וּ (way·yê·rə·ḏū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3381: To come or go down, descend

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

David
דָּוִ֔ד (dā·wiḏ)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1732: David -- perhaps 'beloved one', a son of Jesse

at
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

the cave
מְעָרַ֖ת (mə·‘ā·raṯ)
Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 4631: A cavern

of Adullam,
עֲדֻלָּ֑ם (‘ă·ḏul·lām)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5725: Adullam -- a Canaanite city

while a company
וְחַיַּ֣ת (wə·ḥay·yaṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 2416: Alive, raw, fresh, strong, life

of Philistines
פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים (pə·liš·tîm)
Noun - proper - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6430: Philistines -- inhabitants of Philistia

was encamped
חֹנָ֖ה (ḥō·nāh)
Verb - Qal - Participle - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2583: To incline, to decline, to pitch a, tent, gen, to encamp

in the Valley
בְּעֵ֥מֶק (bə·‘ê·meq)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 6010: A vale

of Rephaim.
רְפָאִֽים׃ (rə·p̄ā·’îm)
Noun - proper - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7497: Rephaim -- inhabitants of an area East of the Jordan
(13) Three of the thirty.--For "three" the Hebrew text reads "thirty" by a manifest error, which is corrected in the margin. These are not the same three (since there is no definite article) with those just mentioned, but were another three more eminent than the rest of the thirty, two of them being, no doubt, Abishai and Benaiah (2Samuel 23:18; 2Samuel 23:23). "The thirty" seems to have been a common name for this band of heroes (comp. 2Samuel 23:23-24, &c), who were perhaps originally exactly thirty, but whose number varied from time to time, being here given (2Samuel 23:39) as thirty-seven.

In the harvest time.--"The preposition does not mean in, and the reading in 1Chronicles 11:15 'to the rock' is perhaps the true one" (Kirkpatrick). On "the valley of Rephaim," see Note on 2Samuel 5:18.

Verse 13. - And three. The Hebrew text has "thirty," for which both the Authorized Version and the Revised Version silently substitute "three," as is correctly given in Chronicles. The absence of the article shows that these three were not Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah, but probably Abishai, Be-naiah, and another whose name and exploits have been purposely omitted both here and in Chronicles. Apparently this narrative, so interesting as showing the fascination which David exercised over his men, is given as having led to the institution of this second order of three in the brotherhood of the mighties. In the harvest time. The Hebrew is "to harvest," but in 1 Chronicles 11:15 "to the rock." As the preposition used here cannot mean "in," this is probably the right reading. In this case, also, it is the similarity of the words that has led to the con. fusion. Is it possible that these lists were taken from very old and worn catalogues, which it was very difficult to decipher? 23:8-39 David once earnestly longed for the water at the well of Bethlehem. It seems to be an instance of weakness. He was thirsty; with the water of that well he had often refreshed himself when a youth, and it was without due thought that he desired it. Were his valiant men so forward to expose themselves, upon the least hint of their prince's mind, and so eager to please him, and shall not we long to approve ourselves to our Lord Jesus, by ready compliance with his will, as shown us by his word, Spirit, and providence? But David poured out the water as a drink-offering to the Lord. Thus he would cross his own foolish fancy, and punish himself for indulging it, and show that he had sober thoughts to correct his rash ones, and knew how to deny himself. Did David look upon that water as very precious which was got at the hazard of these men's blood, and shall not we much more value those benefits for purchasing which our blessed Saviour shed his blood? Let all beware of neglecting so great salvation.
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Alphabetical: a Adullam and at band came camping cave chief David down During encamped harvest in men of Philistines Rephaim the Then thirty three time to troop Valley was went while

OT History: 2 Samuel 23:13 Three of the thirty chief men went (2Sa iiSam 2 Sam ii sam) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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