2 Samuel 21:10
New International Version
Rizpah daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on a rock. From the beginning of the harvest till the rain poured down from the heavens on the bodies, she did not let the birds touch them by day or the wild animals by night.

New Living Translation
Then Rizpah daughter of Aiah, the mother of two of the men, spread burlap on a rock and stayed there the entire harvest season. She prevented the scavenger birds from tearing at their bodies during the day and stopped wild animals from eating them at night.

English Standard Version
Then Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it for herself on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until rain fell upon them from the heavens. And she did not allow the birds of the air to come upon them by day, or the beasts of the field by night.

Berean Study Bible
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on a rock. From the beginning of the harvest until the rain from heaven poured down on the bodies, she did not allow the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

New American Standard Bible
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it for herself on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until it rained on them from the sky; and she allowed neither the birds of the sky to rest on them by day nor the beasts of the field by night.

King James Bible
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

Christian Standard Bible
Rizpah, Aiah's daughter, took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on the rock from the beginning of the harvest until the rain poured down from heaven on the bodies. She kept the birds of the sky from them by day and the wild animals by night.

Contemporary English Version
Rizpah spread out some sackcloth on a nearby rock. She wouldn't let the birds land on the bodies during the day, and she kept the wild animals away at night. She stayed there from the beginning of the harvest until it started to rain.

Good News Translation
Then Saul's concubine Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah, used sackcloth to make a shelter for herself on the rock where the corpses were, and she stayed there from the beginning of harvest until the autumn rains came. During the day she would keep the birds away from the corpses, and at night she would protect them from wild animals.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Rizpah, Aiah's daughter, took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on the rock from the beginning of the harvest until the rain poured down from heaven on the bodies. She kept the birds of the sky from them by day and the wild animals by night.

International Standard Version
Then Aiah's daughter Rizpah grabbed some sackcloth and spread it out for herself on the rock where her children had been hanged from the beginning of harvest until the first rain fell from the sky. She would not allow any scavenger birds to land on them during the day nor the beasts of the field to approach them at night.

NET Bible
Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on a rock. From the beginning of the harvest until the rain fell on them, she did not allow the birds of the air to feed on them by day, nor the wild animals by night.

New Heart English Bible
Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water was poured on them from the sky. She allowed neither the birds of the sky to rest on them by day, nor the animals of the field by night.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Rizpah (Aiah's daughter) took sackcloth and stretched it out on the rock for herself from the beginning of the harvest until the sky rained on the dead bodies. She wouldn't let any birds land on them during the day or any wild animals come near them during the night.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water was poured upon them from heaven; and she suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

New American Standard 1977
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it for herself on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until it rained on them from the sky; and she allowed neither the birds of the sky to rest on them by day nor the beasts of the field by night.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah, took sackcloth and spread it upon the rock from the beginning of harvest until water rained upon them out of heaven and allowed neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day nor the beasts of the field by night.

King James 2000 Bible
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and allowed neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

American King James Version
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped on them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

American Standard Version
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water was poured upon them from heaven; and she suffered neither the birds of the heavens to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And Respha the daughter of Aia took sackcloth, and fixed it for herself on the rock in the beginning of barley harvest, until water dropped upon them out of heaven: and she did not suffer the birds of the air to rest upon them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And Respha the daughter of Aia took haircloth, and spread it under her upon the rock from the beginning of the harvest, till water dropped upon them out of heaven: and suffered neither the birds to tear them by day, nor the beasts by night.

Darby Bible Translation
Then Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water poured on them out of the heavens, and suffered neither the fowl of the heavens to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

English Revised Version
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water was poured upon them from heaven; and she suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

Webster's Bible Translation
And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

World English Bible
Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water was poured on them from the sky. She allowed neither the birds of the sky to rest on them by day, nor the animals of the field by night.

Young's Literal Translation
And Rizpah daughter of Aiah taketh the sackcloth, and stretcheth it out for herself on the rock, from the commencement of harvest till water hath been poured out upon them from the heavens, and hath not suffered a fowl of the heavens to rest upon them by day, or the beast of the field by night.
Study Bible
David Avenges the Gibeonites
9and he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them on the hill before the LORD. So all seven of them fell together; they were put to death in the first days of the harvest, at the beginning of the barley harvest. 10And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on a rock. From the beginning of the harvest until the rain from heaven poured down on the bodies, she did not allow the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night. 11When David was told what Saul’s concubine Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, had done,…
Cross References
Deuteronomy 21:23
you must not leave the body on the tree overnight, but you must be sure to bury him that day, because anyone who is hung on a tree is under God's curse. You must not defile the land the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance.

1 Samuel 17:44
"Come here," he called to David, "and I will give your flesh to the birds of the air and the beasts of the field!"

1 Samuel 17:46
This day the LORD will deliver you into my hand. This day I will strike you down, cut off your head, and give the carcasses of the Philistines to the birds of the air and the creatures of the earth. Then the whole world will know that there is a God in Israel.

2 Samuel 21:11
When David was told what Saul's concubine Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, had done,

Treasury of Scripture

And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped on them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night.

Rizpah

2 Samuel 20:8
When they were at the great stone which is in Gibeon, Amasa went before them. And Joab's garment that he had put on was girded unto him, and upon it a girdle with a sword fastened upon his loins in the sheath thereof; and as he went forth it fell out.

2 Samuel 3:7
And Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and Ishbosheth said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?

took sackcloth

1 Kings 21:27
And it came to pass, when Ahab heard those words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly.

Joel 1:18
How do the beasts groan! the herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture; yea, the flocks of sheep are made desolate.

from the

2 Samuel 20:9
And Joab said to Amasa, Art thou in health, my brother? And Joab took Amasa by the beard with the right hand to kiss him.

Deuteronomy 21:13
And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife.

Deuteronomy 11:14
That I will give you the rain of your land in his due season, the first rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.

1 Kings 18:41-45
And Elijah said unto Ahab, Get thee up, eat and drink; for there is a sound of abundance of rain…

Jeremiah 5:24,25
Neither say they in their heart, Let us now fear the LORD our God, that giveth rain, both the former and the latter, in his season: he reserveth unto us the appointed weeks of the harvest…

the birds

Genesis 40:19
Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.

Ezekiel 39:4
Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, and the people that is with thee: I will give thee unto the ravenous birds of every sort, and to the beasts of the field to be devoured.







Lexicon
And Rizpah
רִצְפָּה֩ (riṣ·pāh)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7532: Rizpah -- concubine of Saul

the daughter
בַת־ (ḇaṯ-)
Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1323: A daughter

of Aiah
אַיָּ֨ה (’ay·yāh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 345: Aiah -- 'falcon', the name of a Horite, also of an Israelite

took
וַתִּקַּ֣ח (wat·tiq·qaḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3947: To take

sackcloth
הַשַּׂ֜ק (haś·śaq)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8242: A mesh, coarse loose cloth, sacking, a bag

and spread it out
וַתַּטֵּ֨הוּ (wat·taṭ·ṭê·hū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hifil - Consecutive imperfect - third person feminine singular | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5186: To stretch out, spread out, extend, incline, bend

for herself
לָ֤הּ (lāh)
Preposition | third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew

on
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

a rock.
הַצּוּר֙ (haṣ·ṣūr)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6697: A cliff, a rock, boulder, a refuge, an edge

From
מִן־ (min-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 4480: A part of, from, out of

the beginning
מִתְּחִלַּ֣ת (mit·tə·ḥil·laṯ)
Preposition-m | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 8462: A commencement, rel, original

of the harvest
קָצִ֔יר (qā·ṣîr)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7105: Severed, harvest, the crop, the time, the reaper, a limb

until
עַ֛ד (‘aḏ)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

the rain
מַ֥יִם (ma·yim)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 4325: Water, juice, urine, semen

from heaven
הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם (haš·šā·mā·yim)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8064: Heaven, sky

poured down
נִתַּךְ־ (nit·taḵ-)
Verb - Nifal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5413: To pour forth, be poured out

on the bodies,
עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם (‘ă·lê·hem)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

she did not allow
נָתְנָה֩ (nā·ṯə·nāh)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5414: To give, put, set

the birds
ע֨וֹף (‘ō·wp̄)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 5775: Flying creatures

of the air
הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם (haš·šā·ma·yim)
Article | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8064: Heaven, sky

to rest
לָנ֤וּחַ (lā·nū·aḥ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 5117: To rest, settle down

on them
עֲלֵיהֶם֙ (‘ă·lê·hem)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

by day,
יוֹמָ֔ם (yō·w·mām)
Adverb
Strong's Hebrew 3119: Daytime, by day

nor
וְאֶת־ (wə·’eṯ-)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 853: Untranslatable mark of the accusative case

the beasts
חַיַּ֥ת (ḥay·yaṯ)
Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 2416: Alive, raw, fresh, strong, life

of the field
הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה (haś·śā·ḏeh)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7704: Field, land

by night.
לָֽיְלָה׃ (lā·yə·lāh)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3915: A twist, night, adversity
Verse 10. - Rizpah ... took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock; rather, against the rock, so as to form a little hut or shelter to protect her from the glaring blaze of the sunshine. The word "upon" has led many commentators to suppose that she used it as a bed; but this is not the meaning of the Hebrew, though given by the Vulgate. The sackcloth was the loose wrapper or cloak which formed the outer dress of mourners. As regards the bodies of those crucified or impaled, the Law required that they should be taken down and buried that same evening (Deuteronomy 21:23). Here they remained exposed for six months, as a grim trophy of Gibeonite vengeance. Until water dropped upon them out of heaven; Hebrew, was poured upon them; until copious and heavy rains came. The outpouring of these rains would put an end to the famine, and be regarded as a proof that the wrath of Heaven was appeased. There is no reason for supposing that these rains came before the usual period, in autumn, which was about the middle of October. Thus, for six months, with no other protection than her mantle of sackcloth hung against the rock, this noble woman watched the decaying bodies of her loved ones, until at last her devoted conduct touched David's heart, and their remains were honourably interred. 21:10-14 That a guilty land should enjoy many years of plenty, calls for gratitude; and we need not wonder misused abundance should be punished with scarcity; yet how few are disposed to ask of the Lord concerning the sinful cause, while numbers search for the second causes by which he is pleased to work! But the Lord will plead the cause of those who cannot or will not avenge themselves; and the prayers of the poor are of great power. When God sent rain to water the earth, these bodies were buried, for then it appeared that God was entreated for the land. When justice is done on earth, vengeance from heaven ceases. God is pacified, and is entreated for us through Christ, who was hanged on a tree, and so made a curse for us, to do away our guilt, though he was himself guiltless.
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Alphabetical: a Aiah air allowed and animals beasts beginning birds bodies by daughter day did down field for From harvest heavens herself it let neither night nor not of on or out poured rain rained rest Rizpah rock sackcloth she sky spread the them till to took touch until wild

OT History: 2 Samuel 21:10 Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth (2Sa iiSam 2 Sam ii sam) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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