Army
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Army

I. JEWISH ARMY.--Every man above 20 years of age was a soldier, (Numbers 1:3) each tribe formed a regiment, with its own banner and its own leader (Numbers 2:2; 10:14) their positions in the camp or on the march were accurately fixed, Numb. 2; the whole army started and stopped at a given signal, (Numbers 10:5,6) thus they came up out of Egypt ready for the fight. (Exodus 13:18) On the approach of an enemy a conscription was made from the general body, under the direction of a muster-master, (20:5; 2 Kings 25:19) by whom also the officers were appointed. (20:9) The army had then divided into thousands and hundreds under their respective captains, (Numbers 31:14) and still further into families. (Numbers 2:34; 2 Chronicles 25:5; 26:12) With the king arose the custom of maintaining a body-guard, which formed the nucleus of a standing army, and David's band of 600, (1 Samuel 23:13; 25:13) he retained after he became king, and added the CHERETHITES and PELETHITES. (2 Samuel 15:18; 20:7) David further organized a national militia, divided into twelve regiments under their respective officers, each of which was called out for one month in the year. (1 Chronicles 27:1) ... It does not appear that the system established by David was maintained by the kings of Judah; but in Israel the proximity of the hostile kingdom of Syria necessitated the maintenance of a standing army. The maintenance and equipment of the soldiers at the public expense dated from the establishment of a standing army. It is doubtful whether the soldier ever received pay even under the kings. II. ROMAN EMPIRE ARMY.--The Roman army was divided into legions, the number of which varied considerably (from 3000 to 6000), each under six tribuni ("chief captains,") (Acts 21:31) who commanded by turns. The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts ("band,") (Acts 10:1) the cohort into three maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, containing originally 100 men, as the name implies, but subsequently from 50 to 100 men, according to the strength of the legion. There were thus 60 centuries in a legion, each under the command of a centurion. (Acts 10:1,22; Matthew 8:5; 27:54) In addition to the legionary cohorts, independent cohorts of volunteers served under the Roman standards. One of these cohorts was named the Italian, (Acts 10:1) as consisting of volunteers from Italy. The headquarters of the Roman forces in Judea were at Caesarea.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Exodus 13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Numbers 2:2; 10:14). In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains (Numbers 31:14), and also into families (Numbers 2:34; 2 Chronicles 25:5; 26:12). From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors (1 Samuel 13:2; 14:52; 24:2). David also had a band of soldiers around him (1 Samuel 23:13; 25:13). To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2 Samuel 15:18; 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1 Samuel 4:10; 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deuteronomy 17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (2 Samuel 8:4; 1 Kings 10:26, 28, 29; 1 Kings 9:19). In 1 Kings 9:22 there is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army were at the public expense (2 Samuel 17:28, 29; 1 Kings 4:27; 10:16, 17; Judges 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Exodus 12:37). In David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2 Samuel 24:9).
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A collection or body of men armed for war, esp. one organized in companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, under proper officers.

2. (n.) A body of persons organized for the advancement of a cause; as, the Blue Ribbon Army.

3. (n.) A great number; a vast multitude; a host.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ARMY

ar'-mi (chayil, "army," tsabha', "host," ma`arakhah, "army in battle array" gedhudh, "troop"):

1. The First Campaign of History

2. In the Wilderness

3. The Times after the Conquest

4. In the Early Monarchy

5. From the Time of Solomon Onward

6. Organization of the Hebrew Army

7. The Army in the Field

8. The Supplies of the Army

9. In the New Testament

The Israelites were not a distinctively warlike people and their glory has been won on other fields than those of war. But Canaan, between the Mediterranean and the desert, was the highway of the East and the battle-ground of nations. The Israelites were, by the necessity of their geographical position, often involved in wars not of their own seeking, and their bravery and endurance even when worsted in their conflicts won for them the admiration and respect of their conquerors.

1. The First Campaign of History:

The first conflict of armed forces recorded in Holy Scripture is that in Genesis 14. The kings of the Jordan valley had rebelled against Chedorlaomer, king of Elam-not the first of the kings of the East to reach the Mediterranean with his armies-and joined battle with him and other kings in the Vale of Siddim. In this campaign Abraham distinguished himself by the rescue of his nephew Lot, who had fallen with all that he possessed into the hands of the Elamite king. The force with which Abraham effected the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him was his own retainers, 318 in number, whom he had armed and led forth in person in his successful pursuit.

2. In the Wilderness:

When we first make the acquaintance of the Israelites as a nation, they are a horde of fugitives who have escaped from the bitter oppression and hard bondage of Pharaoh. Although there could have been but little of the martial spirit in a people so long and grievously oppressed, their journeyings through the wilderness toward Canaan are from the first described as the marching of a great host. It was according to their "armies" ("hosts" the Revised Version (British and American)) that Aaron and Moses were to bring the Children of Israel from the land of Egypt (Exodus 6:26). When they had entered upon the wilderness they went up "harnessed" ("armed" the Revised Version (British and American)) for the journeyings that lay before them-where "harnessed" or "armed" may point not to the weapons they bore but to the order and arrangements of a body of troops marching five deep (hamushshim) or divided into five army corps (Exodus 13:18).

On the way through the wilderness they encamped (Exodus 13:20; and passim) at their successive halting-places, and the whole army of 600,000 was, after Sinai, marked off into divisions or army corps, each with its own camp and the ensigns of their fathers' houses (Numbers 2:2). "From twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel," the males of the tribes were numbered and assigned to their place in the camp (Numbers 1:3). Naturally, in the wilderness they are footmen (Numbers 11:21), and it was not till the period of the monarchy that other arms were added. Bow and sling and spear and sword for attack, and shield and helmet for defense, would be the full equipment of the men called upon to fight in the desert. Although we hear little of gradations of military rank, we do read of captains of thousands and captains of hundreds in the wilderness (Numbers 31:14), and Joshua commands the fighting men in the battle against the Amalekites at Rephidim (Exodus 17:9). That the Israelites acquired in their journeyings in the wilderness the discipline and martial spirit which would make them a warlike people, may be gathered from their successes against the Midianites, against Og, king of Bashan, toward the close of the forty years, and from the military organization with which they proceeded to the conquest of Canaan.

3. The Times after the Conquest:

In more than one campaign the Israelites under Joshua's leadership established themselves in Canaan. But it was largely through the enterprise of the several tribes after that the conquest was achieved. The progress of the invaders was stubbornly contested, but Joshua encouraged his kinsmen of Ephraim and Manasseh to press on the conquest even against the invincible war-chariots of the Canaanites-"for thou shalt drive out the Canaanites, though they have iron chariots, and though they are strong" (Joshua 17:18). As it was in the early history of Rome, where the defense of the state was an obligation resting upon every individual according to his stake in the public welfare, so it was at first in Israel. Tribal jealousies, however, impaired the sentiment of nationality and hindered united action when once the people had been settled in Canaan.

The tribes had to defend their own, and it was only a great emergency that united them in common action. The first notable approach to national unity was seen in the army which Barak assembled to meet the host of Jabin, king of Hazor, under the command of Sisera (Judges 4:5). In Deborah's war-song in commemoration of the notable victory achieved by Barak and herself, the men of the northern tribes, Zebulun, Naphtali, Issachar, along with warriors of Manasseh, Ephraim and Benjamin, are praised for the valor with which they withstood and routed the host-foot, horse and chariots-of Sisera. Once again the tribes of Israel assembled in force from "Da even to Beersheba, with the land of Gilead" (Judges 20:1) to punish the tribe of Benjamin for condoning a gross outrage. The single tribe was defeated in the battle that ensued, but they were able to put into the field "26,000 men that drew sword," and they had also "700 chosen men left-handed; every one could sling stones at a hair-breadth, and not miss" (Judges 20:15, 16).

4. In the Early Monarchy:

Up to this time the fighting forces of the Israelites were more of the character of a militia. The men of the tribes more immediately harassed by enemies were summoned for action by the leader raised up by God, and disbanded when the emergency was past. The monarchy brought changes in military affairs. It was the plea of the leaders of Israel, when they desired to have a king, that he would go out before them and fight their battles (1 Samuel 8:20). Samuel had warned them that with a monarchy a professional soldiery would be required. "He will take your sons, and appoint them unto him, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and they shall run before his chariots; and he will appoint them unto him for captains of thousands, and captains of fifties; and he Will set some to plow his ground, and reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and the instruments of his chariots" (1 Samuel 8:11, 12). That this was the course which military reform took in the period following the establishment of the monarchy may well be. It fell to Saul when he ascended the throne to withstand the invading Philistines and to relieve his people from the yoke which they had already laid heavily upon some parts of the country.

The Philistines were a military people, well disciplined and armed, with 30,000 chariots and 6,000 horsemen at their service when they came up to Michmash (1 Samuel 13:5). What chance had raw levies of vinedressers and herdsmen from Judah and Benjamin against such a foe? No wonder that the Israelites hid themselves in caves and thickets, and in rocks, and in holes, and in pits (1 Samuel 13:6). And it is quoted by the historian as the lowest depth of national degradation that the Israelites had to go down to the Philistines "to sharpen every man his share, and his coulter, and his axe, and his mattock" (1 Samuel 13:20) because the Philistines had carried off their smiths to prevent them from making swords or spears.

It was in this desperate condition that King Saul was called to begin the struggle for freedom and national unity in Israel. The victories at Michmash and Elah and the hotly contested but unsuccessful and fatal struggle at Gilboa evince the growth of the martial spirit and advance alike in discipline and in strategy. After the relief of Jabesh-gilead, instead of disbanding the whole of his levies, Saul retained 3,000 men under arms, and this in all probability became the nucleus of the standing army of Israel (1 Samuel 13:2). From this time onward "when Saul saw any mighty man, or any valiant man, he took him unto him" (1 Samuel 14:52). Of the valiant men whom Saul kept round his person, the most notable were Jonathan and David. Jonathan had command of one division of 1,000 men at Gibeah (1 Samuel 13:2), and David was captain of the king's bodyguard (1 Samuel 18:5; compare 1 Samuel 18:13). When David fell under Saul's jealousy and betook himself to an outlaw life in the mountain fastnesses of Judah, he gathered round him in the cave of Adullam 400 men (1 Samuel 22:1, 2) who were ere long increased to 600 (1 Samuel 23:1, 3). From the story of Nabal (1 Samuel 25) we learn how a band like that of David could be maintained in service, and we gather that landholders who benefited by the presence of an armed force were expected to provide the necessary supplies. On David's accession to the throne this band of warriors remained attached to his person and became the backbone of his army.

We can identify them with the gibborim-the mighty men of whom Benaiah at a later time became captain (2 Samuel 23:22, 23 1 Kings 1:8) and who are also known by the name of Cherethites and Pelethites (2 Samuel 8:18). These may have received their name from their foreign origin, the former, in Hebrew kerethi being originally from Crete but akin to the Philistines; and the latter, in Hebrew pelethi being Philistines by birth. That there were foreign soldiers in David's service we know from the examples of Uriah the Hittite and Ittai of Gath. David's gibborim have been compared to the Praetorian Cohort of the Roman emperors, the Janissaries of the sultans, and the Swiss Guards of the French kings. Of David's army Joab was the commander-in-chief, and to the military' genius of this rough and unscrupulous warrior, the king's near kinsman, the dynasty of David was deeply indebted.

5. From the Time of Solomon Onward:

In the reign of Solomon, although peace was its prevailing characteristic, there can have been no diminution of the armed forces of the kingdom, for we read of military expeditions against Edom and Syria and Hamath, and also of fortresses built in every part of the land, which would require troops to garrison them. Hazor, the old Canaanite capital, at the foot of Lebanon; Megiddo commanding the rich plain of Jezreel; Gezer overlooking the Philistine plain; the Bethhorons (Upper and Nether); and Tadmor in the wilderness; not to speak of Jerusalem with Millo and the fortified wall, were fortresses requiring strong garrisons (1 Kings 9:15). It is probable that "the levy," which was such a burden upon the people at large, included forced military service as well as forced labor, and helped to create the dissatisfaction which culminated in the revolt of Jeroboam, and eventually in the disruption of the kingdom. Although David had reserved from the spoils of war in his victorious campaign against Hadadezer, king of Zobah, horses for 100 chariots (2 Samuel 8:4), cavalry and chariots were not an effective branch of the service in his reign. Solomon, however, disregarding the scruples of the stricter Israelites, and the ordinances of the ancient law (Deuteronomy 17:16), added horses and chariots on a large scale to the military equipment of the nation (1 Kings 10:26-29). It is believed that it was from Musri, a country of northern Syria occupied by the Hittites, and Kue in Cilicia, that Solomon obtained horses for his cavalry and chariotry (1 Kings 10:29 2 Chronicles 1:16, where the best text gives Mutsri, and not the Hebrew word for Egypt). This branch of the service was not only looked upon with distrust by the stricter Israelites, but was expressly denounced in later times by the prophets (Isaiah 2:7 Hosea 1:7 Micah 5:10). In the prophets, too, more than in the historical books, we are made acquainted with the cavalry and chariotry of Assyria and Babylon which in the days of Sargon, Sennacherib, and Nebuchadnezzar had become so formidable. Their lancers and mounted archers, together with their chariots, gave them a sure ascendancy in the field of war (Nahum 3:2, 3 Habakkuk 1:8 Jeremiah 46:4). In comparison with these, the cavalry of the kings of Israel and Judah was insignificant, and to this Rabshakeh contemptuously referred (2 Kings 18:23) when he promised to the chiefs of Judah from the king of Assyria 2,000 horses if Hezekiah could put riders upon them.

6. Organization of the Hebrew Army:

As we have seen, every male in Israel at the age of twenty, according to the ancient law, became liable for military service (Numbers 1:3; Numbers 26:2 2 Chronicles 25:5), just as at a later time every male of that age became liable for the half-shekel of Temple dues. Josephus is our authority for believing that no one was called upon to serve after the age of fifty (Ant., III, xii, 4). From military service the Levites were exempt (Numbers 2:33). In Deuteronomic law exemption was allowed to persons betrothed but not married, to persons who had built a house but had not dedicated it, or who had planted a vineyard but had not eaten of the fruit of it, and to persons faint-hearted and fearful whose timidity might spread throughout the ranks (Deuteronomy 20:1-9). These exemptions no doubt reach back to a high antiquity and in the Maccabean period they still held good (1 Maccabees 3:56). The army was divided into bodies of 1,000, 100, 50, and in Maccabean times, 10, each under its own captain (Sar) (Numbers 31:14 1 Samuel 8:12 2 Kings 1:9 2 Chronicles 25:5; 1 Maccabees 3:55). In the army of Uzziah we read of "heads of fathers' houses," mighty men of valor who numbered 2,600 and had under their hand a trained army of 307,500 men (2 Chronicles 26:12, 13), where, however, the figures have an appearance of exaggeration.

Over the whole host of Israel, according to the fundamental principle of theocracy, was Yahweh Himself, the Supreme Leader of her armies (1 Samuel 8:7); it was "the Captain of the Lord's host," to whom Joshua and all serving under him owned allegiance, that appeared before the walls of Jericho to help the gallant leader in his enterprise. In the times of the Judges the chiefs themselves, Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, led their forces in person to battle. Under the monarchy the captain of the host was an office distinct from that of the king, and we have Joab, Abner, Benaiah, named as commanders-in-chief. An armor-bearer attended the captain of the host as well as the king (1 Samuel 14:6; 1 Samuel 31:4, 5 2 Samuel 23:37). Mention is made of officers who had to do the numbering of the people, the copher, scribe, attached to the captain of the host (2 Kings 25:19; compare 2 Samuel 24:2;1 Maccabees 5:42), and the shoTer, muster-master, who kept the register of those who were in military service and knew the men who had received authorized leave of absence (Deuteronomy 20:5, Driver's note).

7. The Army in the Field:

Before the army set forth, religious services were held (Joel 3:9), and sacrifices were offered at the opening of a campaign to consecrate the war (Micah 3:5 Jeremiah 6:4; Jeremiah 22:7). Recourse was had in earlier times to the oracle (Judges 1:1; Judges 20:27 1 Samuel 14:37; 1 Samuel 23:2; 1 Samuel 28:6; 30:8), in later times to a prophet (1 Kings 22:5 2 Kings 3:13; 2 Kings 19:2 Jeremiah 38:14). Cases are mentioned in which the Ark accompanied the army to the field (1 Samuel 4:4; 1 Samuel 14:18), and before the engagement sacrifices also were offered (1 Samuel 7:9; 1 Samuel 13:9), ordinarily necessitating the presence of a priest (Deuteronomy 20:2). Councils of war were held to settle questions of policy in the course of siege or a campaign (Jeremiah 38:7; Jeremiah 39:3). The signal for the charge or retreat was given by sound of a trumpet (Numbers 10:9 2 Samuel 2:28; 2 Samuel 18:16; 1 Maccabees 16:8). The order of battle was simple, the heavy-armed spearmen forming the van, slingers and archers bringing up the rear, supported by horses and chariots, which moved to the front as need required (1 Samuel 31:3 1 Kings 22:31 2 Chronicles 14:9). Strategy was called into play according to the disposition of the opposing forces or the nature of the ground (Joshua 8:3; Joshua 11:7 Judges 7:16 1 Samuel 15:5 2 Samuel 5:23 2 Kings 3:11 ff).

Although David had in his service foreign soldiers like Uriah the Hittite and Ittai of Gath, and although later kings hired aliens for their campaigns, it was not till the Maccabean struggle for independence that mercenaries came to be largely employed in the Jewish army. Mercenaries are spoken of in the prophets as a source of weakness to the nation that employs them (to Egypt, Jeremiah 46:16, 21; to Babylon, Jeremiah 50:16). From the Maccabean time onward the princes of the Hasmonean family employed them, sometimes to hold the troublesome Jews in check, and sometimes to support the arms of Rome. Herod the Great had in his army mercenaries of various nations. When Jewish soldiers, however, took service with Rome, they were prohibited by their law from performing duty on the Sabbath. Early in the Maccabean fight for freedom, a band of Hasideans or Jewish Puritans, allowed themselves to be cut down to the last man rather than take up the sword on the Sabbath (1 Maccabees 2:34). Cases are even on record where their Gentileadversaries took advantage of their scruples to inflict upon them loss and defeat (Ant., XIII, xii, 4; XIV, iv, 2).

8. The Supplies of the Army:

Before the army had become a profession in Israel, and while the levies were still volunteers like the sons of Jesse, the soldiers not only received no pay, but had to provide their own supplies, or depend upon rich landholders like Nabal and Barzillai (1 Samuel 25 2 Samuel 19:31). In that period and still later, the chief reward of the soldier was his share of the booty gotten in war (Judges 5:30 1 Samuel 30:22). By the Maccabean period we learn that an army like that of Simon, consisting of professional soldiers, could only be maintained at great expense (1 Maccabees 14:32).

9. In the New Testament:

Although the first soldiers that we read of in the New Testament were Jewish and not Roman (Luke 3:14 Mark 6:27), and although we read that Herod with his "men of war" joined in mocking Jesus (Luke 23:11), it is for the most part the Roman army that comes before us. The Roman legion, consisting roughly of 6,000 men, was familiar to the Jewish people, and the word had become a term to express a large number (Matthew 26:53 Mark 5:9). Centurions figure most honorably alike in the Gospels and the Acts (kenturion, Mark 15:39; hekatontarches, hekatontarchos, Matthew 8:5 Luke 23:47 Acts 10:1; Acts 22:25, 27). "The Pretorium" is the residence of the Roman procurator at Jerusalem, and in Caesarea (Matthew 27:27 Acts 23:35), or the praetorian guard at Rome (Philippians 1:13). The Augustan band and the Italian band (Acts 10:1 Acts 27:1) are cohorts of Roman soldiers engaged on military duty at Caesarea. In Jerusalem there was one cohort stationed in the time of Paul under the command of a chiliarchos, or military tribune (Acts 22:24). It was out of this regiment that the dexiolaboi (Acts 23:23) were selected, who formed a guard for Paul to Caesarea, spearmen, or rather javelin-throwers.

Figurative: Among the military metaphors employed by Paul, who spent so much of his time in the later years of his life among Roman soldiers, some are taken from the weapons of the Roman soldier (see ARMS), and some also from the discipline and the marching and fighting of an army. Thus, "campaigning" is referred to (2 Timothy 2:3, 4 2 Corinthians 10:3-6); the "order and solid formation of soldiers" drawn up in battle array or on the march (Colossians 2:5); the "triumphal procession" to the capitol with its train of captives and the smoke of incense (2 Corinthians 2:14-16); and "the sounding of the trumpet," when the faithful Christian warriors shall take their place every man in his own order or "division" of the resurrection army of the Lord of Hosts (1 Corinthians 15:52, 53). (SeeDean Howson, Metaphors of Paul-"Roman Soldiers.")

The armies which are in heaven (Revelation 19:14, 19) are the angelic hosts who were at the service of their Incarnate Lord in the days of His flesh and in His exaltation follow Him upon white horses clothed in fine linen white and pure (see Swete's note). Seefurther ARMOR, ARMS.

T. Nicol.

ARMY, ROMAN

ar'-mi, ro'-man; The treatment of this subject will be confined to

(I) a brief description of the organization of the army, and

(II) a consideration of the allusions to the Roman military establishment in the New Testament.

I. Organization.

There were originally no standing forces, but the citizens performed military service like any other civic duty when summoned by the magistrates. The gradual development of a military profession and standing army culminated in the admission of the poorest class to the ranks by Marius (about 107 B.C.). Henceforth the Roman army was made up of a body of men whose character was essentially that of mercenaries, and whose term of continuous service varied in different divisions from 16 to 26 years.

The forces which composed the Roman army under the Empire may be divided into the following five groups:

(1) the imperial guard and garrison of the capital,

(2) the legions,

(3) the auxilia,

(4) the numeri,

(5) the fleet. We shall discuss their organization in the order mentioned.

1. The Imperial Guard:

The imperial guard consisted of the cohortes praetoriae, which together with the cohortes urbanae and vigiles made up the garrison of Rome. In the military system as established by Augustus there were nine cohorts of the praetorian guard, three of the urban troops, and seven of the vigiles. Each cohort numbered 1,000 men, and was commanded by a tribune of equestrian rank. The praetorian prefects (praefecti praetorii), of whom there were usually two, were commanders of the entire garrison of the capital, and stood at the highest point of distinction and authority in the equestrian career.

2. The Legions:

There were 25 legions in 23 A.D. (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), which had been increased to 30 at the time of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 160-180 A.D. (CIL, VI, 3492 a-b) and to 33 under Septimius Severus (Dio Cassius, iv. 23-24). Each legion was made up, ordinarily, of 6,000 men, who were divided into 10 cohorts, each cohort containing 3 maniples, and each maniple in turn 2 centuries.

The legatus Augustus pro praetore, or governor of each imperial province, was chief commander of all the troops within the province. An officer of senatorial rank known as legatus Augusti legionis was entrusted with the command of each legion, together with the bodies of auxilia which were associated with it. Besides, there were six tribuni militum, officers of equestrian rank (usually sons of senators who had not yet held the quaestorship) in each legion. The centurions who commanded the centuries belonged to the plebeian class. Between the rank of common soldier and centurion there were a large number of subalterns, called principales, who correspond roughly to the non-commissioned officers and men detailed from the ranks for special duties in modern armies.

3. The "Auxilia":

The auxilia were organized as infantry in cohortes, as cavalry in alae, or as mixed bodies, cohortes equitatae. Some of these divisions contained approximately 1,000 men (cohortes or alae miliariae), but the greater number about 500 (cohortes or alae quingenariae). They were commanded by tribuni and praefecti of equestrian rank. The importance of the auxilia consisted originally in the diversity of their equipment and manner of fighting, since each group adhered to the customs of the nation in whose midst it had been recruited. But with the gradual Romanization of the Empire they were assimilated more and more to the character of the legionaries.

4. The "Numeri":

The numeri developed out of the provincial militia and began to appear in the 2nd century A.D. They maintained their local manner of warfare. Some were bodies of infantry, others of cavalry, and they varied in strength from 300 to 90 (Mommsen, Hermes, XIX, 219, and XXII, 547). Their commanders were praepositi, praefecti or tribuni, all men of equestrian rank.

5. The Fleet:

The fleet was under the command of prefects (praefecti classis), who took rank among the highest officials of the equestrian class. The principal naval stations were at Misenum and Ravenna.

6. Defensive Arrangements:

Augustus established the northern boundary of the Empire at the Rhine and at the Danube, throughout the greater part of its course, and bequeathed to his successors the advice that they should not extend their sovereignty beyond the limits which he had set (Tacitus Annals i0.11; Agricola 13); and although this policy was departed from in many instances, such as the annexation of Thrace, Cappadocia, Mauretania, Britain, and Dacia, not to mention the more ephemeral acquisitions of Trajan, yet the military system of the Empire was arranged primarily with the view of providing for the defense of the provinces and not for carrying on aggressive warfare on a large scale. Nearly all the forces, with the exception of the imperial guard, were distributed among the provinces on the border of the Empire, and the essential feature of the disposition of the troops in these provinces was the permanent fortress in which each unit was stationed.

The combination of large camps for the legions with a series of smaller forts for the alae, cohorts, and numeri is the characteristic arrangement on all the frontiers. The immediate protection of the frontier was regularly entrusted to the auxiliary troops, while the legions were usually stationed some distance to the rear of the actual boundary. Thus the army as a whole was so scattered that it was a difficult undertaking to assemble sufficient forces for carrying out any considerable project of foreign conquest, or even to cope at once with a serious invasion, yet the system was generally satisfactory in view of the conditions which prevailed, and secured for the millions of subjects of the Roman Empire the longest period of undisturbed tranquillity known to European history.

7. Recruiting System:

In accordance with the arrangements of Augustus, the cohortes praetoriae and cohortes urbanae were recruited from Latium, Etruria, Umbria, and the older Roman colonies (Tacitus Annals 4, 5), the legions from the remaining portions of Italy, and the auxilia from the subject communities of the Empire (See ck, Rheinisches Museum, XLVIII, 616).

But in course of time the natives of Italy disappeared, first from the legions, and later from the garrison of the capital. Antoninus Plus established the rule that each body of troops should draw its recruits from the district where it was stationed. Henceforth the previous possession of Roman citizenship was no longer required for enlistment in the legions. The legionary was granted the privilege of citizenship upon entering the service, the auxiliary soldier upon being discharged (See ck, Untergang der antiken Welt, I, 250).

II. Allusions in the New Testament to the Roman Military Establishment.

Such references relate chiefly to the bodies of troops which were stationed in Judea. Agrippa I left a military establishment of one ala and five cohorts at his death in 44 A.D. (Josephus, Ant, XIX, ix, 2; BJ, III, iv, 2), which he had doubtless received from the earlier Roman administration. These divisions were composed of local recruits, chiefly Samaritans (Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsbeamte, 395; Mommsen, Hermes, XIX, 217, note 1). The Ala I gemina Sebastenorum was stationed at Caesarea (Josephus, Ant, XX, 122; BJ, II, xii, 5; CIL, VIII, 9359).

1. Augustan Band:

Julius, the centurion to whom Paul and other prisoners were delivered to be escorted to Rome (Acts 27:1), belonged to one of the five cohorts which was stationed at or near Caesarea. This Speira Sebaste (Westcott-Hort), "Augustus' Band" (the Revised Version (British and American) "Augustan band"; the Revised Version, margin "cohort"), was probably the same body of troops which is mentioned in inscriptions as Cohors I Augusta (CIL, Supp, 6687) and Speira Augouste (Lebas-Waddington 2112). Its official title may have been Cohors Augusta Sebastenorum (GVN). It will be observed that all divisions of the Roman army were divided into companies of about 100 men, each of which, in the infantry, was commanded by a centurion, in the cavalry, by a decurion.

2. Italian Band:

There was another cohort in Caesarea, the "Italian band" (Cohors Italica, Vulgate) of which Cornelius was centurion (Acts 10:1: ek speires tes kaloumenes Italikes). The cohortes Italicae (civium Romanorum) were made up of Roman citizens (Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, II, 467).

3. Praetorian Guard:

One of the five cohorts was stationed in Jerusalem (Matthew 27:27 Mark 15:16), the "chief captain" of which was Claudius Lysias. His title, chiliarchos in the Greek (Acts 23:10, 15, 17, 19, 22, 26; Acts 24:7 the King James Version), meaning "leader of a thousand men" (tribunus, Vulgate), indicates that this body of soldiers was a cohors miliaria. Claudius Lysias sent Paul to Felix at Caesarea under escort of 200 soldiers, 70 horsemen, and 200 spearmen (Acts 23:23). The latter (dexiolaboi, Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek) are thought to have been a party of provincial militia. Several centurions of the cohort at Jerusalem appear during the riot and subsequent rescue and arrest of Paul (Acts 21:32; Acts 22:25, 26; 23:17, 23). The cohortes miliariae (of 1,000 men) contained ten centurions. A centurion, doubtless of the same cohort, was in charge of the execution of the Saviour (Matthew 27:54 Mark 15:39, 44, 45 Luke 23:47). It was customary for centurions to be entrusted with the execution of capital penalties (Tacitus Ann. i0.6; xvi0.9; xvi0.15; Hist. ii.85).

The the King James Version contains the passage in Acts 28:16: "The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard" (stratopedarches), which the Revised Version (British and American) omits. It has commonly been held that the expression stratopedarches was equivalent to praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorius), and that the employment of the word in the singular was proof that Paul arrived in Rome within the period 51-62 A.D. when Sex. Afranius Burrus was sole praetorian prefect. Mommsen (Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie (1895), 491-503) believes that the sentence in question embodies an ancient tradition, but that the term stratopedarches could not mean praefectus praetorius, which is never rendered in this way in Greek. He suggests that it stands for princeps castrorum peregrinorum, who was a centurion in command of the frumentarii at Rome. These were detachments of legionary soldiers who took rank as principales. They served as military couriers between the capital and provinces, political spies, and an imperial police. It was probably customary, at least when the tradition under discussion arose, for the frumentarii to take charge of persons who were sent to Rome for trial (Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, II, 491-94).

LITERATURE.

Comprehensive discussions of the Roman military system will be found in Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, II, 319-612, and in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, article "Exercitus."

George H. Allen

ROMAN ARMY

See ARMY, ROMAN.

Greek
4756. stratia -- an army
... an army. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: stratia Phonetic Spelling:
(strat-ee'-ah) Short Definition: an army, host of angels Definition: an army ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4756.htm - 7k

4753. strateuma -- an expedition, an army, a company of soldiers
... an expedition, an army, a company of soldiers. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter
Transliteration: strateuma Phonetic Spelling: (strat'-yoo-mah) Short Definition: ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4753.htm - 6k

4760. stratopedon -- a military camp, ie an army
... a military camp, ie an army. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: stratopedon
Phonetic Spelling: (strat-op'-ed-on) Short Definition: an encamped army ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4760.htm - 6k

2760. kenturion -- a centurion (a Roman army officer)
... a centurion (a Roman army officer). Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration:
kenturion Phonetic Spelling: (ken-too-ree'-ohn) Short Definition: a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2760.htm - 6k

2862. kolonia -- a colony (a city settlement of soldiers disbanded ...
... a colony (a city settlement of soldiers disbanded from the Roman army). Part of
Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: kolonia Phonetic Spelling: (kol-o-nee'-ah ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2862.htm - 6k

2804. Klaudios -- Claudius, the name of an Emperor, also an army ...
... Claudius, the name of an Emperor, also an army officer. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: Klaudios Phonetic Spelling: (klow'-dee-os) Short ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2804.htm - 6k

3925b. parembole -- an insertion, an army in battle array ...
... 3925a, 3925b. parembole. 3926 . an insertion, an army in battle array, barracks.
Transliteration: parembole Short Definition: barracks. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3925b.htm - 5k

3925. parembole -- to put in beside or between, interpose
... interpose. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: parembole Phonetic Spelling:
(par-em-bol-ay') Short Definition: a camp, barracks, army in battle ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3925.htm - 6k

4758. stratologeo -- to enlist soldiers
... Speech: Verb Transliteration: stratologeo Phonetic Spelling: (strat-ol-og-eh'-o)
Short Definition: I enlist troops Definition: I collect an army, enlist troops ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4758.htm - 6k

2883. Kornelios -- Cornelius, a Roman centurion
... Transliteration: Kornelios Phonetic Spelling: (kor-nay'-lee-os) Short Definition:
Cornelius Definition: Cornelius, a centurion of the Roman army, stationed at ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2883.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
2428. chayil -- strength, efficiency, wealth, army
... 2427, 2428. chayil. 2429 . strength, efficiency, wealth, army. Transliteration:
chayil Phonetic Spelling: (khah'-yil) Short Definition: army. ...
/hebrew/2428.htm - 6k

6635. tsaba -- army, war, warfare
... 6634, 6635. tsaba. 6636 . army, war, warfare. Transliteration: tsaba
Phonetic Spelling: (tsaw-baw') Short Definition: hosts. Word ...
/hebrew/6635.htm - 6k

2429. chayil -- power, strength, army
... chayil. 2430 . power, strength, army. Transliteration: chayil Phonetic Spelling:
(khah'-yil) Short Definition: aloud. ... aloud, army, most mighty, power. ...
/hebrew/2429.htm - 6k

4630. maarah -- army
... 4629, 4630. maarah. 4631 . army. Transliteration: maarah Phonetic Spelling:
(mah-ar-aw') Short Definition: army. Word Origin see maarakah. army ...
/hebrew/4630.htm - 5k

102. agaph -- a band, army
... 101, 102. agaph. 103 . a band, army. Transliteration: agaph Phonetic
Spelling: (ag-gawf') Short Definition: troops. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/102.htm - 6k

6369. Pikol -- commander of Abimelech's army
... 6368, 6369. Pikol. 6370 . commander of Abimelech's army. Transliteration:
Pikol Phonetic Spelling: (pee-kole') Short Definition: Phicol. ...
/hebrew/6369.htm - 6k

4264. machaneh -- an encampment, camp
... Word Origin from chanah Definition an encampment, camp NASB Word Usage armies (6),
army (27), army camp (1), camp (158), camps (12), companies (3), company (5 ...
/hebrew/4264.htm - 6k

4675. mitstsabah -- perhaps a guard, watch
... perhaps a guard, watch. Transliteration: mitstsabah Phonetic Spelling:
(mats-tsaw-baw') Short Definition: army. Word Origin fem. ... army, garrison. ...
/hebrew/4675.htm - 6k

2426. chel -- rampart, fortress
... rampart (3), ramparts (2), walls (1). army, bulwark, host, poor, rampart,
trench, wall. Or (shortened) chel {khale}; a collateral ...
/hebrew/2426.htm - 6k

4634. maarakah -- row, rank, battle line
... Word Origin from arak Definition row, rank, battle line NASB Word Usage armies
(3), army (3), arrangement (1), battle array (1), battle formation (1), battle ...
/hebrew/4634.htm - 6k

Library

The Christian Army
... THE CHRISTIAN ARMY. ... Armies, as you know, are divided into regiments, and regiments
into companies. Every soldier in the army belongs to a certain company. ...
/.../chidley/fifty-two story talks to boys and girls/the christian army.htm

Salvation Army Publications
... SALVATION ARMY PUBLICATIONS. BY THE GENERAL ... Cloth, Bevelled Edges, 2s.6d.; Limp Cloth,
1s.6d.; Paper, 6d. The Doctrines of The Salvation Army.119 pages. ...
/.../howard/standards of life and service/salvation army publications.htm

Resolution of the Army to Confer Thence-Forward the Title of ...
... Book IV. Chapter LXVIII."Resolution of the Army to confer thence-forward
the Title of Augustus on his Sons. Meanwhile the tribunes ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/chapter lxviii resolution of the army.htm

Constantine. The Army of Honorius and Edovicus his General. Defeat ...
... Book IX. Chapter XIV."Constantine. The Army of Honorius and Edovicus his General.
Defeat of Edovicus by Ulphilas, the General of Constantine. ...
/.../the ecclesiastical history of sozomenus/chapter xiv constantine the army of.htm

The Noble Army of Martyrs.
... MORNING AND EVENING HYMNS. 979. " The Noble Army of Martyrs. 979. CM
Ancient Hymns. The Noble Army of Martyrs. 1 The triumphs ...
/.../adams/hymns for christian devotion/979 the noble army.htm

While Licinius Pursued with his Army, the Fugitive Tyrant ...
... Chap. XLIX. While Licinius pursued with his army, the fugitive tyrant retreated�
While Licinius pursued with his army, the fugitive ...
/.../chap xlix while licinius pursued.htm

Now King Agrippa Sent an Army to Make Themselves Masters of the ...
... Section 24. Now king Agrippa sent an army to make themselves masters of
the citadel of� 24. Now king Agrippa sent an army to make ...
/.../josephus/the life of flavius josephus/section 24 now king agrippa.htm

CM Moravian. The Noble Army of Martyrs.
... VIII. VARIOUS OCCASIONS. 429. CM Moravian. The Noble Army of Martyrs.
1 Glory to God! whose witness-train, Those heroes bold in ...
/.../various/book of hymns for public and private devotion/429 c m moravian the.htm

Woman's Position in the Army
... III WOMAN'S POSITION IN THE ARMY. We write in a matter-of-fact way that Captain
Lucy and Lieutenant Kate Lee received an appointment ...
/.../carpenter/the angel adjutant of twice born men/iii womans position in the.htm

Moody with Gen. Grant's Army in Richmond.
... Moody with Gen. Grant's Army in Richmond. It was my privilege to go to Richmond
with Gen. Grant's army. Now just let us picture a scene. ...
/.../moody/moodys anecdotes and illustrations/moody with gen grants army.htm

Thesaurus
Army (401 Occurrences)
... In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains
(Numbers 31:14), and also into families (Numbers 2:34; 2 Chronicles 25:5 ...
/a/army.htm - 76k

Army-host (1 Occurrence)
Army-host. Army, Army-host. Arna . Multi-Version Concordance
Army-host (1 Occurrence). 2 Chronicles 26:13 And under ...
/a/army-host.htm - 6k

Chaldaean (9 Occurrences)
... 2 Kings 25:5 But the Chaldaean army went after the king, and overtook him in the
lowlands of Jericho, and all his army went in flight from him in every ...
/c/chaldaean.htm - 9k

Carriages (34 Occurrences)
... Revelation 9:9 And they had breastplates like iron, and the sound of their wings
was as the sound of carriages, like an army of horses rushing to the fight. ...
/c/carriages.htm - 17k

Starry (14 Occurrences)
... Nehemiah 9:6 You are Yahweh, even you alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of
heavens, with all their army, the earth and all things that are thereon, the ...
/s/starry.htm - 10k

Muster (9 Occurrences)
... service. 4. (n.) The sum total of an army when assembled for review and
inspection; the whole number of effective men in an army. 5 ...
/m/muster.htm - 10k

Sisera (18 Occurrences)
... (Egypt. Ses-Ra, "servant of Ra"). (1.) The captain of Jabin's army (Judges 4:2),
which was routed and destroyed by the army of Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. ...
/s/sisera.htm - 17k

Amasa (13 Occurrences)
... He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Samuel
19:13), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival ...
/a/amasa.htm - 13k

Deborah (10 Occurrences)
... With his aid she organized this army. ... The Canaanitish army almost wholly perished.
That was a great and ever-memorable day in Israel. ...
/d/deborah.htm - 14k

Cambyses
... of Carthage, but was compelled to give it up, because his Phoenician allies, without
whose ships it was impossible for him to conduct his army in safety ...
/c/cambyses.htm - 12k

Concordance
Army (401 Occurrences)

Matthew 22:7
But the king was angry; and he sent his armies, and those who had put his servants to death he gave to destruction, burning down their town with fire.
(See NIV)

Matthew 26:53
Does it not seem possible to you that if I make request to my Father he will even now send me an army of angels?
(BBE)

Mark 15:16
And the men of the army took him away into the square in front of the building which is the Praetorium, and they got together all the band.
(BBE)

Luke 2:13
Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army praising God, and saying,
(WEB WEY)

Luke 3:14
And men of the army put questions to him, saying, And what have we to do? And he said to them, Do no violent acts to any man, and do not take anything without right, and let your payment be enough for you.
(BBE)

Luke 23:11
And Herod, with the men of his army, put shame on him and made sport of him, and dressing him in shining robes, he sent him back to Pilate.
(BBE)

Luke 23:36
And the men of the army made sport of him, coming to him and giving him bitter wine,
(BBE)

John 19:2
And the men of the army made a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and they put a purple robe on him.
(BBE)

John 19:23
And when Jesus was nailed to the cross, the men of the army took his clothing, and made a division of it into four parts, to every man a part, and they took his coat: now the coat was without a join, made out of one bit of cloth.
(BBE)

John 19:32
So the men of the army came, and the legs of the first were broken and then of the other who was put to death on the cross with Jesus:
(BBE)

Acts 7:42
But God turned, and gave them up to serve the army of the sky, as it is written in the book of the prophets,'Did you offer to me slain animals and sacrifices forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?
(WEB)

Acts 10:1
Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, named Cornelius, the captain of the Italian band of the army;
(BBE)

Acts 10:7
And when the angel who said these words to him had gone away, he sent for two of his house-servants, and a God-fearing man of the army, one of those who were waiting on him at all times;
(BBE)

Acts 21:34
And some said one thing and some another, among the people: and as he was not able to get a knowledge of the facts because of the noise, he gave orders for Paul to be taken into the army building.
(BBE)

Acts 22:24
The chief captain gave orders for him to be taken into the army building, saying that he would put him to the test by whipping, so that he might have knowledge of the reason why they were crying out so violently against him.
(BBE)

Acts 23:16
But Paul's sister's son had word of their design, and he came into the army building and gave news of it to Paul.
(BBE)

Acts 23:27
This man was taken of the Jews, and should have been killed of them: then came I with an army, and rescued him, having understood that he was a Roman.
(KJV BBE)

Acts 25:23
So on the day after, when Agrippa and Bernice in great glory had come into the public place of hearing, with the chief of the army and the chief men of the town, at the order of Festus, Paul was sent for.
(BBE)

2 Timothy 2:3
Be ready to do without the comforts of life, as one of the army of Christ Jesus.
(BBE)

2 Timothy 2:4
A fighting man, when he is with the army, keeps himself free from the business of this life so that he may be pleasing to him who has taken him into his army.
(BBE)

Philemon 1:2
And to Apphia, our sister, and to Archippus, our brother in God's army, and to the church in your house:
(BBE)

Hebrews 12:22
But you have come to the mountain of Zion, to the place of the living God, to the Jerusalem which is in heaven, and to an army of angels which may not be numbered,
(BBE)

Revelation 9:9
And they had breastplates like iron, and the sound of their wings was as the sound of carriages, like an army of horses rushing to the fight.
(BBE)

Revelation 9:16
And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard the number of them.
(KJV WBS)

Revelation 19:6
And there came to my ears the voice of a great army, like the sound of waters, and the sound of loud thunders, saying, Praise to the Lord: for the Lord our God, Ruler of all, is King.
(BBE)

Revelation 19:19
I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 21:22
It happened at that time, that Abimelech and Phicol the captain of his army spoke to Abraham, saying, "God is with you in all that you do.
(WEB BBE NAS RSV)

Genesis 21:32
So they made a covenant at Beersheba. Abimelech rose up with Phicol, the captain of his army, and they returned into the land of the Philistines.
(WEB BBE NAS RSV)

Genesis 26:26
Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath his friend, and Phicol the captain of his army.
(WEB KJV BBE WBS NAS RSV)

Genesis 28:3
And may God, the Ruler of all, give you his blessing, giving you fruit and increase, so that you may become an army of peoples.
(BBE)

Genesis 32:2
When he saw them, Jacob said, "This is God's army." He called the name of that place Mahanaim.
(WEB BBE RSV)

Genesis 40:3
And he put them in prison under the care of the captain of the army, in the same prison where Joseph himself was shut up.
(BBE)

Genesis 41:10
Pharaoh had been angry with his servants, and had put me in prison in the house of the captain of the army, together with the chief bread-maker;
(BBE)

Genesis 49:19
Gad, an army will come against him, but he will come down on them in their flight.
(BBE)

Genesis 50:9
And carriages went up with him and horsemen, a great army.
(BBE)

Exodus 10:14
And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, resting on every part of the land, in very great numbers; such an army of locusts had never been seen before, and never will be again.
(BBE)

Exodus 14:4
And I will make Pharaoh's heart hard, and he will come after them and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and all his army, so that the Egyptians may see that I am the Lord. And they did so.
(BBE NAS NIV)

Exodus 14:6
He made ready his chariot, and took his army with him;
(WEB RSV NIV)

Exodus 14:9
The Egyptians pursued after them: all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, his horsemen, and his army; and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baal Zephon.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV)

Exodus 14:17
And I will make the heart of the Egyptians hard, and they will go in after them: and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and over his army, his war-carriages, and his horsemen.
(BBE NAS NIV)

Exodus 14:19
The angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from before them, and stood behind them.
(See NIV)

Exodus 14:20
And it came between the army of Egypt and the army of Israel; and there was a dark cloud between them, and they went on through the night; but the one army came no nearer to the other all the night.
(BBE)

Exodus 14:24
It happened in the morning watch, that Yahweh looked out on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and confused the Egyptian army.
(WEB BBE NAS NIV)

Exodus 14:28
The waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen, even all Pharaoh's army that went in after them into the sea. There remained not so much as one of them.
(WEB BBE NAS NIV)

Exodus 15:4
He has cast Pharaoh's chariots and his army into the sea. His chosen captains are sunk in the Red Sea.
(WEB BBE DBY NAS NIV)

Exodus 17:13
Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:3
From twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel: thou and Aaron shall number them by their armies.
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:20
The children of Reuben, Israel's firstborn, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, one by one, every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:22
Of the children of Simeon, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, those who were numbered of it, according to the number of the names, one by one, every male from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:24
Of the children of Gad, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:26
Of the children of Judah, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:28
Of the children of Issachar, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:30
Of the children of Zebulun, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:32
Of the children of Joseph, of the children of Ephraim, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:34
Of the children of Manasseh, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:36
Of the children of Benjamin, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:38
Of the children of Dan, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go forth to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:40
Of the children of Asher, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go forth to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:42
Of the children of Naphtali, their generations, by their families, by their fathers' houses, according to the number of the names, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go forth to war;
(See NIV)

Numbers 1:45
So all those who were numbered of the children of Israel by their fathers' houses, from twenty years old and upward, all who were able to go out to war in Israel;
(See NIV)

Numbers 10:14
First, the standard of the camp of the children of Judah went forward according to their armies. Nahshon the son of Amminadab was over his army.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:15
Nethanel the son of Zuar was over the army of the tribe of the children of Issachar.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:16
Eliab the son of Helon was over the army of the tribe of the children of Zebulun.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:18
The standard of the camp of Reuben went forward according to their armies. Elizur the son of Shedeur was over his army.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:19
Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai was over the army of the tribe of the children of Simeon.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:20
Eliasaph the son of Deuel was over the army of the tribe of the children of Gad.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:22
The standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim set forward according to their armies. Elishama the son of Ammihud was over his army.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:23
Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur was over the army of the tribe of the children of Manasseh.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:24
Abidan the son of Gideoni was over the army of the tribe of the children of Benjamin.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:25
The standard of the camp of the children of Dan, which was the rearward of all the camps, set forward according to their armies. Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai was over his army.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:26
Pagiel the son of Ochran was over the army of the tribe of the children of Asher.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 10:27
Ahira the son of Enan was over the army of the tribe of the children of Naphtali.
(WEB BBE NAS)

Numbers 20:20
But he said, You are not to go through. And Edom came out against them in his strength, with a great army.
(BBE NIV)

Numbers 21:23
Sihon would not allow Israel to pass through his border: but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness, and came to Jahaz; and he fought against Israel.
(See NIV)

Numbers 21:33
They turned and went up by the way of Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan went out against them, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei.
(See NIV)

Numbers 21:34
Yahweh said to Moses, "Don't fear him: for I have delivered him into your hand, and all his people, and his land; and you shall do to him as you did to Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon."
(See NIV)

Numbers 21:35
So they struck him, and his sons and all his people, until there was none left him remaining: and they possessed his land.
(See NIV)

Numbers 26:2
"Take a census of all the congregation of the children of Israel, from twenty years old and upward, by their fathers' houses, all who are able to go forth to war in Israel."
(See NIV)

Numbers 31:14
Moses was angry with the officers of the army, the captains of thousands and the captains of hundreds, who came from the service of the war.
(WEB BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 31:28
And thou shalt levy a tribute for Jehovah of the men of war who went out to the army, one soul of five hundred of the persons, and of the oxen, and of the asses, and of the small cattle.
(DBY)

Numbers 31:48
The officers who were over the thousands of the army, the captains of thousands, and the captains of hundreds, came near to Moses;
(WEB BBE NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 31:53
(For every man of the army had taken goods for himself in the war.)
(BBE)

Deuteronomy 2:32
Then Sihon came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Jahaz.
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 2:33
Yahweh our God delivered him up before us; and we struck him, and his sons, and all his people.
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 3:1
Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei.
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 3:2
Yahweh said to me, "Don't fear him; for I have delivered him, and all his people, and his land, into your hand; and you shall do to him as you did to Sihon king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon."
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 3:3
So Yahweh our God delivered into our hand Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people: and we struck him until none was left to him remaining.
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 4:19
and lest you lift up your eyes to the sky, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the army of the sky, you are drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which Yahweh your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole sky.
(WEB BBE)

Deuteronomy 11:4
and what he did to the army of Egypt, to their horses, and to their chariots; how he made the water of the Red Sea to overflow them as they pursued after you, and how Yahweh has destroyed them to this day;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 17:3
and has gone and served other gods, and worshiped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the army of the sky, which I have not commanded;
(WEB)

Deuteronomy 17:16
And he is not to get together a great army of horses for himself, or make the people go back to Egypt to get horses for him: because the Lord has said, You will never again go back that way.
(BBE)

Deuteronomy 20:1
When you go out to war against other nations, and come face to face with horses and war-carriages and armies greater in number than yourselves, have no fear of them: for the Lord your God is with you, who took you up out of the land of Egypt.
(See RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 20:2
It shall be, when you draw near to the battle, that the priest shall approach and speak to the people,
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 20:5
The officers shall speak to the people, saying, "What man is there who has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.
(See NIV)

Deuteronomy 20:9
Then, after saying these words to the people, let the overseers put captains over the army.
(BBE NIV)

Deuteronomy 23:9
When you go forth in camp against your enemies, then you shall keep yourselves from every evil thing.
(See NAS)

Deuteronomy 24:5
When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out in the army, neither shall he be assigned any business: he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he has taken.
(WEB BBE DBY NAS RSV)

Joshua 5:14
He said, "No; but I have come now as commander of Yahweh's army." Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and worshipped, and said to him, "What does my lord say to his servant?"
(WEB DBY RSV NIV)

Joshua 5:15
The prince of Yahweh's army said to Joshua, "Take your shoes off of your feet; for the place on which you stand is holy." Joshua did so.
(WEB BBE DBY RSV NIV)

Joshua 8:1
Yahweh said to Joshua, "Don't be afraid, neither be dismayed. Take all the people of war with you, and arise, go up to Ai. Behold, I have given into your hand the king of Ai, with his people, his city, and his land.
(See NIV)

Subtopics

Army

Related Terms

Army-host (1 Occurrence)

Chaldaean (9 Occurrences)

Carriages (34 Occurrences)

Starry (14 Occurrences)

Muster (9 Occurrences)

Sisera (18 Occurrences)

Amasa (13 Occurrences)

Deborah (10 Occurrences)

Cambyses

Sis'era (19 Occurrences)

Plains (31 Occurrences)

Besieged (34 Occurrences)

Barak (14 Occurrences)

Demetrius (3 Occurrences)

Zalmun'na (8 Occurrences)

Earthworks (10 Occurrences)

Encampment (8 Occurrences)

Mulberry (6 Occurrences)

Phicol (3 Occurrences)

Array (63 Occurrences)

Babylon's (11 Occurrences)

Companies (38 Occurrences)

Confused (13 Occurrences)

Alcimus

Mustered (28 Occurrences)

Aramaeans (49 Occurrences)

Marched (51 Occurrences)

Hazor (19 Occurrences)

March (41 Occurrences)

Zerah (22 Occurrences)

Armies (361 Occurrences)

Shutting (43 Occurrences)

Pursued (75 Occurrences)

Valor (45 Occurrences)

Egyptian (35 Occurrences)

Standard (42 Occurrences)

40000 (3 Occurrences)

Ensign (21 Occurrences)

Enroll (4 Occurrences)

Equipped (17 Occurrences)

Mobilize (2 Occurrences)

Megiddo (13 Occurrences)

Baggage (15 Occurrences)

Banner (20 Occurrences)

Chalde'ans (74 Occurrences)

Carts (13 Occurrences)

Asahel (17 Occurrences)

Ashurbanipal (1 Occurrence)

Abishai (25 Occurrences)

Staff (91 Occurrences)

Zalmunna (9 Occurrences)

Commanders (93 Occurrences)

Commander (111 Occurrences)

Zeruiah (25 Occurrences)

Aramean (17 Occurrences)

Pekah (11 Occurrences)

Soldiers (83 Occurrences)

Chaldaeans (65 Occurrences)

Defeat (16 Occurrences)

Asmoneans

Kishon (6 Occurrences)

Cyrus (20 Occurrences)

Amazi'ah (37 Occurrences)

Zebah (9 Occurrences)

Assemblage (20 Occurrences)

Ba'al (55 Occurrences)

Zimri (16 Occurrences)

Altars (55 Occurrences)

Stronger (59 Occurrences)

Chaldees (13 Occurrences)

Soldier (16 Occurrences)

Belshazzar (8 Occurrences)

Keeper (72 Occurrences)

Shields (44 Occurrences)

Benaiah (44 Occurrences)

Chariots (118 Occurrences)

Philistine (63 Occurrences)

Abner (54 Occurrences)

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