1 Samuel 21:13
New International Version
So he pretended to be insane in their presence; and while he was in their hands he acted like a madman, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

New Living Translation
So he pretended to be insane, scratching on doors and drooling down his beard.

English Standard Version
So he changed his behavior before them and pretended to be insane in their hands and made marks on the doors of the gate and let his spittle run down his beard.

Berean Study Bible
So he changed his behavior before them and feigned madness in their hands; he scratched on the doors of the gate and let his saliva run down his beard.

New American Standard Bible
So he disguised his sanity before them, and acted insanely in their hands, and scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down into his beard.

King James Bible
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

Christian Standard Bible
so he pretended to be insane in their presence. He acted like a madman around them, scribbling on the doors of the city gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

Contemporary English Version
So right there in front of everyone, he pretended to be insane. He acted confused and started making scratches on the doors of the town gate, while drooling in his beard.

Good News Translation
So whenever David was around them, he pretended to be insane and acted like a madman when they tried to restrain him; he would scribble on the city gates and let spit drool down his beard.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
so he pretended to be insane in their presence. He acted like a madman around them, scribbling on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

International Standard Version
So David changed his behavior before them and acted like he was crazy in their presence. He scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down his beard.

NET Bible
He altered his behavior in their presence. Since he was in their power, he pretended to be insane, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting his saliva run down his beard.

New Heart English Bible
He changed his behavior before them, and pretended to be mad in their hands, and drummed on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle run down his beard.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
So he changed his behavior [when he was] in their presence and acted insane [as long as he was] under their authority. He scribbled on the doors of the city gate and let his spit run down his beard.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And he changed his demeanour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

New American Standard 1977
So he disguised his sanity before them, and acted insanely in their hands, and scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down into his beard.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And he changed his behaviour before them and feigned himself a fool in their hands and scrabbled on the doors of the gate and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

King James 2000 Bible
And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and made marks on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

American King James Version
And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down on his beard.

American Standard Version
And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And he changed his appearance before him, and feigned himself a false character in that day; and drummed upon the doors of the city, and used extravagant gestures with his hands, and fell against the doors of the gate, and his spittle ran down upon his beard.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he changed his countenance before them, and slipt down between their hands: and he stumbled against the doors of the gate, and his spittle ran down upon his beard.

Darby Bible Translation
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scratched on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down on his beard.

English Revised Version
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

Webster's Bible Translation
And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

World English Bible
He changed his behavior before them, and pretended to be mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down on his beard.

Young's Literal Translation
and changeth his behaviour before their eyes, and feigneth himself mad in their hand, and scribbleth on the doors of the gate, and letteth down his spittle unto his beard.
Study Bible
David Flees to Gath
12Now David took words these to heart and was very much afraid of Achish the king of Gath. 13So he changed his behavior before them and feigned madness in their hands; he scratched on the doors of the gate and let his saliva run down his beard. 14Then Achish said to his servants, “Look, you can see the man is insane! Why have you brought him to me?…
Cross References
Leviticus 13:29
If a man or woman has an infection on the head or chin,

1 Samuel 21:14
Then Achish said to his servants, "Look, you can see the man is insane! Why have you brought him to me?

Psalm 34:1
I will bless the LORD at all times; His praise will always be on my lips.

Treasury of Scripture

And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down on his beard.

changed

Psalm 34:1
A Psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech; who drove him away, and he departed. I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth.

Proverbs 29:25
The fear of man bringeth a snare: but whoso putteth his trust in the LORD shall be safe.

Ecclesiastes 7:7
Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad; and a gift destroyeth the heart.

scrabbled.







Lexicon
So he changed
וַיְשַׁנּ֤וֹ (way·šan·nōw)
0
Strong's Hebrew 8138: To fold, duplicate, to transmute

his behavior
טַעְמוֹ֙ (ṭa‘·mōw)
0
Strong's Hebrew 2940: A taste, perception, intelligence, a mandate

before them
בְּעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם (bə·‘ê·nê·hem)
0
Strong's Hebrew 5869: An eye, a fountain

and feigned madness
וַיִּתְהֹלֵ֖ל (way·yiṯ·hō·lêl)
0
Strong's Hebrew 1984: To shine

in their hands;
בְּיָדָ֑ם (bə·yā·ḏām)
0
Strong's Hebrew 3027: A hand

he scratched
וַיְתָיו֙ (way·ṯāw)
0
Strong's Hebrew 8427: Put -- to make or set a mark

on
עַל־ (‘al-)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

the doors
דַּלְת֣וֹת (dal·ṯō·wṯ)
Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 1817: Something swinging, the valve of a, door

of the gate
הַשַּׁ֔עַר (haš·ša·‘ar)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8179: An opening, door, gate

and let his saliva run down
וַיּ֥וֹרֶד (way·yō·w·reḏ)
Preposition-b | Noun - cdc | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3381: To come or go down, descend

his beard.
זְקָנֽוֹ׃ (zə·qā·nōw)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2206: Beard, chin
(13) He changed his behaviour.--These very words (with the substitution of Abimelech for Achish, a name which, as has been above suggested, seems to have been the "nomen dignitatis" for generations of Philistine kings) are found in the title of Psalms 34. The poem in question is, however, of a general, not of an historical character, and especially celebrates Jehovah's guardian care of the righteous. Its "acrostic" arrangement, however, suggests a later date than the time of David. If, as is quite possible, the royal psalmist was the original author, and that the deliverance on the present occasion suggested the theme, then it must have been brought into its present form by some later temple musician.

Feigned himself mad.--Literally, he roamed hither and thither, restless and in terror.--Dean Payne Smith. "In their hands," that is, "in their presence." Some have supposed that the madness was not "simulated," but real. Wrought upon by excitement of fear and terrible anxiety, it has been suggested that the mind for a time lost its balance, and that David became temporarily really insane; but the sense of the narrative plainly indicates that the madness was feigned.

Scrabbled on the doors of the gate.--Scratched on them; "scrabble" being probably a diminutive of "scrape" (Richardson, Dictionary). By others it is connected with "scribble." the root in either case being ultimately the same. The LXX. and Vulg. apparently translate from a slightly different word, and instead of "scrabbled," render "drummed" (impingebat) on the wings of the doors.

Let his spittle fall.--That is, allowed the foam which comes from the mouth of a madman to hang about his beard. It has been cleverly suggested that David was only too well acquainted with all the signs of madness, from his long and intimate association with King Saul in his darker hours of insanity. There are other well-authenticated examples in history of great heroes, in seasons of sore danger, feigning madness like David, with a view of escaping from their enemies. For instance, according to the Shahnameh, Kai Khosrev feigned idiocy in face of mortal peril.

Verse 13. - He changed his behaviour. The same word is used in the title of Psalm 34. Literally it means "his taste," and, like the Latin word sapientia, is derived from the action of the palate, and so from the faculty of discriminating flavours it came to signify the power of discrimination generally. Thus "to change his taste" means to act as if he had lost the power of distinguishing between objects. Feigned himself mad. Literally, "he roamed hither and thither" restlessly and in terror. In their hands. I.e. before them, in their presence. Scrabbled on the doors of the gate. The Vulgate and Septuagint read drummed upon them. Literally the verb means "to make the mark of a Tau," the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, and which anciently was in the form of a cross. The gate, on the leaves of which David scrawled, was probably that of the court or waiting room, in which the servants of Achish passed their time when in attendance upon him. Possibly David had witnessed these symptoms of madness in Saul's case during his fits of insanity. The idea of some of the older commentators, that David really for a time went out of his mind, is opposed to the general sense of the narrative. 21:10-15 God's persecuted people have often found better usage from Philistines than from Israelites. David had reason to put confidence in Achish, yet he began to be afraid. His conduct was degrading, and discovered wavering in his faith and courage. The more simply we depend on God, and obey him, the more comfortably and surely we shall walk through this troublesome world.
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Alphabetical: a acted and be beard before disguised doors down gate hands he his in insane insanely into let letting like madman making marks of on presence pretended run saliva sanity scribbled So the their them to was while

OT History: 1 Samuel 21:13 He changed his behavior before them (1Sa iSam 1 Sam i sa) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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