1 Kings 3:1
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt and married his daughter. He brought her to the City of David until he finished building his palace and the temple of the LORD, and the wall around Jerusalem.

New Living Translation
Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and married one of his daughters. He brought her to live in the City of David until he could finish building his palace and the Temple of the LORD and the wall around the city.

English Standard Version
Solomon made a marriage alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt. He took Pharaoh’s daughter and brought her into the city of David until he had finished building his own house and the house of the LORD and the wall around Jerusalem.

Berean Study Bible
Later, Solomon formed an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt by marrying his daughter. Solomon brought her to the City of David until he finished building his palace and the house of the LORD, as well as the wall around Jerusalem.

New American Standard Bible
Then Solomon formed a marriage alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter and brought her to the city of David until he had finished building his own house and the house of the LORD and the wall around Jerusalem.

King James Bible
And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

Christian Standard Bible
Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt by marrying Pharaoh's daughter. Solomon brought her to the city of David until he finished building his palace, the LORD's temple, and the wall surrounding Jerusalem.

Contemporary English Version
Solomon signed a treaty with the king of Egypt and married his daughter. She lived in the older part of Jerusalem until the palace, the LORD's temple, and the wall around Jerusalem were completed.

Good News Translation
Solomon made an alliance with the king of Egypt by marrying his daughter. He brought her to live in David's City until he had finished building his palace, the Temple, and the wall around Jerusalem.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Solomon made an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt by marrying Pharaoh's daughter. Solomon brought her to live in the city of David until he finished building his palace, the LORD's temple, and the wall surrounding Jerusalem.

International Standard Version
Later, Solomon intermarried with the family of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt by taking his daughter and bringing her to the City of David to live until he had completed building his own palace, the LORD's Temple, and the wall around Jerusalem.

NET Bible
Solomon made an alliance by marriage with Pharaoh, king of Egypt; he married Pharaoh's daughter. He brought her to the City of David until he could finish building his residence and the temple of the LORD and the wall around Jerusalem.

New Heart English Bible
Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the City of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem all around.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Solomon became the son-in-law of Pharaoh (the king of Egypt). After marrying Pharaoh's daughter, Solomon brought her to the City of David until he finished building his own house, the LORD's house, and the wall around Jerusalem.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

New American Standard 1977
Then Solomon formed a marriage alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh’s daughter and brought her to the city of David, until he had finished building his own house and the house of the LORD and the wall around Jerusalem.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And Solomon became a relative of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, for he took Pharaoh's daughter to wife and brought her into the city of David until he had finished building his own house, and the house of the LORD and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

King James 2000 Bible
And Solomon made a treaty with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

American King James Version
And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

American Standard Version
And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the kingdom was established in the hand of Solomon, and he made affinity with Pharao the king of Egypt: for he took his daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

Darby Bible Translation
And Solomon allied himself by marriage with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had ended building his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

English Revised Version
And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

Webster's Bible Translation
And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem on every side.

World English Bible
Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Yahweh, and the wall of Jerusalem all around.

Young's Literal Translation
And Solomon joineth in marriage with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and taketh the daughter of Pharaoh, and bringeth her in unto the city of David, till he completeth to build his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
Study Bible
Solomon's Rule Consolidated
1Later, Solomon formed an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt by marrying his daughter. Solomon brought her to the City of David until he finished building his palace and the house of the LORD, as well as the wall around Jerusalem. 2The people, however, were still sacrificing on the high places because a house for the Name of the LORD had not yet been built.…
Cross References
1 Kings 2:10
Then David rested with his fathers and was buried in the City of David.

1 Kings 7:1
Solomon, however, took thirteen years to complete the construction of his entire palace.

1 Kings 7:8
And the palace where Solomon would live, set further back, was of similar construction. He also made a palace like this hall for Pharaoh's daughter, whom he had married.

1 Kings 9:10
Now at the end of the twenty years during which Solomon built these two houses, the house of the LORD and the royal palace,

1 Kings 9:15
This is the account of the forced labor that King Solomon imposed to build the house of the LORD, his own palace, the supporting terraces, and the wall of Jerusalem, as well as Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer.

1 Kings 9:16
Pharaoh king of Egypt had attacked and captured Gezer. He had set it on fire, killed the Canaanites who lived in the city, and given it as a dowry to his daughter, Solomon's wife.

1 Kings 9:24
As soon as Pharaoh's daughter had come up from the City of David to the palace that Solomon had built for her, he built the supporting terraces.

2 Chronicles 8:11
Solomon brought the daughter of Pharaoh up from the City of David to the palace he had built for her. For he said, "My wife must not live in the house of David king of Israel, because the places the ark of the LORD has entered are holy."

Treasury of Scripture

And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

A.M.

2 Chronicles 18:1 Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honor in abundance, and joined affinity …

Ezra 9:14 Should we again break your commandments, and join in affinity with …

and took

1 Kings 7:8 And his house where he dwelled had another court within the porch, …

1 Kings 9:24 But Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David to her house …

1 Kings 11:1 But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter …

the city

2 Samuel 5:7 Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David.

1 Chronicles 11:7 And David dwelled in the castle; therefore they called it the city of David.

his own

1 Kings 7:1-12 But Solomon was building his own house thirteen years, and he finished …

the house

1 Kings 6:1-38 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after …

1 Kings 7:13-15 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre…

2 Chronicles 2:1-4:22 And Solomon determined to build an house for the name of the LORD, …

Ezra 5:11 And thus they returned us answer, saying, We are the servants of …

the wall

1 Kings 9:15-19 And this is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised; for …







(1) Pharaoh king of Egypt.--At this time it would appear, from the Egyptian records and traditions, that Egypt was weak and divided, and that what is called the twenty-first dynasty of the Tanite kings was ruling in Lower Egypt. This, and a corresponding abeyance (judging from the monuments) of Assyrian power, gave scope for the rise to sudden greatness and wealth of the Israelite kingdom under Solomon, and probably induced the Egyptian king of those days to consent to an alliance which, at other times, the greatness of the Pharaohs might have spumed. No fault is found with the alliance by the sacred historian, for the Egyptians were never looked upon with the same aversion as the strange women of the Canaanite races. As, moreover, it is not in any way connected with Solomon's subsequent declension into idolatry, noticed in 1Kings 11:1-8, it is not unlikely that the new queen literally acted on the call of the Psalmist (Psalm 45:10) to "forget her own people and her father's house."

Ver 1. - And Solomon made affinity [Not "alliance" (as some have supposed) but relationship. Lit., made himself son-in-law] with Pharaoh king of Egypt [which of the Pharaohs this was, it is impossible to say with certainty. As, however, Shishak (1 Kings 11:40; 1 Kings 14:25) is undoubtedly the Sheshonk who succeeded to the throne of Egypt in the 26th year of Solomon (Poole), and who was the first king of the 22nd dynasty of Manetho, we may safely identify this Pharaoh with "a late king of the 21st (or Janite) dynasty." It has been assumed (Bunsen, Ewald, Brugsch, al.) that it was Psusennes II., the last king of that house, on the supposition that he reigned 35 years, (as stated by Eusebius), but according to Africanus, his reign was limited to 14 years. It is wiser to say, therefore, with Mr. Poole (Dict. Bib., "Pharaoh") that this Pharaoh "cannot yet be identified on Manetho's list." It is also impossible to decide whether the alliance was first sought by Solomon with a view to win over a powerful and dangerous neighbour (Thenius), to whose inroads his northern border was exposed, and especially to counteract the influence (1 Kings 11:21) of Hadad (Plumptre), or whether the marriage was proposed by Pharaoh because the 21st dynasty "had then become very weak" (Rawlinson) and its head desired "friendly relations with the kingdom of Israel, which had grown into a power to be dreaded" (Keil). But we may reasonably suppose that the alliance "must have been to most Israelites a very startling one" (Plumptre.) Egypt (Rahab, Psalm 89:10; Isaiah 51:9) was to every Israelite a name both of triumph and dread. The Pharaohs were their ancestral foes], and took Pharaoh's daughter [A marriage such as this was not without precedent (Genesis 41:45; Exodus 2:21; Numbers 12:1; Matthew 1:5; Ruth 4:13), nor was it condemned by the Law, which only forbade intermarriage with the nations of Canaan (Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 7:3), and sanctioned the union of an Israelite with a captive taken in war (Deuteronomy 21:13; cf. 20:14). "At the same time, it was only when the foreign wives renounced idolatry, that such marriages were in accordance with the spirit of the law" (Keil). As Solomon at this period of his life faithfully observed the law, as he is never blamed for this marriage, and as there is no trace whatever of the introduction of Egyptian rites into Israel, it is a fair presumption that the Egyptian princess conformed to the religion of her adopted country], and brought her into the city of David [2 Chronicles 8:11 speaks of her dwelling in "the house of David," i.e., it would seem, the palace which David had occupied] until he had made an end [this hardly shows that he had begun to build, as Keil infers. He did not begin building the Temple until the fourth (1 Kings 6:1), nor his own house until the eleventh year (1 Kings 7:1) after his accession, and the marriage, though not at the very commencement of his reign, can hardly have been delayed to the eleventh year, and may have taken place before the death of Shimei] of building his own house [cf. 1 Kings 7:7] and the house of the Lord [cf. 1 Kings 6; 1 Kings 7:51] and the wall of Jerusalem round about. [Probably, he both strengthened and extended the city walls, as Josephus (Ant. 8:06.1) affirms. Acc. to the LXX. addition to ch. 12, it was on this task that Jeroboam was employed (1 Kings 11:27; cf. 9:15). David had fortified a part of the city (2 Samuel 5:9). And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt,.... Pharaoh was a common name of the kings of Egypt, of whom no mention is made in Scripture from the times of Moses until this time; which may seem strange, when it is considered that that kingdom was a potent one, and near the land of Canaan; but it was governed by a race of kings in this period of time, of whom, as Diodorus Siculus (i) says, there is nothing worthy of relation. The name of this Pharaoh, according to Eupolemus (k), an Heathen writer, was Vaphres; for he says, that David contracted a friendship with this king, and he relates some letters which passed between him and Solomon, concerning sending him workmen for the building of the temple, which are still preserved; but Calvisius (l) thinks it was Sesostris; what this affinity was is next observed:

and took Pharaoh's daughter: that is, married her; who, according to Ben Gersom, was proselyted first to the Jewish religion; which is very probable, or otherwise it can hardly be thought Solomon would marry her; and as the forty fifth psalm, Psalm 45:1, and the book of Canticles, supposed to be written on that occasion, seem to confirm; to which may be added, that it does not appear she ever enticed or drew him into idolatry; for, of all the idols his wives drew him into the worship of, no mention is made of any Egyptian deities. The Jews say (m) Rome was built the same day Solomon married Pharaoh's daughter, but without foundation: this was not Solomon's first wife; he was married to Naamah the Ammonitess before he was king, for he had Rehoboam by her a year before that for Solomon reigned only forty years, and Rehoboam, who succeeded him, was forty one years of age when he began to reign, 1 Kings 11:41;

and brought her into the city of David; the fort of Zion:

until he had made an end of building his own house: which was thirteen years in building, and now seems to have been begun, 1 Kings 7:1;

and the house of the Lord; the temple, which according: to the Jewish chronology (n), was begun building before his marriage of Pharaoh's daughter, and was seven years in building; and therefore this marriage must be in the fourth year of his reign; for then he began to build the temple, 1 Kings 6:37; and so it must be, since Shimei lived three years in Jerusalem before he was put to death, after which this marriage was, 1 Kings 2:37;

and the wall of Jerusalem round about; all which he built by raising a levy on the people, 1 Kings 9:15; and when these buildings were finished, he built a house for his wife, but in the mean while she dwelt in the city of David.

(i) Bibliothec. l. 1. p. 42. (k) Apud. Euseb. Praeparet. Evangel. l. 9. c. 30, 31, 32. (l) Chronolog. p. 191, 192. (m) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 56. 2. & Sanhedrin, fol. 21. 2.((n) Seder Olam Rabba, c. 15. p. 41. CHAPTER 3

1Ki 3:1. Solomon Marries Pharaoh's Daughter.

1. Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh—This was a royal title, equivalent to "sultan," and the personal name of this monarch is said to have been Vaphres. The formation, on equal terms, of this matrimonial alliance with the royal family of Egypt, shows the high consideration to which the Hebrew kingdom had now arisen. Rosellini has given, from the Egyptian monuments, what is supposed to be a portrait of this princess. She was received in the land of her adoption with great eclat; for the Song of Solomon and the forty-fifth Psalm are supposed to have been composed in honor of this occasion, although they may both have a higher typical reference to the introduction of the Gentiles into the church.

and brought her into the city of David—that is, Jerusalem. She was not admissible into the stronghold of Zion, the building where the ark was (De 23:7, 8). She seems to have been lodged at first in his mother's apartments (So 3:4; 8:2), as a suitable residence was not yet provided for her in the new palace (1Ki 7:8; 9:24; 2Ch 8:11).

building … the wall of Jerusalem round about—Although David had begun (Ps 51:18), it was, according to Josephus, reserved for Solomon to extend and complete the fortifications of the city. It has been questioned whether this marriage was in conformity with the law (see Ex 34:16; De 7:3; Ezr 10:1-10; Ne 13:26). But it is nowhere censured in Scripture, as are the connections Solomon formed with other foreigners (1Ki 11:1-3); whence it may be inferred that he had stipulated for her abandonment of idolatry, and conforming to the Jewish religion (Ps 45:10, 11).3:1-4 He that loved the Lord, should, for his sake, have fixed his love upon one of the Lord's people. Solomon was a wise man, a rich man, a great man; yet the brightest praise of him, is that which is the character of all the saints, even the poorest, He loved the Lord. Where God sows plentifully, he expects to reap accordingly; and those that truly love God and his worship, will not grudge the expenses of their religion. We must never think that wasted which is laid out in the service of God.
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