Ruth 4:7
New International Version
(Now in earlier times in Israel, for the redemption and transfer of property to become final, one party took off his sandal and gave it to the other. This was the method of legalizing transactions in Israel.)

New Living Translation
Now in those days it was the custom in Israel for anyone transferring a right of purchase to remove his sandal and hand it to the other party. This publicly validated the transaction.

English Standard Version
Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning redeeming and exchanging: to confirm a transaction, the one drew off his sandal and gave it to the other, and this was the manner of attesting in Israel.

Berean Study Bible
(Now in former times in Israel, concerning the redemption or exchange of property, to make any matter legally binding a man would remove his sandal and give it to the other party, and this was a confirmation in Israel.)

New American Standard Bible
Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning the redemption and the exchange of land to confirm any matter: a man removed his sandal and gave it to another; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel.

King James Bible
Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: and this was a testimony in Israel.

Christian Standard Bible
At an earlier period in Israel, a man removed his sandal and gave it to the other party in order to make any matter legally binding concerning the right of redemption or the exchange of property. This was the method of legally binding a transaction in Israel.

Contemporary English Version
To make a sale legal in those days, one person would take off a sandal and give it to the other.

Good News Translation
Now in those days, to settle a sale or an exchange of property, it was the custom for the seller to take off his sandal and give it to the buyer. In this way the Israelites showed that the matter was settled.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
At an earlier period in Israel, a man removed his sandal and gave it to the other party in order to make any matter legally binding concerning the right of redemption or the exchange of property. This was the method of legally binding a transaction in Israel.

International Standard Version
During Israel's earlier history, all things concerning redeeming or changing inheritances were confirmed by a man taking off his sandal and giving it to the other party, thereby creating a public record in Israel.

NET Bible
(Now this used to be the customary way to finalize a transaction involving redemption in Israel: A man would remove his sandal and give it to the other party. This was a legally binding act in Israel.)

New Heart English Bible
Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man took off his sandal, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was the way of attestation in Israel.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
(This is the way it used to be in Israel concerning buying back property and exchanging goods: In order to make every matter legal, a man would take off his sandal and give it to the other man. This was the way a contract was publicly approved in Israel.)

JPS Tanakh 1917
Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.--

New American Standard 1977
Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning the redemption and the exchange of land to confirm any matter: a man removed his sandal and gave it to another; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Now for a long time in Israel there had been this custom concerning redemption or contracts, that for the confirmation of all matters: one plucked off his shoe and gave it to his neighbour, and this was a testimony in Israel.

King James 2000 Bible
Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, for to confirm all things; a man took off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor: and this was a testimony in Israel.

American King James Version
Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor: and this was a testimony in Israel.

American Standard Version
Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And this was in former time the ordinance in Israel for redemption, and for a bargain, to confirm every word: A man loosed his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour that redeemed his right; and this was a testimony in Israel.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Now this in former times was the manner in Israel between kinsmen, that if at any time one yielded his right to another: that the grant might be sure, the man put off his shoe, and gave it to his neighhour; this was a testimony of cession of right in Israel.

Darby Bible Translation
Now this [was the custom] in former time in Israel concerning redemption and concerning exchange, to confirm the whole matter: a man drew off his sandal, and gave it to his neighbour, and this was the [mode of] attestation in Israel.

English Revised Version
Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, for to confirm all things; a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: and this was the manner of attestation in Israel.

Webster's Bible Translation
Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for confirming all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor: and this was a testimony in Israel.

World English Bible
Now this was [the custom] in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man took off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was the [way of] attestation in Israel.

Young's Literal Translation
And this is formerly in Israel for redemption and for changing, to establish anything: a man hath drawn off his sandal, and given it to his neighbour, and this is the testimony in Israel.
Study Bible
Boaz Redeems Ruth
6The kinsman-redeemer replied, “I cannot redeem it myself, or I would jeopardize my own inheritance. Take my right of redemption, because I cannot redeem it.” 7(Now in former times in Israel, concerning the redemption or exchange of property, to make any matter legally binding a man would remove his sandal and give it to the other party, and this was a confirmation in Israel.) 8So the kinsman-redeemer removed his sandal and said to Boaz, “Buy it for yourself.”…
Cross References
Deuteronomy 25:8
Then the elders of his city shall summon him and speak with him. If he persists and says, "I do not want to marry her,"

Deuteronomy 25:9
his brother's widow shall go up to him in the presence of the elders, remove his sandal, spit in his face, and declare, "This is what is done to the man who will not maintain his brother's line."

Ruth 4:8
So the kinsman-redeemer removed his sandal and said to Boaz, "Buy it for yourself."

Treasury of Scripture

Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor: and this was a testimony in Israel.

a man plucked off.

Deuteronomy 25:7-10
And if the man like not to take his brother's wife, then let his brother's wife go up to the gate unto the elders, and say, My husband's brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel, he will not perform the duty of my husband's brother…







Lexicon
(Now
וְזֹאת֩ (wə·zōṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Pronoun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2063: Hereby in it, likewise, the one other, same, she, so much, such deed, that,

in former times
לְפָנִ֨ים (lə·p̄ā·nîm)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6440: The face

in Israel,
בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל (bə·yiś·rā·’êl)
Preposition-b | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3478: Israel -- 'God strives', another name of Jacob and his desc

concerning
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

the redemption
הַגְּאוּלָּ֤ה (hag·gə·’ūl·lāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1353: Redemption, relationship

or exchange of property,
הַתְּמוּרָה֙ (hat·tə·mū·rāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8545: Barter, compensation

to make any
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

matter
דָּבָ֔ר (dā·ḇār)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1697: A word, a matter, thing, a cause

legally binding
לְקַיֵּ֣ם (lə·qay·yêm)
Preposition-l | Verb - Piel - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 6965: To arise, stand up, stand

a man
אִ֛ישׁ (’îš)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 376: A man as an individual, a male person

would remove
שָׁלַ֥ף (šā·lap̄)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8025: To pull out, up, off

his sandal
נַעֲל֖וֹ (na·‘ă·lōw)
Noun - feminine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5275: A sandal tongue, a sandal, slipper

and give it
וְנָתַ֣ן (wə·nā·ṯan)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5414: To give, put, set

to the other party,
לְרֵעֵ֑הוּ (lə·rê·‘ê·hū)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7453: Friend, companion, fellow

and this [was]
וְזֹ֥את (wə·zōṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Pronoun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2063: Hereby in it, likewise, the one other, same, she, so much, such deed, that,

a confirmation
הַתְּעוּדָ֖ה (hat·tə·‘ū·ḏāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8584: Attestation, a precept, usage

in Israel.)
בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (bə·yiś·rā·’êl)
Preposition-b | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3478: Israel -- 'God strives', another name of Jacob and his desc
(7) In former time.--Arguments have been built on this word in favour of our assigning a late date to the book, but the inference seems hardly warranted. The same Hebrew word occurs in Deuteronomy 2:10, Judges 1:10, &c.

Plucked off his shoe.--The idea of this act apparently is that the man resigns the right of walking on the land as master, in favour of him to whom he gives the shoe. A similar but not identical custom is prescribed in Deuteronomy 25:9.

A testimony.--The testimony, the manner in which the solemn witness is born.

Verse 7. - And this was formerly a custom in Israel, on occasion of surrendering rights of kinship, or of selling and buying land, in order to confirm any matter; a man drew off his shoe and gave it to the other contracting party. This was attestation in Israel. We give a free translation. The custom was significant enough. He who sold land, or surrendered his right to act as a kinsman in buying land, intimated by the symbolical act of taking off his shoe, and handing it to his friend, that he freely gave up his right to walk upon the soil, in favor of the person who had acquired the possession. Corresponding symbolical acts, in connection with the transfer of lands, have been common, and probably still are, in many countries. No doubt the shoe, after being received, would be immediately returned. 4:1-8 This matter depended on the laws given by Moses about inheritances, and doubtless the whole was settled in the regular and legal manner. This kinsman, when he heard the conditions of the bargain, refused it. In like manner many are shy of the great redemption; they are not willing to espouse religion; they have heard well of it, and have nothing to say against it; they will give it their good word, but they are willing to part with it, and cannot be bound to it, for fear of marring their own inheritance in this world. The right was resigned to Boaz. Fair and open dealing in all matters of contract and trade, is what all must make conscience of, who would approve themselves true Israelites, without guile. Honesty will be found the best policy.
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Alphabetical: Now a and another any attestation become concerning confirm custom earlier exchange final for former gave his in Israel Israel it land legalizing man manner matter method Now of off one other party property redemption removed sandal the This times to took transactions transfer was

OT History: Ruth 4:7 Now this was the custom in former (Ru Rut.) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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