1 Samuel 22:2
New International Version
All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. About four hundred men were with him.

New Living Translation
Then others began coming--men who were in trouble or in debt or who were just discontented--until David was the captain of about 400 men.

English Standard Version
And everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was bitter in soul, gathered to him. And he became commander over them. And there were with him about four hundred men.

Berean Study Bible
And all who were distressed or indebted or discontented rallied around him, and he became their leader. About four hundred men were with him.

New American Standard Bible
Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Now there were about four hundred men with him.

King James Bible
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Christian Standard Bible
In addition, every man who was desperate, in debt, or discontented rallied around him, and he became their leader. About four hundred men were with him.

Contemporary English Version
A lot of other people joined him too. Some were in trouble, others were angry or in debt, and David was soon the leader of 400 men.

Good News Translation
People who were oppressed or in debt or dissatisfied went to him, about four hundred men in all, and he became their leader.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
In addition, every man who was desperate, in debt, or discontented rallied around him, and he became their leader. About 400 men were with him.

International Standard Version
Everyone who was in distress, everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was malcontent gathered around him, and he became their leader. There were about 400 men with him.

NET Bible
All those who were in trouble or owed someone money or were discontented gathered around him, and he became their leader. He had about four hundred men with him.

New Heart English Bible
Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented, gathered themselves to him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then everyone who was in trouble, in debt, or bitter about life joined him, and he became their commander. There were about four hundred men with him.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became captain over them; and there were with him about four hundred men.

New American Standard 1977
And everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented, gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Now there were about four hundred men with him.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And every one that was in distress and every one that was in debt and all whose souls were bitter gathered themselves unto him, and he became the captain over them, and there were about four hundred men with him.

King James 2000 Bible
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

American King James Version
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves to him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

American Standard Version
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And there gathered to him every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was troubled in mind; and he was a leader over them, and there were with him about four hundred men.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And all that were in distress and oppressed with debt, and under affliction of mind gathered themselves unto him: and he became their prince, and there were with him about four hundred men.

Darby Bible Translation
And every one in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one of embittered spirit collected round him; and he became a captain over them; and there were with him about four hundred men.

English Revised Version
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Webster's Bible Translation
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, resorted to him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

World English Bible
Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented, gathered themselves to him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Young's Literal Translation
and gather themselves unto him do every man in distress, and every man who hath an exactor, and every man bitter in soul, and he is over them for head, and there are with him about four hundred men.
Study Bible
David Flees to Adullam and Mizpeh
1So David left Gath and took refuge in the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and the rest of his father's household heard about it, they went down to him there. 2And all who were distressed or indebted or discontented rallied around him, and he became their leader. About four hundred men were with him. 3From there David went to Mizpeh of Moab, where he said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and mother stay with you until I learn what God will do for me.”…
Cross References
1 Samuel 22:3
From there David went to Mizpeh of Moab, where he said to the king of Moab, "Please let my father and mother stay with you until I learn what God will do for me."

1 Samuel 23:13
Then David and his men, about six hundred strong, set out and departed from Keilah, moving from place to place. When it was reported to Saul that David had escaped from Keilah, he declined to go forth.

1 Samuel 25:13
And David said to his men, "Each of you, put on your swords!" So David and all his men put on their swords, and about four hundred men followed David, while two hundred stayed with the supplies.

2 Kings 4:1
Now the wife of one of the sons of the prophets cried out to Elisha, "Your servant, my husband, is dead, and you know that your servant feared the LORD. And now his creditor is coming to take my two children as his slaves!"

Treasury of Scripture

And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves to him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

distress

Judges 11:3
Then Jephthah fled from his brethren, and dwelt in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah, and went out with him.

Matthew 11:12,28
And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force…

was in debt [heb] had a creditor

Matthew 18:25-34
But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made…

discontented [heb] bitter of soul

1 Samuel 1:10
And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.

1 Samuel 30:6
And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.

Judges 18:25
And the children of Dan said unto him, Let not thy voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows run upon thee, and thou lose thy life, with the lives of thy household.

a captain

1 Samuel 9:16
To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be captain over my people Israel, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Philistines: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come unto me.

1 Samuel 25:15,16
But the men were very good unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields: …

1 Samuel 30:22-24
Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us, we will not give them ought of the spoil that we have recovered, save to every man his wife and his children, that they may lead them away, and depart…







Lexicon
And all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

who were distressed
מָצ֜וֹק (mā·ṣō·wq)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4689: A narrow place, confinement, disability

[or]
וְכָל־ (wə·ḵāl)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

indebted
נֹשֶׁא֙ (nō·še)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5378: To lend on interest, to dun for, debt

or discontented
מַר־ (mar-)
Adjective - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 4751: Bitter, bitterness, bitterly

rallied
וַיִּֽתְקַבְּצ֣וּ (way·yiṯ·qab·bə·ṣū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hitpael - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6908: To gather, collect

around him,
אֵ֠לָיו (’ê·lāw)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 413: Near, with, among, to

and he became
וַיְהִ֥י (way·hî)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

their
עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם (‘ă·lê·hem)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

leader.
לְשָׂ֑ר (lə·śār)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8269: Chieftain, chief, ruler, official, captain, prince

About four
כְּאַרְבַּ֥ע (kə·’ar·ba‘)
Preposition-k | Number - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 702: Four

hundred
מֵא֖וֹת (mê·’ō·wṯ)
Number - feminine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3967: A hundred

men
אִֽישׁ׃ (’îš)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

were
וַיִּהְי֣וּ (way·yih·yū)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 1961: To fall out, come to pass, become, be

with him.
עִמּ֔וֹ (‘im·mōw)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5973: With, equally with
(2) Every one that was in distress.--Ewald writes on this statement:--"The situation of the country, which was becoming more and more melancholy under Saul, . . . drove men to seek a leader from whom they might hope for better things for the future . . . David did not send away these refugees, many of them distinguished and prominent Israelites, but organised them into a military force. He foresaw that while commanding such a company as this, he might, without injuring his king and former benefactor, be of the very greatest use to the people, and protect the southern frontiers of the kingdom--sadly exposed in these later years of King Saul--from the plundering incursions of the neighbouring nomadic tribes. This state of things, with a few interruptions, really came to pass, and David won great repute and popularity among the protected districts during these years when he was a wanderer and an outlaw--a popularity which in after years stood him in good stead."

These persons "in distress" were especially those who were persecuted by Saul and his men for their attachment to David. The several statements of the refugees who took shelter in David's armed camp, of course go over a considerable time. They did not all flock to his standard at once. Some went to him in the first days of his exile, others after the massacre at the sanctuary at Nob, others later, and thus gradually 400 gathered round him. Soon after, these numbers were swelled to 600, and these probably only were the chosen men-at-arms of the little force, which, no doubt, was numerically far greater.

And every one that was in debt.--Throughout the whole long story of Israel this unhappy love of greed and gain has been a characteristic feature of the chosen race, ever a prominent and ugly sin. In the Mosaic Law, most stringent regulations were laid down to correct and mitigate this ruling passion of avarice among the Jews. (See such passages as Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:36; Deuteronomy 23:19.) The poor, improvident, or perhaps unfortunate, debtor was protected by wise laws against the greedy avaricious spirit of his merciless creditor. These beneficent regulations of the great lawgiver had, under the capricious, faulty rule of King Saul, of course fallen into abeyance, and a terrible amount of misery, no doubt, was the consequence. In the Divine record sad scenes (see 2Kings 4:1-7), exemplifying this pitiless spirit, are casually related, but they are so woven into the mosaic of the history, as to show us they were, alas! no uncommon occurrence in the daily life of the people. In Proverbs, for instance, we have some conspicuous instances. The chronicles of the Middle Ages in all countries teem with similar stories about the chosen people. Our own great dramatist, some three centuries ago, evidently without attempt at exaggeration, selects the avaricious, grasping Jew as the central figure of one of his most famous dramas. In our own time the same spirit, as is too well known, is still abroad, and constitutes the bitterest reproach which the many enemies of the strange, deathless race can promulgate against a people evidently walled in by a Divine protection and a changeless eternal love.

And he became a captain over them.--It was evidently no undisciplined band, these outlaws of Adullam and the hold of Moab, of Hareth and Keilah, of Ziph and Engedi. David quickly organised the refugees, among whom, by degrees, many a man of mark and approved valour and ability were numbered.

To complete the picture of this First Book of Samuel, we must unite in one the scattered notices of this same period which occur in the Second Book of Samuel and in the Books of Kings and Chronicles. (See Excursus I. at the end of this Book.)

Verse 2. - Everyone that was in distress,... in debt, or discontented (Hebrew, bitter of soul), gathered themselves unto him. Had Saul's government been just and upright David would have had no followers; but he never rose above the level of a soldier, had developed all that arbitrariness which military command fosters in self-willed minds, and seems entirely unaware of its being his duty to attend to the righteous administration of the law. The Israelites had in him the very king they had desired, but they found that a brave general might at home be a ruthless tyrant. Debt was one of the worst evils of ancient times. The rate of usury was so exorbitant that a loan was sure to end in utter ruin, and not only the debtor, but his children might be made slaves to repay the debt (2 Kings 4:1). It was one of the first duties of an upright governor to enforce the Mosaic law against usury (Leviticus 25:36); but all such cares Saul despised, and there were probably many in the land impoverished by Saul's own exactions and favouritism (ver. 7), and made bitter of soul by his cruelty and injustice. All such were glad to join in what seemed to them the banner of revolt. Afterwards at Ziklag David was joined by nobler followers (see on 1 Samuel 27:6). With David we may compare Jephthah's case in the old days of anarchy (Judges 11:3-6), and note that bad government leads to lawlessness just as surely as no government. 22:1-5 See what weak instruments God sometimes uses, to bring about his own purposes. The Son of David is ready to receive distressed souls, who will be commanded by him. He receives all who come unto Him, however vile and miserable; he changes them into a holy people, and employs them in his service: those who would reign with him must be contented first to suffer with and for him. Observe with what tender concern David provided for his aged parents. The first thing he does is to find them a quiet habitation, whatever became of himself. Let children learn to honour their parents, in every thing consulting their ease and satisfaction. Though highly preferred, and much employed, let them not forget their aged parents. The steps of a good man are ordered by the Lord. And the Lord will preserve his people for their appointed work, however they may be hated and exposed.
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OT History: 1 Samuel 22:2 Everyone who was in distress and everyone (1Sa iSam 1 Sam i sa) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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