Adullam
Jump to: Hitchcock'sSmith'sATSISBEEaston'sConcordanceThesaurusHebrewLibrarySubtopicsTerms
Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
Adullam

their testimony; their prey; their ornament

Smith's Bible Dictionary
Adullam

(justice of the people), Apocr. ODOLLAM, a city of Judah int he lowland of the Shefelah, (Joshua 15:35) the seat of a Canaanite king, (Joshua 12:15) and evidently a place of great antiquity. (Genesis 38:1,12,20) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7) it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:30) and still a city in the time of the Macabees. 2Ma 12:38 Adullam was probably near Deir Dubban , five or six miles north of Eleutheropolis. The limestone cliffs of the whole of that locality are pierced with extensive excavations, some one of which is doubtless the "cave of Adullam," the refuge of David. (1 Samuel 22:1; 2 Samuel 23:13; 1 Chronicles 11:15)

ATS Bible Dictionary
Adullam

An ancient city in the plain of Judah, southwest of Jerusalem, Genesis 38:1 Joshua 15:35. Its king was slain by Joshua, Joshua 12:15. It was one of the cities rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chronicles 11:7 Micah 1:15, and was reoccupied by the Jews after the captivity, Nehemiah 11:30.

When David withdrew from Achish, king of Gath, he retired to the "cave of Adullam," 1 Samuel 22:1 2 Samuel 23:13. The location of this cave, however, is uncertain. Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers. It is capable of holding thousands.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
One of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now `Aid-el-ma (Joshua 12:15; 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (1 Samuel 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2 Chronicles 11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Micah 1:15).

The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" (1 Samuel 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ADULLAM

a-dul'-am (`adhullam):

(1) A city, with dependencies, and in ancient times having a king, mentioned five times in the Old Testament, each time in a list with other cities (Joshua 12:15; Joshua 15:35 2 Chronicles 11:7 Micah 1:15 Nehemiah 11:30). In the list of 31 kings whom Joshua smote, Adullam follows Hormah, Arad, Libnah, and precedes Makkedah. Among the 14 Judahite cities of the first group in "the lowland" Adullam is mentioned between Jarmuth and Socoh. In the list of 15 cities fortified by Rehoboam it appears between Socoh and Gath. Micah gives what may be a list of cities concerned in some Assyrian approach to Jerusalem; it begins with Gath, includes Lachish, and ends with Mareshah and Adullam. And Adullam is still in the same company in the list in Nehemiah of the cities "and their villages" where the men of Judah then dwelt. In the time of the patriarchs it was a place to which men "went down" from the central mountain ridge (Genesis 38:1). Judas Maccabeus found it still existing as a city (2 Maccabees 12:38). Common opinion identifies Adullam with the ruin `Aid-el-Ma, 13 miles West-Southwest from Bethlehem (see HGHL, 229). This is in spite of the testimony of the Onomasticon, which, it is alleged, confuses Adullam with Eglon. Presumably the city gave its name to the cave of Adullam, the cave being near the city.

(2) The cave of Adullam, David's headquarters during a part of the time when he was a fugitive from Saul (1 Samuel 22:1 2 Samuel 23:13 1 Chronicles 11:15). Sufficient care has not been exercised in reading the Bible statements on this subject. To begin with, Hebrew syntax permits of the use of the word "cave" collectively; it may denote a group or a region of caves; it is not shut up to the meaning that there was one immense cave in which David and his 400 men all found accommodations at once. All reasonings based on this notion are futile.

Further, by the most natural syntax of 2 Samuel 23:13-17 (duplicated with unimportant variations in 1 Chronicles 11:15-19), that passage describes two different events, and does not connect the cave of Adullam with the second of these. "And three of the thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim. And David was then in the stronghold; and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Beth-lehem. And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me water," etc. Concerning these three seniors among David's "mighty men" it is narrated, first, that they were David's comrades in a certain battle, a battle which the Chronicler identifies with Pas-dammim, where David slew Goliath; second, that they joined David at the cave of Adullam, presumably during the time when he was hiding from Saul; third, that at a later time, when the Philistines were in the valley of Rephaim (compare 2 Samuel 5:18), and David was "in the stronghold" (Josephus says "at Jerusalem," Ant, VII, xii, 4), these men broke through the Philistine lines and brought him water from the home well of Bethlehem.

The cave of Adullam, like the city, was "down" from the central ridge (1 Samuel 22:1 2 Samuel 23:13). The city was in Judah; and David and his men were in Judah (1 Samuel 23:3) at a time when, apparently, the cave was their headquarters. Gad's advice to David to return to Judah (1 Samuel 22:3, 5) was given at a time when he had left the cave of Adullam. If the current identification of `Aid-el-Ma as Adullam is correct, the cave of Adullam is probably the cave region which has been found in that vicinity.

It has been objected that this location is too far from Bethlehem for David's men to have brought the water from there. To this it is replied that thirteen or fourteen miles is not an excessive distance for three exceptionally vigorous men to go and return; and a yet stronger reply is found in the consideration just mentioned, that the place from which the men went for the water was not the cave of Adullam. The one argument for the tradition to the effect that Chariton's cave, a few miles Southeast of Bethlehem, is Adullam, is the larger size of this cave, as compared with those near `Aid-el-Ma We have already seen that this has no force.

In our current speech "cave of Adullam" suggests an aggregation of ill-assorted and disreputable men. This is not justified by the Bible record. David's men included his numerous and respectable kinsmen, and the representative of the priesthood, and some of David's military companions, and some men who afterward held high office in Israel. Even those who are described as being in distress and debt and bitter of soul were doubtless, many of them, persons who had suffered at the hands of Saul on account of their friendship for David. Doubtless they included mere adventurers in their number; but the Scriptural details and the circumstances alike indicate that they were mainly homogeneous, and that most of them were worthy citizens.

Willis J. Beecher

Strong's Hebrew
5725. Adullam -- a Canaanite city
... 5724, 5725. Adullam. 5726 . a Canaanite city. Transliteration: Adullam
Phonetic Spelling: (ad-ool-lawm') Short Definition: Adullam. ...
/hebrew/5725.htm - 6k

5726. Adullami -- inhab. of Adullam
... inhab. of Adullam. Transliteration: Adullami Phonetic Spelling: (ad-ool-law-mee')
Short Definition: Adullamite. Word Origin from Adullam Definition inhab. ...
/hebrew/5726.htm - 6k

Library

The Story of the Cave of Adullam
... THE STORY OF THE CAVE OF ADULLAM. Now Saul had a son, Jonathan, near David's own
age. ... He found a great cave, called the cave of Adullam, and hid in it. ...
/.../marshall/the wonder book of bible stories/the story of the cave.htm

Chapter xxxviii
... 1-5. And it came to pass at that time that Judah went down away from his brethren
and pitched his tent near a man of Adullam, whose name was Hirah. ...
/.../leupold/exposition of genesis volume 1/chapter xxxviii.htm

The Exile --Continued.
... VI."THE EXILE"CONTINUED. We have one psalm which the title connects with
the beginning of David's stay at Adullam,"the thirty-fourth. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/the life of david/vi the exilecontinued.htm

The Encamping Angel
... hours in David's life. His fortunes were never lower than when he fled from
Gath, the city of Goliath, to Adullam. He never appears ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture j/the encamping angel.htm

The Fifth
... For, though he had been anointed as king, he was not as yet sitting on his own throne,
but was in the cave Adullam, or the place of testimony. [52]. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/bullinger/commentary on revelation/the fifth.htm

A Libation to Jehovah
... David's fortunes were at a low ebb. He was in hiding in his cave of Adullam,
and a Philistine garrison held Bethlehem, his native place. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture f/a libation to jehovah.htm

The Exile Continued.
... The exact locality of the cave Adullam, where we next find him, is doubtful; but
several strong reasons occur for rejecting the monkish tradition which places ...
//christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/the life of david/v the exilecontinued.htm

Strong Faith in a Faithful God
... Psalm 57:2. DAVID was in the cave of Adullam. He had ... king over Israel. His
way to the throne was by Adullam. Strange route! To be ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 61 1915/strong faith in a faithful.htm

The King --Continued.
... my rock and my fortress," reminds us of his cry in Ziklag, "Thou art my rock and
my fortress" (xxxi.3), and of the "hold" (the same word) of Adullam in which ...
//christianbookshelf.org/maclaren/the life of david/x the kingcontinued.htm

The Reign of David.
... The brief record of these wars shows that they were very bitter and that at one
time David was forced to take refuge in the Cave of Adullam and carry on a sort ...
/.../tidwell/the bible period by period/chapter xi the reign of.htm

Thesaurus
Adullam (10 Occurrences)
... The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's
triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. ...ADULLAM. ...
/a/adullam.htm - 16k

Jarmuth (7 Occurrences)
... In Joshua 15:35 it is mentioned in conjunction with Adullam, Socoh and Azekah,
and in Nehemiah 11:29 with Zorah, Zanoah and Adullam. ...
/j/jarmuth.htm - 11k

Adullamite (3 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary An inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Genesis 38:1, 12,
20). ... ADULLAMITE. a-dul'-am-it: The gentilic adjective of ADULLAM, which see. ...
/a/adullamite.htm - 7k

Cave (40 Occurrences)
... 10:16, 27). The cave of Adullam (qv), an immense natural cavern, where
David hid himself from Saul (1 Samuel 22:1, 2). The cave ...
/c/cave.htm - 25k

Rephaim (32 Occurrences)
... He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam (2 Samuel 5:17-22), and the Philistines
took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west ...
/r/rephaim.htm - 21k

Zanoah (5 Occurrences)
... Here it is named between Jarmuth and Adullam. ... Nehemiah 11:30 Zanoah, Adullam, and
their villages, Lachish and its fields, Azekah and its towns. ...
/z/zanoah.htm - 9k

Reph'aim (17 Occurrences)
... 2 Samuel 23:13 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the
harvest time unto the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines were ...
/r/reph'aim.htm - 11k

Enam (1 Occurrence)
... Ainan; Genesis 38:14 (the King James Version "in an open place"; Genesis 38:21 the
King James Version "openly")): A place which lay between Adullam and Timnath ...
/e/enam.htm - 7k

Enaim (2 Occurrences)
... Ainan; Genesis 38:14 (the King James Version "in an open place"; Genesis 38:21 the
King James Version "openly")): A place which lay between Adullam and Timnath ...
/e/enaim.htm - 8k

Camping (7 Occurrences)
... 2 Samuel 23:13 And three of the thirty heads go down and come unto the harvest,
unto David, unto the cave of Adullam, and the company of the Philistines are ...
/c/camping.htm - 8k

Concordance
Adullam (10 Occurrences)

Genesis 38:1
It happened at that time, that Judah went down from his brothers, and visited a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
(Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 38:12
After many days, Shua's daughter, the wife of Judah, died. Judah was comforted, and went up to his sheepshearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah, the Adullamite.
(Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Joshua 12:15
the king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Joshua 15:35
Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Samuel 22:1
David therefore departed there, and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and all his father's house heard it, they went down there to him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Samuel 23:13
Three of the thirty chief men went down, and came to David in the harvest time to the cave of Adullam; and the troop of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Chronicles 11:15
Three of the thirty chief men went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the army of the Philistines were encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 11:7
Beth Zur, and Soco, and Adullam,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Nehemiah 11:30
Zanoah, Adullam, and their villages, Lachish and its fields, Azekah and its towns. So they encamped from Beersheba to the valley of Hinnom.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Micah 1:15
I will yet bring to you, inhabitant of Mareshah. He who is the glory of Israel will come to Adullam.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Adullam

Adullam: A Cave Near the Dead Sea

Adullam: A Cave Near the Dead Sea: David Takes Refuge In

Adullam: An Ancient City of Canaan

Related Terms

Jarmuth (7 Occurrences)

Adullamite (3 Occurrences)

Cave (40 Occurrences)

Rephaim (32 Occurrences)

Zanoah (5 Occurrences)

Reph'aim (17 Occurrences)

Enam (1 Occurrence)

Enaim (2 Occurrences)

Camping (7 Occurrences)

Aze'kah (6 Occurrences)

Azekah (7 Occurrences)

Soco (3 Occurrences)

Socoh (4 Occurrences)

Encamping (24 Occurrences)

Philistines (224 Occurrences)

Zur (9 Occurrences)

Zano'ah (4 Occurrences)

Nebo (13 Occurrences)

Odollam

Jashobeam (3 Occurrences)

Libnah (18 Occurrences)

Grain-cutting (19 Occurrences)

Inhabitress (12 Occurrences)

Flea (2 Occurrences)

Troop (28 Occurrences)

Edrei (8 Occurrences)

Daughter-towns (17 Occurrences)

Mareshah (8 Occurrences)

Mare'shah (8 Occurrences)

Possessor (12 Occurrences)

Proper (62 Occurrences)

Bethzur (4 Occurrences)

Beth-zur (4 Occurrences)

Bethlehem (49 Occurrences)

Bath-shua (3 Occurrences)

Conqueror (2 Occurrences)

Amasai (5 Occurrences)

Achzib (4 Occurrences)

Achish (20 Occurrences)

Abiathar (29 Occurrences)

Aduel

Shoco (1 Occurrence)

Shocho (2 Occurrences)

Sochoh (4 Occurrences)

Settlements (27 Occurrences)

Debtor (7 Occurrences)

Hirah (3 Occurrences)

Debt (48 Occurrences)

Wool (34 Occurrences)

Hereth (1 Occurrence)

Forest (67 Occurrences)

Beer-sheba (33 Occurrences)

Dependent (35 Occurrences)

Shephelah (2 Occurrences)

Start (50 Occurrences)

Escaped (94 Occurrences)

Gath (44 Occurrences)

Hinnom (11 Occurrences)

Cutting (178 Occurrences)

Loss (90 Occurrences)

Band (150 Occurrences)

Beersheba (33 Occurrences)

Army (401 Occurrences)

Lachish (22 Occurrences)

Inhabitant (54 Occurrences)

Friend (139 Occurrences)

Pitched (101 Occurrences)

Hamlets (38 Occurrences)

Captains (159 Occurrences)

Thither (119 Occurrences)

Territory (140 Occurrences)

David (1052 Occurrences)

Encamped (115 Occurrences)

Villages (106 Occurrences)

Exploration

Thence (152 Occurrences)

Chiefs (227 Occurrences)

Judah (802 Occurrences)

Links
Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus


Aduel
Top of Page
Top of Page