1 Samuel 21:13
Strong's Lexicon
So he changed
וַיְשַׁנּ֤וֹ (way·šan·nōw)

Strong's Hebrew 8138: 1) to repeat, do again, change, alter 1a) (Qal) to change 1b) (Niphal) to be repeated 1c) (Piel) to change, alter 1d) (Hithpael) to disguise oneself

his behavior
טַעְמוֹ֙ (ṭa‘·mōw)

Strong's Hebrew 2940: 1) taste, judgment 1a) taste 1b) judgment (fig.) 1c) decision, decree

before them
בְּעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם (bə·‘ê·nê·hem)

Strong's Hebrew 5869: 1) eye 1a) eye 1a1) of physical eye 1a2) as showing mental qualities 1a3) of mental and spiritual faculties (fig.) 2) spring, fountain

and feigned madness
וַיִּתְהֹלֵ֖ל (way·yiṯ·hō·lêl)

Strong's Hebrew 1984: 1) to shine 1a) (Qal) to shine (fig. of God's favour) 1b) (Hiphil) to flash forth light 2) to praise, boast, be boastful 2a) (Qal) 2a1) to be boastful 2a2) boastful ones, boasters (participle) 2b) (Piel) 2b1) to praise 2b2) to boast, make a boast 2c) (Pual) 2c1) to be praised, be made praiseworthy, be commended, be worthy of praise 2d) (Hithpael) to boast, glory, make one's boast 2e) (Poel) to make a fool of, make into a fool 2f) (Hithpoel) to act madly, act like a madman

in their hands;
בְּיָדָ֑ם (bə·yā·ḏām)

Strong's Hebrew 3027: 1) hand 1a) hand (of man) 1b) strength, power (fig.) 1c) side (of land), part, portion (metaph.) (fig.) 1d) (various special, technical senses) 1d1) sign, monument 1d2) part, fractional part, share 1d3) time, repetition 1d4) axle-trees, axle 1d5) stays, support (for laver) 1d6) tenons (in tabernacle) 1d7) a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure) 1d8) wrists

he scratched
(וַיְתָיו֙) (way·ṯāw)

Strong's Hebrew 8427: 1) to scrabble, limit, mark, make or set a mark 1a) (Piel) to mark 1b) (Hiphil) to set a mark

on
עַל־ (‘al-)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5921: prep 1) upon, on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, beside, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by, on to, towards, to, against 1a) upon, on the ground of, on the basis of, on account of, because of, therefore, on behalf of, for the sake of, for, with, in spite of, notwithstanding, concerning, in the matter of, as regards 1b) above, beyond, over (of excess) 1c) above, over (of elevation or pre-eminence) 1d) upon, to, over to, unto, in addition to, together with, with (of addition) 1e) over (of suspension or extension) 1f) by, adjoining, next, at, over, around (of contiguity or proximity) 1g) down upon, upon, on, from, up upon, up to, towards, over towards, to, against (with verbs of motion) 1h) to (as a dative) conj 2) because that, because, notwithstanding, although

the doors
דַּלְת֣וֹת (dal·ṯō·wṯ)
Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 1817: 1) door, gate 1a) a door 1b) a gate 1c) (fig.) 1c1) of chest lid 1c2) of crocodile jaws 1c3) of doors of the heavens 1c4) of an easily-accessible woman

of the gate
הַשַּׁ֔עַר (haš·ša·‘ar)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8179: 1) gate 1a) gate (of entrance) 1b) gate (of space inside gate, i.e. marketplace, public meeting place) 1b1) city, town 1c) gate (of palace, royal castle, temple, court of tabernacle) 1d) heaven

and let his saliva run down
וַיּ֥וֹרֶד (way·yō·w·reḏ)
Preposition-b | Noun - cdc | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3381: 1) to go down, descend, decline, march down, sink down 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to go or come down 1a2) to sink 1a3) to be prostrated 1a4) to come down (of revelation) 1b) (Hiphil) 1b1) to bring down 1b2) to send down 1b3) to take down 1b4) to lay prostrate 1b5) to let down 1c) (Hophal) 1c1) to be brought down 1c2) to be taken down

אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 413: 1) to, toward, unto (of motion) 2) into (limit is actually entered) 2a) in among 3) toward (of direction, not necessarily physical motion) 4) against (motion or direction of a hostile character) 5) in addition to, to 6) concerning, in regard to, in reference to, on account of 7) according to (rule or standard) 8) at, by, against (of one's presence) 9) in between, in within, to within, unto (idea of motion to)

his beard.
זְקָנֽוֹ׃ (zə·qā·nōw)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Piel - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2206: 1) beard, chin 1a) beard 1b) chin

Parallel Strong's
Holman Christian Standard Bible
so he pretended to be insane in their presence.  He acted like a madman around them,  scribbling on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

New American Standard Bible
So he disguised his sanity before them, and acted insanely in their hands, and scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down into his beard.

King James Bible
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.
Parallel Verses
New International Version
So he pretended to be insane in their presence; and while he was in their hands he acted like a madman, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

New Living Translation
So he pretended to be insane, scratching on doors and drooling down his beard.

English Standard Version
So he changed his behavior before them and pretended to be insane in their hands and made marks on the doors of the gate and let his spittle run down his beard.

New American Standard Bible
So he disguised his sanity before them, and acted insanely in their hands, and scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down into his beard.

King James Bible
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
so he pretended to be insane in their presence. He acted like a madman around them, scribbling on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

International Standard Version
So David changed his behavior before them and acted like he was crazy in their presence. He scribbled on the doors of the gate, and let his saliva run down his beard.

NET Bible
He altered his behavior in their presence. Since he was in their power, he pretended to be insane, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting his saliva run down his beard.

American Standard Version
And he changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

English Revised Version
And he changed his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard.

Young's Literal Translation
and changeth his behaviour before their eyes, and feigneth himself mad in their hand, and scribbleth on the doors of the gate, and letteth down his spittle unto his beard.






Cross References
Leviticus 13:29
If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;

1 Samuel 21:14
Then said Achish unto his servants, Lo, ye see the man is mad: wherefore then have ye brought him to me?

Psalm 34:1
I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth.

1 Samuel 1:1
Now there was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:

1 Samuel 21:12
And David laid up these words in his heart, and was sore afraid of Achish the king of Gath.

1 Samuel 21:11
And the servants of Achish said unto him, Is not this David the king of the land? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, saying, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands?

1 Samuel 21:10
And David arose, and fled that day for fear of Saul, and went to Achish the king of Gath.

1 Samuel 21:15
Have I need of mad men, that ye have brought this fellow to play the mad man in my presence? shall this fellow come into my house?

1 Samuel 22:1
David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it, they went down thither to him.
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Acted Beard Behavior Changed Changeth Changing Chin Demeanour Disguised Doors Eyes Hammering Hand Hands Head Insane Mad Madman Making Marks Mouth Presence Pretended Run Saliva Sanity Seem Spittle Water
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Acted Beard Behavior Changed Changeth Changing Chin Demeanour Disguised Doors Eyes Hammering Hand Hands Head Insane Mad Madman Making Marks Mouth Presence Pretended Run Saliva Sanity Seem Spittle Water
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