Luke 8
ICC New Testament Commentary
And it came to pass afterward, that he went throughout every city and village, preaching and shewing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God: and the twelve were with him,
8:1-3. § The ministering Women. This section is evidence of the excellence of Lk.’s sources. The information contained in it is exact and minute. The names and other details are utterly unlike fiction. An inventor would avoid such things as likely to be refuted: moreover, no motive for invention can be discerned. The passage tells us—what no other Evangelist makes known—how Jesus and His disciples lived when they were not being entertained by hospitable persons. The common purse (John 13:29; comp. 12:6) was kept supplied by the generosity of pious women. This form of piety was not rare. Women sometimes contributed largely towards the, support of Rabbis, whose rapacity in accepting what could ill be spared was rebuked by Christ 20:47 ; [Matthew 23:14; ] Mark 12:40) with great severity.

1. καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς καὶ αὐτὸς διώδευεν. See detached note p. 45, and comp. 5:1, 5:12, 14: for ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς see small print on 7:11. The αὐτός anticipates καὶ οἱ δώδεκα, “He Himself and me Twelve.” But me καί before αὐτός comes after ἐγένετο and must not be coupled with the καί before οἱ δώδεκα In N.T. διοδεύω occurs only here and Acts 17:1, but it is freq. in LXX (Genesis 12:6, Genesis 13:17, etc.); also in Polyb. Plut. etc. Comp. 9:6, 13:22.

κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώμην κηρ. Ne quis Judæus præteritum se queri posset (Grotius), Jesus preached city by city (Acts 15:21) and village by village. The clause is amphibolous. It probably is meant to go with διώδενε, but may be taken with κηρύσσων καὶ εὐαγγ. The incidental way in which the severity of Christ’s labours is mentioned is remarkable. Comp. 9:58, 13:22; Matthew 9:35; Mark 4:31. For εὐαγγελιζόμενος see on 2:10. We are not to understand that the Twelve preached in His presence, if at all. Note the σύν (not μετά), and see on vv., 38, 51, and 1:56.

2. πνευμάτων πονηρῶν. See on 4:33. We cannot tell how many of these women had been freed from demons: perhaps only Mary Magdalen, the others having been cured ἀπὸ ἀσθενειῶν. For the ἀπό comp. 5:15, 7:21.

ἡ καλουμένη Μαγδαληνή. See on 6:15. The adj. probably means “of Magdala,” a town which is not named in N.T.; for the true reading in Matthew 15:39 is “Magadan” “Magdata is only the Greek form of Migdol, or watch-tower, one of the many places of the name in Palestine” (Tristram, Bible Places, p. 260); and it is probably represented by the squalid group of hovels which now bear the name of Mejdel, near the centre of the western shore of the lake. Magdala was probably near to Magedan, and being much better known through ἡ Μαγδαληνή, at last it drove the latter name out of the common text. See Stanley, Sin. & Pal. p. 382. Mary being a common name, the addition of something distinctive was convenient; and poissibly a distinction from Mary of Bethany was specially designed by the Evangelists. Mary Magdalen is commonly placed first when she is mentioned with other women (Matthew 27:56, Matthew 27:61, Matthew 27:28:1 ; Mark 15:40, Mark 15:47, Mark 15:16:1; Luke 24:10). John 19:25 is an exception. See on 1:36.

ἀφʼ ἦς δαιμόνια ἐπτὰ ἐπτὰ ἐξεληλύθει. This fact is mentioned in the disputed verses at the end of Mk. (16:9). It indicates a posession of extraordinary malignity ( Mark 5:9). We need not give any mystical interpretation to the number seven: comp. 11:26; Matthew 12:45. There is nothing to show that demoniacs generally, or Mary in particular, had lived specially vicious lives: and the hut that no name is given to the ἀμαρτωλός in the preceding section, while Mary Magdalen is introduced here as an entirely new person, is against the traditional identification of the two. Moreover, such an affliction as virulent demoniacal possession would be almost incompatible with the miserable trade of prostitution. If Lk. had wished to intimate that the ἁμαρτωλός is Mary Magdalen, he could have done it much more clearly. Had he wished to conceal the fact, he would not have placed these two sections in juxtaposition. Had he wished to withhold the name of the ἁμαρτωλός, who may possibly be included among the ἕτεραι πολλαί, he would have done as he has done. The ἁμαρτωλός and Mary Magdalen and Mary of Bethany are three distinct persons.

3. Ἰωάνα. She is mentioned with Mary Magdalen again 24:10: all that we know about her is contained in these two passages. Godet conjectures that Chuza is the βασιλικός, who “believed and his whole house” (John 4:46-53). In that case her husband would be likely to let her go and minister to Christ The Herod meant is probably Antipas, and his ἐπίτροπος would be the manager of his household and estates: comp. Matthew 20:8. Blunt finds here a coincidence with Matthew 14:2 ; Herod “said to his servants, This is John the Baptist.” If Herod’s steward’s wife was Christ’s disciple, He would often bespoken of among the servants at the court; and Herod addresses them, because they were familiar with the subject. Comp. the case of Manaen (Acts 13:1), Herod’s σύτροφος (Undesigned Coincidences, Pt. IV. xi. p. 263, 8th ed.). Of Susanna nothing else is known, nor of the other women, unless Mary, the mother of James and Joses, and Salome (Mark 15:40) may be assumed to be among them.

αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς. “Who Were of such a character as to minister to them”; i.e. they were persons of substance. For ἥτις see on 7:37, and for διακονεῖν comp. Romans 15:25. The αὐτοῖς means Jesus and the Twelve, the reading αὐτῷ (A L M X) being probably a correction from Matthew 26:55 ; Mark 15:41. But αὐτοῖς has special point. It was precisely because Jesus now had twelve disciples who always accompanied Him, that there was need of much support from other disciples.

ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχότων αὐταῖς. It is this which distinguishes this passage from Matthew 27:55 and Mark 15:41. There the διακονεῖν might refer to mere attendance on Him. We learn from this that neither Jesus nor the Twelve wrought miracles for their own support.

Here, as in 12:15 and Acts 4:32, τὰ ὐπάρχοντα has the dat. Everywhere else in Lk. (11:21, 12:33, 44, 14:33, 16:1, 19:8) and elsewhere in N.T. (five times) it has the gen. So also in LXX the gen. is the rule, the dat. the exception, if it is the true reading anywhere. Both τὰ ὑπάρχοντα and ὑπάρχειν are favourite expressions with Lk. See on ver. 41.

4-18. The Parable of the Sower. Matthew 13:1-23; Mark 4:1-20. We have already had several instances of teaching by means of parables (5:36-39, 6:39, 41-44, 47-49, 7:41, 42); but they we brief and incidental. Parables seem now to become more common in Christ’s teaching, and also more elaborate. This is intelligible, when we remember the characteristics of parables. They have the double property of revealing and concealing. They open the truth, and impress it upon the minds of those who are ready to receive it: but they do not instruct, though they may impress, the careless (ver. 10). As Bacon says of a parable, “it tends to vail, and it tends to illustrate a truth.” As the hostility to His teaching increased, Jesus would be likely to make more use of parables, which would benefit disciples without giving opportunity to His enemies. The parable of the Sower is in some ind icate ts chief among the parables, as Christ Himself seems to (Mark 4:13). It is one of the three which all three record, the others being the Mustard Seed and the Wicked Husbandmen: and it A one of which we have Christ’s own interpretation.

4. Συνιόντος δὲ ὄχλου πολλοῦ καὶ τῶν κατὰ πόλιν ἐπιπορευομένων π. αὐτ. The constr. is uncertain, and we have choice of two ways, according as the καί is regarded as simply co-ordinating, or as epexegetic. 1. “And when a great multitude was coming together, and they of every city were resorting to Him.” 2. “And when a great multitude was coming together, namely, of those who city by city were resorting to Him.” According to 2, the multitude consisted wholly of those who were following from different towns (ver. 1). As no town is named, there was perhaps no crowd from the place itself. In any case the imperf. part. should be preserved in translation. It was the growing multitude which used Him to enter into a boat (Matthew 13:2; Mark 4:1). See on 11:29. Except Titus 1:5, κατὰ πόλιν is peculiar to Lk.

The Latin Versions vary greatly: conveniente autem turba magna et corum qui ex civitatibus adveniebant dixit parabolam (a); conveniente autem turba multa et qui de singulis civitalibus exibant dixit p. (c); congregate autem populo multo et ad civitatem iter faciebant ad eum dixit parabolam talem ad eos (d); cum autem turba plurima conveniret et de civitatibus properarent ad cum dixit per similitudinem (Vulg.); cum autem turba plurima convenisset (συνελθόντος, D) et de civitatibus advenirent multi dixit per similitudinem (Cod. Brix.).

εἶπεν διὰ παραβολῆς. The expression occurs nowhere else. Mt. and Mk. write ἐν παραβολαῖς λέγειν or λαλεῖν, while Lk. has παραβολὴν εἰπεῖν or λέγειν. See on 4:23, 5:36, and 6:39; and on the parable itself see Gould on Mark 4:1ff.

5. ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων. So in all three accounts: “The sower went forth.” The force of the article is “he whose business it is to sow”: he is the representative of a class who habitually have these experiences. Rhem. has “the sower” in all three places, Cran. in Mt. and Mk., Cov. in Mt. For the pres. part. with the article used as a substantive comp. 3:11, 5:31, 6:29, 30, 32, 9:11, 10:16, etc. There is solemnity in the repetition, ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπεῖραι τὸν σπόρον. The comparison of teaching with sowing is frequent in all literature; but it is possible that Jesus here applies what was going on before their eyes. See me vivid description of a startling coincidence with the parable in Stanley, Sin. & Pal. p. 425.

ἐν τῷ σπείρειν αὐτόν. “During his sowing, while he sowed”: αὐτόν is subj., not obj., and refers to ὁ σπείρων, not τὸν σπόρον. See on 3:21. Note the graphic change of prepositions: παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν (ver. 5), ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν (ver. 6), ἐν μέσῳ ver. 7), εἰς τὴν γῆν (ver. 8). In this verse Lk: has three features which are wanting in Mt. and Mk.: τὸν σπόρον, καὶ κατεπατήθη, and τοῦοὐρανοῦ.

παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν. Not “along the way,” but “by the side of the way.” It fell on the field, but so close to the road that it was trampled on.

Both Lk. and Mk. here have μέν followed by καί: … καὶ ἔτερον Comp. Mark 9:12. The absence of δέ after μέν is freq. in Acts, Pauline Epp., and Heb. See Bless, Gr. p. 261.

6. ἐπὶ τὴν πέραν. The rock had a slight covering of soil; and hence is called τὸ πετρῶδες (Mk.) and τὰ πετρώδη (Mt.), which does not mean “stony ground,” i.e. full of stones, but “rocky ground,” i.e. with rock appearing at intervals and with “no depth of earth.” The thinness of the soil would cause rapid germination and rapid withering; but Lk omits the rapid growth. With φυέν comp. Proverbs 26:9; Exodus 10:5; and (for the constr.) Luke 2:4. For ἰκμάδα, “moisture,” Mt. and Mk. have ῥίζαν. The word occurs Jeremiah 17:8; Job 26:14; Jos. Ant. iii. 1, 3; but nowhere else in N.T.

7. ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀκανθῶν. The result of the falling was that it was in the midst of the thorns: prep. of rest after a verb of motion: comp, 7:17. Lk is fond of ἐν μέσῳ (2:46, 10:3, 21, 22:27, 55, 24:36; Acts 1:15, etc.). Elsewhere it is rare, except in Rev. Neither Mt. nor Mk. have it here.

συνθυεῖσαι. Here only in N.T. In LXX only Wisd. 13:13. In Plato and Aristotle it is transitive: “cause to grow together.” We are to understand that the good seed fell into ground where young thorns were growing; otherwise the growing together would hardly be possible. Indeed the ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι of Mt. and Mk. almost implies that the thorns were not yet visible, when the good seed was sown in the midst of them. The ἀπέπνιξαν means “choked it off, ” so as to exterminate it: comp. the ἀπό in ἀποκτείνω. Wic. has “strangliden it” but that, though sufficient for suffocaverunt (Vulg.), does not express the ἀπό. The verb occurs only here and ver. 33 in N.T., and in LXX only in Nahum 2:12 and Tobit 3:8. Matthew 13:7 is doubtful.

8. εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν ἀγαθήν. Not merely upon, but into the soft. The double article in all three accounts presents the soil and its goodness as two separate ideas: “the ground (that was intended for it), the good (ground).” Mt. and Mk. have καλήν. This repetition of the article is specially frequent in Jn. Lk. omits the sixty- and thirtyfold. Isaac is said to have reaped a hundredfold (Genesis 26:12). Hdt. (i. 193. 4) states that in the plain of Babylon returns of two hundred- and even three hundredfold, were obtained. Strabo (xiv. p. 1054) says much the same, but is perhaps only following Hdt. See Wetst. on Matthew 13:8 for abundant evidence of very large returns.

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω. This formula occurs in all three. Comp. 14:35; Matthew 11:15, Matthew 13:43. In Rev. we have the sing., ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω (2:7, 11, 17, 29, 3:6, 13, 22). The introductory ἐφώνει, “He cried aloud,” indicates a raising of the voice, and gives a solemnity to this concluding charge. The imperf.perhaps means that the charge was repeated. Comp. Ezekiel 3:27; Hom. Il. xv. 129.

9. τίς αὔτη εἴη ἡ παραβολή “What this parable might be in meaning.” See small print on 1:29. Mt. says that the disciples asked why He spoke to the multitude in parables. Christ answers both questions. For ἐπηρώτων see on 3:10.

10. τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς. “Those who are outside the circle of Christ’s disciples”; ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἔξω as Mk. has it. This implies hat it is disciples generally, and not the Twelve only, who are being addressed. Mt. is here the fullest of the three, giving the passage from Isaiah 6:9, Isaiah 6:10 in full. Lk. is very brief.

ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν. At first sight it might seem as if the ἵνα of Lk. and Mk. was very different from the ὅτι of Mt. But the principle that he who path shall receive more, while he who bath not shall be deprived of what he seemeth to have, explains both me ἵνα and the ὅτι. Jesus speaks in parables, because the multitude see without seeing and hear without hearing. But lie also speaks in parables in order that they may we without Seeing and hear without hearing. They “have not” a mind to welcome instruction, and therefore they are taught in a way which deprives them of instruction, although it is full of meaning to those who desire to understand and do understand. But what the unsympathetic “hear without understanding”they remember, be cause of its impressive form; and whenever their minds become fitted for it, its meaning will become manifest to them.

WH. write συνίωσιν, from the unused συνίω, while other editors prefer συνιῶσιν, from συνίημι or the unused συνιέω. Similarly WH. have συνίουσιν (Matthew 13:13), where omen give συνιοῦσιν. ii. App. p. 167. Here some authorities have συνῶσιν, as in LXX.

11. Having answered the question διατί ἐν παραβολαῖς λέγεις; Jesus now answers τίς ἐστιν αὔτη ἡ παραβολή; To the disciples “who have” the one thing needful “more is given.” The similarity between the seed and the word lies specially in the vital power which it secretly contains. Comp. “Behold I sow My law in you, and it shall bring fruit in you, and ye shall be glorified in it for ever. But our fathers, which received the law, kept it not, and observed not the statutes: and the fruit of the law did not perish, neither could it, for it was Thine; yet they that received it perished, because they kept not the thing that was sown in them (2 Esdr. 9:31-33).

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ. Mt. never (? 15:6) has this phrase; it occurs only once in Mk. (7:13) and once in Jn. (10:35). Lk. has it four times in the Gospel (5:1, 8:11, 21, 11:28) and twelve times in the Acts. Here Mk. has τὸν λόγον (4:15) and Mt. has nothing (13:18). So in ver. 21, where Lk. has τὸν λ. τοῦ Θ., Mk. has τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Θ. (3:35) and Mt. τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός (12:50). Does it mean “the word which comes from God” or “the word which tell of God”? Probably the former. Comp. the O. T. formula “The word of the Lord came to.” The gen. is subjective. Lft. Epp. of S. Paul, p. 15.

12. οἱ δὲ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν. There is no need to understand σπαρέντες, as is clear from Mark 4:15. “Those by the wayside” is just as intelligible as “Those who received seed by the wayside.”

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος. Much more vivid than “And the birds are the devil.” This is Christ’s own interpretation of the birds, and it is strong evidence for the existence of a personal devil. Why did not Jesus explain the birds as meaning impersonal temptations? He seems pointedly to insist upon a personal adversary. See on 10:18. Mt. has ὁ πονηρός Mk. ὁ σατανᾶς The concluding words are peculiar to Lk.: “in order that they may no by believing be saved.” Perhaps a sign of Pauline influence.

13. The constr. is ambiguous. In vv. 12, 14, 15 εἰσίν is expressed: and it is usually understood here: “And those on the rock are they which, when they have heard, receive the word with joy; and these have no root.” But it is not necessary to insert the εἰσίν. We may continue the protasis to τονλόγον and make καί mean also: “And those on the rock, which, when they have heard, receive the word with joy,—these also (as well as those by the wayside) have no root” Thus οὖτοι ἔχουσιν exactly corresponds to οὖτοίεἰσιν in vv. 14, 15. But the usual arrangement is better. The οἵ πρὸς καιρὸν πιστεύουσιν is a further explanation of οὖτοι. Neither Mt. nor Mk. has δέχονται, of which Lk. is fond (2:28, 9:5, 48, 53, 10:8, 10, 16:4, 6, 7, 9, etc.). It implies the internal acceptance; whereas λαμβάνειν implies no more than the external reception.

ἐν καιρῷ πειρασμοῦ ἀφίστανται. Mt. and Mk. have θλίψεως ἤδιωγμοῦ, which shows that the temptation of persecution and external suffering is specially meant: comp. Jam 1:2. In all times of moral and spiritual revival persons who are won easily at first, but apostatize under pressure, are likely to form a large portion : comp. Hebrews 3:12. The verb does not occur in Mt. Mk. or Jn. The repetition of καιρός is impressive. As opportunity commonly lasts only for a short time, καιρός may mean “a short time.”

14. τὸ δὲ εἰς τὰς ἀκάθας πεσόν. It is not probable that this is an acc. abs.: “Now as regards that which fell among me thorns.” The attraction of οὖτοι (for τοῦτο) to οἰ ἀκούσαντες is quite intelligible.

ὑ πὸ μεριμνῶν καὶ πλούτου καὶ ἡδονῶ βίου. It is usual to take this after συμπνίγονται; and this is probably correct: yet Weiss would follow Luther and others and join it with πορευόμενοι, “going on their way under the influence of cares,” etc. But ver. 7 is against this : the cares, etc., are the thorns, and it is the thorns choke. This does not reduce πορευόμενοι to a gehaltloser Zusatz. The choking is not a sudden process, like the trampling and devouring; nor a rapid process, like the withering: it takes time. It is as they go on their way through life, and before they have reached the goal, that the choking of the good growth takes place. Therefore they never do reach the goal. The transfer of what is true of the growing seed to those in whose heart it is sown is not difficult; and συμπνιγονται is clearly passive, not middle and transitive. The thorns choke the seed (ver. 7); these hearers are choked by the cares, etc. (ver. 14). Here only in N.T. does τελεσφορεῖν occur. It is used of animals as well as of plants (4 Mac. 13:20; Psalm 64:10, Sym.).

15. τὸ δὲ ἐν τῇ καλῇ γῇ κ.τ.λ. It fell into the good ground (ver. 8), and it is in the right ground. Perhaps οἵτινες has its full meaning: “who are of such a character as to,” etc. The two epithets used of the ground, ἀγαθή in ver. 8 and καλή in ver. 15, are combined for καρδίᾳ: “in a right and good heart.” We must take ἐν καρδίᾳ with κατέχουσι rather than with ἀκούσαντες. Even if ἀκούειν be interpreted to mean “hearing gladly, welcoming,” it is not the same as κατέχειν, which means “hold fast” (1 Corinthians 11:2). It is reasonable to suppose that ἀκούειν means the same in all four cases (12, 13, 14, 15). But κατέχουσιν (Lk.), παραδέχονται (Mark 4:20), and συνιών (Matthew 13:23) may all be equivalents of the same Aramaic verb, meaning “to take in”: see footnote on 5:21. Comp. 1 Corinthians 15:2 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:21.

ἐν ὑπομονῇ. “With endurance, perseverance,” rather than “patience,” which would be μακροθυμία: in patientia (Vulg.), in tolerantia (c), in sufferentia (d), per patientiam (b f ff2). See Lft. on Colossians 1:11 ; Trench, Syn. liii. This ὑπομονή is the opposite of ἀφίστανται (ver. 13), and is not in Mt. or Mk. Thus Lk. gives the opposite of all three of the bad classes: κατέχουσιν, non ut in via ;καρποφοροῦσιν, non Ut in spinis; ἐν ὑπομονῇ non in petroso (Beng.). Neither here nor in ver. 8 does Lk. give the degrees of fruitfulness. Mt. and Mk. do so both in the parable and in the interpretation. The suggestion that Lk. has mistaken three numerals for a word which he translates ἐν ὑπομονῇ seems to be a little too ingenious (Expositor, Nov. 1891, p. 381). That Jesus knew that all four of the classes noticed in the parable were to be found in the audience before Him, is probable enough; but we have no means of knowing it. We may safely identify the Eleven and the ministering women with the fourth class. Judas is an instance of the third. But all are warned that the mere receiving of the word is not decisive. Everything depends upon how it is received and how it is retained. Grotius quotes from the Magna Moralia: ᾦ τὰ ἀγαθὰ πάντα ὄντα ἀγαθά ἐστιν, καὶ ὑπὸ τούτων μὴ διαφθείρεται, οἶον ὑπὸ πλούτου καὶ ἀρχῆς, ὁ τοιοῦτος καλὸς καὶἅγαθός.

16-18. Practical Inference. The connexion with what precedes need not be doubted. By answering the question of the, disciples (ver. 9) and explaining the parable to them, Jesus had kindled a light within them. They must not hide it, but must see that it spreads to others. Here we have the opposite of what was noticed in the Sermon on the Mount. Here Lk. has, gathered into one, sayings which Mt. has, scattered in three different places (5:15, 10:26, 13:12: comp. 13:12, 25:29). Mk. and Lk. are here very similar and consecutive. Comp. 11:33-36.

16. λύχνον ἄψας καλύπτει αὐτὸν σκεύει. “Having lighted a lamp,” rather than “a candle.” Trench, Syn. xlvi.; Becker, Charicles, iii. 86, Eng. tr. p. 130; Gallus, ii. 398, Eng. tr. p.308. For ἄψας see on 15:8: it occurs again 11:33, but not in the parallels Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21. Instead of σκεύει Mt. and Mk. have the more definite ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον, which Lk. has 11:33. As λύχνος is a “lamp,” λυχνία is a “lamp-stand,” on which several λύχνοι might be placed or hung: for, whereas the λαμπτήρ was fixed, the λύχνος was portable. Other forms of λυχνία are λυχνίον and λυχνεῖον (Kennedy, Sources of .N.T. Grk. p. 40) Comp. the very similar passage 11:33. In both passages of οἱ εἰσπορευόμενοι, the Gentiles, are mentioned instead of οἱ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ, the Jews (Matthew 5:15).

17. The poetic rhythm and parallelism should be noticed. Somewhat similar sayings are found in profane writers: ἄγει δὲ πρὸς φῶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν χρόνος (Menander); comp. Soph. Ajax, 646, and Wetst. on Matthew 10:26. For φανερὸν γενήσεται see on 4:36; Mt has ἀποκαλυφθήσεται, Mk. φανερωθῇ. For ἀπόκρυφον, “hidden away” from the public eye, see Lft. on Colossians 2:3. It was a favourite word with the Gnostics to indicate their esoteric books, which might not be published. Comp. the very similar passage 12:2; and see S. Cox in the Expositor, 2nd series, i. pp. 186, 372, and Schanz, ad loc.

18. βλέπετε οὖν πῶς ἀκούετε. Because the doctrine received must be handed on and made known to all, therefore it is all-important that it should be rightly heard, viz. with intelligence and “good heart” (ver. 15). Whoever gives welcome to the word and appropriates it, becomes worthy and capable of receiving more. But by not appropriating truth when we recognize it, we lose our hold of it, and have less power of recognizing it in the future. There is little doubt that ὅ δοκεῖ ἔγειν means “that which he thinketh he hath.” Wic. has “weneth”; Tyn. and Cran. “supposeth”; Cov. and Rhem. “thinketh.” “Seemeth” comes from Beza’s videtur. It is self-deception that is meant. Those who received the seed by the wayside were i this condition; they failed to appropriate it, and lost it. Comp. 19:26.

Mk. here inserts (4:24) the ᾦ μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε, κ.τ.λ., which Lk. has already given in the sermon (6:38): and both Mt. and Mk. here add other parables, two of which Lk. gives later (13:18-21).

19-21. The Visit of His Mother and His Brethren. Christ’s true Relations. Mt. (12:46-50) and Mk. (3:31-35) place this incident before the parable of the Sower; but none of the three state which preceded in order of time. Comp. 11:27, 28, and see on 11:29. On the “Brethren of the Lord” see Lange, Leben Jesu, ii. 2, § 13, Eng. tr. i. p. 329; Lft. Galatians, pp. 253-291, in his Dissertations on the Apostolic Age, pp. 3-45, Macmillan, 1892; J.B. Mayor, Epistle of S. James, pp. v-xxxvi, Macmillan, 1892.1 D. B.2 artt. “Brother”; “James”; “Judas, the Lord’s Brother.”

19. Παρεγένετο δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ μήτηρ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ. For the verb, which is a favourite with Lk., see on 7:4. Here Mk. has ἔρχονται and Mt. ἰδού. In writing the sing. Lk. is thinking only of ἡ μήτηρ. Such constructions are common, and do not imply that the first in the series of nominatives was emphatic or specially prominent, except in the writer’s thoughts. Comp. John 18:15, John 18:20:3; Acts 26:30; Philemon 1:23.

The precise relationship to be understood from the expression οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ will probably never he determined or cease to be discussed. There is nothing in Scripture to warn us from what is the antecedently natural view that they are the children of Joseph and Mary, unless “I know not a man” (1:34) is interpreted as implying a vow of perpetual virginity. The “firstborn” in 2:7 and the imperfect followed by “till” in Matthew 1:25, seem to imply that Joseph and Mary had children; which is confirmed by contemporary belief (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55) and by the constant attendance of the ἀδελφοί on the Mother of the Lord (Matthew 12:46; Mark 3:32; John 2:12). The Epiphanian theory, which gives Joseph children older than Jesus by a former wife, deprives Him of His rights as the heir of Joseph and of the house of David. It seems to be of apocryphal origin (Gospel according to Peter, or Book of James); and, like Jerome’s theory of cousinship, to have been invented in the interests of asceticism and of à priori convictions, respecting the perpetual virginity of Mary. Tertullian, in dealing with this passage, seems to assume as a matter of course that the ἀδελφοί are the children of Mary, and that she and they were, here censured by Christ (Marcion. iv. 19; De Carne Christi, vii.). He knows nothing of the doctrine of a sinless Virgin. Renan conjectures that James, Joses, Simon, and Judas were the cousins of Jesus, but that the brethren who refused to believe in Him were His real brethren (V. de J. p. 23). This solution remains entirely his own, for it creates more difficulties than it solves. See Expositor’s Bible, James and Jude, ch. iii., Hodder, 1891.

συντυχεῖν. Elsewhere in bibl. Grk. 2 Mac. 8:14 only.

20. ἀπηγγέλη. A favourite word (vv. 34, 36, 47, 7:18, 22, 9:36, 13:1, etc.). Here [Mt.] has εἶπεν δέ τις and Mk. has λέγουσιν. The λεγόντων is certainly spurious; om. א B D L D X Latt. Goth. etc.

21. μήτηρ μου καὶ ἀδελφοί μου. Note the absence of the article in all three accounts. This is the predicate, and οὖτοι, κ.τ.λ., is the subject. And the meaning is not are “My actual mother or brethren,” which would be ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί μου, but “Mother to Me and brethren to Me,” i.e. equal to such, equally dear, Mt. and Mk. have the singular here: οὖτος or αὐτός μου ἀδελφὸς καὶ ἀδελφὴ καὶ μήτηρ ἐστίν. We cannot infer from καὶ ἀδελφή that His sisters were present: they had settled at Nazareth (Matthew 13:56; Mark 6:3). The texts of Mark 3:32, which represent the multitude as telling Jesus that His sisters are with His Mother and brethren, are probably the result of this inference. A D and some Latin authorities insert “and Thy sisters”; א B C G K L and most Versions omit the words. Christ’s reply is not a denial of the claims of family ties, nor does it necessarily imply any censure on His Mother and brethren. It asserts that there are far stronger and higher claims. Family ties at the best are temporal; spiritual ties are eternal. Moreover, the closest blood-relationship to the Messiah constitutes no claim to admission into the Kingdom of God. No one becomes a child of God in virtue of human parentage (John 1:13). Jesus does not say πατήρ μου, not merely because Joseph was not present, but because in the spiritual sense that relationship to Christ is filled by God alone. See on ver. 11.

22-25. The Stilling of the Tempest on the Lake of Gennesaret. This is the first of a pair of miracles which appear in the same order in all three Gospels (Matthew 8:23 ff.: ; Mark 4:35 ff.), the second being the healing of the demoniacs in the country of the Gadarenes. To these two Mk. and Lk. add the healing of the woman with the issue and the raising of the daughter of Jairus, which Mt. places somewhat later. The full series gives us a group of representative miracles exhibiting Christ’s power over the forces of nature and the powers of hell, over disease and over death.

22. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτός. All these expressions are characteristic, and exhibit Aramaic influence. See note at the end of ch. i., and comp. 5:1, 12, 17, 6:12. There is nothing like them in Mark 4:35 or Matthew 8:23, and ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν is peculiar to Lk. (5:17, 20:1). Comp. ἐν μιᾷ τῶν πόλεων (5:12) and ἐν μιᾷ τῶν συναγωγῶν (13:10). Mt. tells us that it was the sight of the multitudes around Him that moved Jesus to order a departure to the other side of the lake; and Mk. says that the disciples “leaving the multitude, take Him with them, even as He was in the boat.” This seems to imply that He was utterly tired, overcome by the demands which the multitude made upon Him. For διέλθωμεν see on 2:15. The nautical expression ἀνάγεσθαι is freq. in Lk. and peculiar to him (Acts 13:13, Acts 13:16:11, Acts 13:18:21, Acts 13:20:3, Acts 13:13, Acts 13:21:2, Acts 13:27:2, Acts 13:4, Acts 13:12, Acts 13:21, Acts 13:28:10, Acts 13:11). Syr-Sin. omits καὶ ἀνήθησαν.

23. πλεόντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀφύπνωσεν. Excepting Revelation 18:17, πλεῖν is peculiar to Lk. (Acts 21:3, Acts 21:27:2, Acts 21:6, Acts 21:24). In Anth. Pal. 9. 517, ἀφυπνόω means “awaken from sleep.” Here it means “fall off to sleep,” a use which seems to be somewhat late (Heliod. ix. 12). In class. Grk. we should rather have καθυπνόω (Lob. Phryn. p. 224). This is the only passage in which we read of Jesus sleeping.

κατέβη λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου. “There came down a violent squall of wind,” from the heights which surround the lake. These are furrowed with ravines like funnels, down which winds rush with great velocity. See Thomson, Land & Book, p. 375; Keim, iv. p. 179, who quotes Rusegger, Reisen, iii. p. 136. For λαῖλαψ comp. Job 21:18, 38:1; Wisd. 5:14, 23; Ecclus. 48:9; Hom. Il. xii. 375, xvii. 57. Mt. gives the effect of it as σεισμὸς μέγας ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ. For the accent comp. καλαῦροψ, κλῖμαξ, κ.τ.λ., and see Chandler, § 668.

συνεπληροῦντο. The verb occurs only here, 9:51, and Acts 2:1. Note the imperf. in contrast to κατέβη. The squall came down with a single rush; the filling of the boat continued and was not completed. What was true of the boat is stated of the own In class. Grk. the act. is used of manning ships thoroughly (Thuc. vi. 50, 2).

24. Ἐπιστάτα, ἑπιστάτα. See on 5:5. The doubling of the name is here peculiar to Lk. Comp. 10:41, 22:31; Acts 9:4, Acts 22:7, Acts 24:14. Mt. has Κύριε, Mk. Διδάσκαλε. Auguskins has some good remarks as to the differences between the exclamations attributed to the disciples in the three narratives. “There is no need to inquire which of these exclamations was really uttered. For whether they uttered some one of these three, or other words which no one of the Evangelists has recorded, yet conveying the same sense, what does it matter?” (De Cons. Evang. ii. 24, 25).

ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ τῷ κλύδωνι. This does not prove that Lk. regarded the storm as a personal agent: both the wind and its effect are “rebuked,” a word which represents the disciples’ view of the action. See on 4:39. A κλύδων (κλύζειν “wash against”) is larger than a κῦμα (Jam 1:6 ; Jonah 1:4, Jonah 1:12 ; Wisd. 14:5; 1 Mac. 6:11; 4 Mac. 7:5, 15:31).

γαλήνη. Mt. and Mk. add μεγάλη: the word is common elsewhere, but in N.T. occurs only in this narrative. The sudden calm in the sea showed the reality of the miracle. Wind may cease suddenly, but the water which it has agitated continues to work for a long time afterwards. In Mk., as here, the stilling of the tempest precedes the rebuke: Mt. transposes the order of the two incidents. In both the rebuke is sharper than in Lk., who “ever spares the Twelve” (Schanz). See on 6:13 and 22:45.

25. Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν; They might have been sure that the Messiah would not perish, and that their prayer for help would be answered. It is not their praying for succour that is blamed, but their want of faith in the result of their prayer: they feared that their prayer would be vain. Comp. His parents’ anguish, and see on 2:48.

τίς ἄρα οὖτός ἐστιν; Mt. has ποταπός. There is nothing incredible in the question. Their ideas of the Christ and His powers were very imperfect; and this was probably the first time that they had seen Him controlling the forces of nature. Their experience as fishermen told them how impossible it was in the natural course that such a storm should be followed immediately by a great calm. The fear which accompanies this question or exclamation is not that which the storm produced, but that which was caused by a sudden recognition of the presence of supernatural power of a kind that was new to them. Comp. 5:26, 7:16. For the ἄρα comp. 22:23; Acts 12:18.

One conjectures that the framer of a legend would have made the disciples accept the miracle as a matter of course: comp. 5:8, 9. Keim opposes Strauss for rejecting me whole as a myth, although he himself by no means accepts the whole as historical. “Unquestionably there rests upon this brief and pregnant narrative a rare ma sets, such as does not reappear in the other nature-miracles. With a few mastey strokes there is here sketched a most sublime picture from the life of Jesus, and a picture full of truth. … Even His rising up against weather and sea is told by Mt. and Lk. quite simply, without any ostentation; and the tentative query of the disciples, after their deliverance was accomplished, Who is this? is the slightest possible, the only too modest and yet the true utterance of the impression which they must at that time have received” (Jes. of Naz. iv. p. 180). See Gould on Mark 4:41.

26-39. The Healing of the Demoniac in the Country of the Gerasenes.

Gerasenes seems to be the true reading both here and Mark 5:1, while Gadarenes is best attested Matthew 8:28; but in all three places the authorities vary between Gerasenes, Gadarenes, and Gergesenes. The evidence here is thus summmarized—

Γαδαρηνῶν, A R G D L R etc., Syrr. (Cur-Pesh-Sin-Harcl txt) Goth.

Γερασηνῶν, B C* (ver. 37, hiat ver. 26) D, Latt. Syr-Harcl. mg.

Γεργεσηνῶν, א L C X, minusc. sex, Syr-Hier. Boh. Arm. Aeth. See WH. ii. App. p. 2. If Luke 8:26 stood alone, one might adopt Γεργεσηνῶν as possibly correct there; but the evidence in ver. 37 is conclusive against it.

These Gerasenes are probably not the people of the Gerasa which lay on the extreme eastern frontier of Peræa, over thirty miles from the lake: even in a loose description to foreigners Lk. would no be likely to speak of the shore of the lake as in the country of these Gerasenes. Rather we may understand the town which Thomson rediscovered (Land & Book, ii. 34-38) under the name of Gersa or Kersa on the steep eastern bank. Gergesa is merely a conjecture of Origen, adopted upon topographical grounds and not upon textual evidence. It may be rejected in all three narratives. There is no real difficulty of topography, whichever reading be adopted. The expression τὴν χώραν τῶν Γ. gives considerable latitude, and may include a great deal more than the immediate vicinity of the town. Nor is there any difficulty in the fact that Mt. knows of two demoniacs, whereas Lk. and Mk. mention only one. The real difficulties in the miracle, for those who believe in the fact of demoniacal possession, are connected with the swine. 1. Can beings which are purely spiritual enter and influence beings which are purely animal? 2. How can we justify the destruction of the swine, which time innocent creatures, and which belonged to persons who do not seem to have merited such a heavy loss?

On the first of these two questions our ignorance is so great that we do not even know whether there is a difficulty. Who can explain how mind acts upon matter, or matter upon mind? Yet the fact is as certain, as that mind acts upon mind or that matter acts upon matter. There is nothing in experience to forbid us from believing that evil spirits could act upon brute beasts; and science admits that it has “no à priori objection to offer” to such an hypothesis. And if there is no scientific objection to demoniacal possession of brutes, à fortiori there is none to that of men, seeing that men have both bodies and spirits to be influenced. The influence may have been analogous to that of mesmerism or hypnotism. The real difficulty is the moral one. As Huxley puts it, “the wanton destruction of other people’s property is a misdemeanour of evil example.” The answers are very various. 1. The whole story is a myth. 2. The healing of the demoniacs and the repulse of the Healer by the inhabitants are historical, but the incident of the swine is a later figment. 3. The demoniacs frightened the swine, and the transfer of demons from them to the swine was imagined. 4. The drowning of the swine was an accident, possibly simultaneous with the healing, and report mixed up the two incidents. 5. The demoniacs were mere maniacs, whom Jesus cured by humouring their fancies; and His giving leave to imaginary demons to enter into the swine, produced the story of the disaster to the herd.—All these explanations assume that the Gospel narratives are wholly or in part unhistorical. But there are other explanations.—6. Like earthquakes, shipwrecks, pestilences, and the like, the destruction of the swine is part of the mystery of evil, and insoluble. 7. As the Creator of the universe, the incarnate Word had the right to do what He pleased with His own. 8. A visible effect of the departure of the demons was necessary to convince the demoniacs and their neighbours of the completeness of the cure. Brutes and private property may be sacrificed, where the sanity and lives of persons are concerned. 9. The keepers of the swine were Jews, who were breaking the Jewish law, which was binding on them, and perhaps on the whole district. “In the enforcement of a law which bound the conscience, our Lord had an authority such as does not belong to the private individual” (W. E. Gladstone, Nineteenth Century, Feb. 1891, p. 357). Against this it is contended that the swineherds were probably pagans, and that the district was not under Jewish law (N. C. Dec. 1890, p. 967; March 1891 p. 455). Certainty is not attainable, but it is probable that one of the last two reasons is the true explanation. See Expositor, 3rd series, 1889, 9:303. Godet’s conclusion seems to be sound, that it is one of those cases in which the power to execute the sentence guarantees the right of the Jdg_1 Contrast the healing of a demoniac woman as recorded in the Gospel of the Infancy, 14.

26. κατέπλευσαν εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Γεπασηνῶν ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀντίπερα. “They landed at the country of the Gerasenes, which is in such a position as to be opposite Galilee.” The verb is quite class. of coming to land from the high seas, but is found here only in N. T. of in LXX. See Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of S. Paul, p. 28, and reff. in Wetst. The statement tells us nothing as to the position of the country of the Gerasenes, for “opposite” would A to the whole of the east shore. Lk. alone mentions its being “opposite Galilee”; perhaps to justify its inclusion in the Galitean ministry. D.C.G. artt. “Gadara,” “Greasiness.”

Some texts have πέραν from Mt. or Mk., while others have ἀντιπέραν, of which ἀντιπέρα is a later form. Another form is ἀντιπέρας. For the accent see Chandler, § 867.

27. ὑπήντησεν ἀνήρ τις ἐκ τῆς πόλεως. The man belong to the city, but he came out of the tombs to meet Jesus: ἐκ τῆς πόλεως belongs to ἀνήρ τις not to ὑπήντησεν. For this force of ὑπό in composition comp. ὑποκρίνομαι, “answer back”; ὑπολογίζομαι “reckon per contra”; ὑποστρέφω “turn back.” For ἱκανῷ see on 7:12; and for ἐνεδύσατο see Burton., § 48. Lk. alone mentions that the demoniac wore no clothes; but Mk. implies it by stating that he was clothed after he was cured. All three mention the tombs; and near the ruins of Khersa there are many tombs hewn in the rocks. Excepting Mark 5:3, Mark 5:5 and Revelation 11:9, μνῆμα is peculiar to Lk. (23:53, 24:1; Acts 2:29, Acts 7:16); but he more often uses μνημεῖον. With ἔμενεν comp. 19:5, 24:29.

28. Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί; See on 4:34.

Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου. This expression rather indicates that the man is not a Jew, and therefore is some evidence that the owners of the swine were not Jews. “The Most High” (Elyon) is a name for Jehovah which seems to be usual among heathen nations It is employed by Melchisedek, the Canaanite priest and king (Genesis 14:20, Genesis 14:22). Balaam uses it (Numbers 24:16). Micah puts it into the mouth of Balaam (6:6); Isaiah, into the mouth of the king of Babylon (14:14). It is used repeatedly in the Babylonian proclamations in Daniel (3:26, 4:24, 32, 5:18, 21, 7:18, 22, 25, 27). The girl with a spirit of divination at Philippi employs it (Acts 16:17). It is found in Phoenician inscriptions also. See Chadwick, St. Mark, p. 144, and Wsctt. on Hebrews 7:1. For φωνῇ μεγάλῃ see on 1:42, and for δέομαι see on 5:12: with ἀνακράξας of demoniac cries comp. 4:41; Acts 8:7.

μή με βασάίσῃς. Neither the verb nor its cognate substantive is ever used in N.T. of testing metals, or of obtaining evidence by torture, but simply of pain or torment. The demoniac identifies himself with the demon which controls him, and the torment which is feared is manifest from ver. 31.

29. παρήγγελλεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι. Authorities are very evenly divided between the imperf. and the aor. If παρήγγειλεν be right, it almost means “He had ordered.” Burton., § 29, 48. We should have expected τοῖς πνεύμασιν, for both in ver. 27 and ver. 30 we have δαιμόνια. But the interchange of personality between the man and the demons is so rapid, that it becomes natural to speak of the demons in the sing. Note that while Lk. has his characteristic ἐξελθῖν ἀπό (vv. 33, 38, 4:35, 41, 5:8, etc.), Mk. has the more usual ἐξελθεῖν ἐκ.

πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις συνηρπάκει αὐτόν. “Many times,” i.e. on many occasions, multis temporibus (Vulg.), “it had seized him,” or “carried him away”: comb. Acts 27:15. Mk. has πόλλακις. Others explain “within a long time.” See Win. 31:9, p. 273. The verb is quite class., but in N.T. peculiar to Lk. (Acts 6:12, Acts 19:29, Acts 26:15). Hobart counts it as medical (p. 244). In LXX, Proverbs 6:25; Pro_2 Mac. 3:27, 4:41,

ἀύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις. Both Lk. and Mk. use these two words to distinguish the “handcuffs and fetters,” manicæ et pedicæ, with which he was bound. See Lft. Phil. p. 8. The former is used of the chain by which the hand of a prisoner was fastened to the soldier who had charge of him. Like “chains,” ἁλύσεις are of metal, whereas πέδαι might be ropes or withes. Both ἀλύσεις and πέδαι are included in τὰ δεσμά. The imperfects tell of what usually took place. During the calmer intervals precautions were taken to prevent the demons “carrying him away with” them; but these precautions always proved futile.

εἰς τὰς ἐρήμους. In order to take the man away from humane influences. But the wilderness is regarded as the home of evil spirits. See on 11:24; and for the plural see on 1:80.

30. Τί σοι ὄνομά ἐστιν; In order to recall the man to a sense of his own independent personality, Jesus asks him his name. It was a primary condition of his cure that he should realize that he is not identical with the evil powers which control his actions. Perhaps also Christ wished the disciples to know the magnitude of the evil, that the cure might increase their faith (ver. 25): and this purpose may have influenced Him in allowing the destruction of the swine. The peculiar word Λεγιών1, which is preserved in Mark 5:9 also, is a mark of authenticity. As Sanday points out, it is more probable that this strange introduction of a Latin word should represent something which really took place, than that it should be pure invention (Contemp. Rev. Sept. 1892, p. 349). The words ὄτι εἰσῆλθεν δαιμόνια πολλὰ εἰς αὐτόν are the remark of the Evangelist: comp. 2:50, 3:15, 23:12.

31. παρεκάλουν αὐτόν αὐτόν. “They kept beseeching Him.” The plurality of those who ask is emphatically marked: with δαιμόνια we might have expected παρεκάλει, as in Mk. The plur. would have been less noticeable in Mk., because the masc. plur., πολλοί ἐσμεν, precedes.

That παρεκάλουν (א B C D F L S, Latt. Goth.) and not παρεκάλει is right here, need not be doubted.

εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον. In class. Grk. ἄβυσσος is always an adj, “bottomless, boundless,” and is mostly poetical. In LXX ἡ ἄβυσσος is used of the sea (Genesis 1:2, Genesis 1:7:11; Job 41:22, Job 41:23); without the art. (Job 28:14, 36:16; Ecclus. 13, 16:18); of the depths of the earth (Psalm 71:20; Deuteronomy 8:7); but perhaps nowhere of Hades. In N.T. it means Hades (Romans 10:7), and esp. the penal part of it which is the abode of demons (Revelation 9:1-11, Revelation 9:11:7, Revelation 9:17:8, Revelation 9:20:1, Revelation 9:3). The latter is the meaning here. The demons dread being sent to their place of punishment. See Crem. Lex. sub v. In Mk. the petition is “that He will not send them out of the country”; but the verb is sing. and the man is the petitioner. He still confuses himself with the demons, and desires to stay where he feels at home. This is their wish and his also. The persistent confusion of personality renders it necessary that the man should have some decisive evidence of the departure of the evil spirits from him. In this way his cure will be effected with least suffering, Prof. Marshall thinks that εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον and ἔξω τῆς χώρας may represent Aramaic expressions so nearly alike as readily to be confounded by copyist or translator (Expositor, Nov. 1891 p. 377). See footnote on 5:31

32. ἀγέλη χοίρων ἱκανῶν. This illustrates the fondness of Lk. for ἱκανός in this sense: Mt. has ἀγ· χοίρων πολλῶν and Mk. ἀγ χοίρων μεγάλη. With characteristic love of detail Mk. gives the number as ὡς δισχίλιοι, which may be an exaggeration of the swineherds or of the owners, who wished to make the most of their loss. Had the number been an invention of the narrator, we should have had 4000 or 5000 to correspond with the legion. It is futile to ask whether each animal was possessed. If some of them were set in motion, the rest would follow mechanically. For the ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς of Lk. and Mk. we have the direct ὑπάγετε in Mt., which need mean no more than “depart, be gone.” But the distinction between commanding and allowing what He might have forbidden is not very helpful. Whatever the motive of the demons may have been, Jesus uses it for a good end, and secures the easy and effectual cure of their victim.

33. ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ. These words also are in all three. The word κρημνός need not mean an abrupt precipice: a steep and rocky slope suffices. MacGregor, Stanley, Tristram, Wilson, and others believe that the spot which suits the description can be identified. The art. implies that it was well known. Comp. 2 Chronicles 25:12. The use of ἀπεπνίγη for suffocation by drowning is classical (Dem. p. 883).

34. τὸ γεγονός. Chiefly the destruction of the swine. In ver. 36 οἱ ἰδόντες means the disciples and others near to Jesus, not the swineherds.

35-39. Note how the characteristics of Lk.’s diction stand out in these verses. For τὸν ἀνθρωπον ἀφʼ οὗτ.δ. ἐξῆλθεν (see on ver. 29) Mk. has τὸν δαιμονιζόμενον, and παρὰ τοὺς (see on 7:38) has no equivalent in Mk. For ἀπἡγγειλαν (see on ver. 20) Mk. has διηγήσαντο while ἄπον (see on 3:21), τὸ πλῆθος (see on 1:10), φόβῳ (see on 1:42, 7:16), οὗ ἐξεληλύθει (see on 4:38), and ὑπέστρεψεν (see on 1:56) have no equivalents. For ἐδεῖτο (see on 5:12) Mk. has παρεκάλει; for ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀφʼ οὖ ἐξεληλύθει (see on ver. 29) Mk. has the less accurate ὁ δαιμονισθείς for σύν (see on 1:56) Mk. has μετά; and for ὑποστρεφε (see on 1:56) Mk. has ὕπαγε.

35. ἱματισμένον. Some of the bystanders may have given him clothing; but there would have been time to fetch it. The verb is found neither in LXX nor in profane writers, but only here and Mark 5:15. The παρὰ τοὺς πόδας implies an attitude of thankfulness rather than that he has become a disciple. It is the last of the four changes that have taken place in the man. He is καθήμενον instead of restless, ἱματισμένον instead of naked, σωφρονοῦντα instead of raging, and παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τοῦ Ἰ. instead of shunning human society. Baur would have it that he is meant to represent the conversion of the Gentiles. We are not sure that he was a Gentile; and this would have been made clear if he was intended as a representative. For παρά with the acc. after a verb of not comp. Acts 10:6; Matthew 13:1, Matthew 13:20:30; Mark 5:21, Mark 10:46.

36. ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτοῖς. This is not a repetition of ver. 34, but a statement of additional information which was given to the townspeople after they arrived on the scene.

37. ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος. The desire that He should depart was universal, and all three narratives mention it. The people feared that His miraculous power might lead to further losses: and this feeling was not confined to the inhabitants of the πόλις close at hand (ver. 34); it was shared by the whole district. Comp. 4:29, 9:53, and contrast 4:42; John 4:40. Although Keirn rejects the incident of the swine, yet he rightly contends that this request that Jesus should leave the place gives the impression of a sober historical fact. There is nothing like it elsewhere in the history of Jesus; and neither it nor the locality is likely to have been invented. Why should a myth take Jesus across to Gerasa? Some historical connexion with the locality is much more probable. Here, as in vv. 30, 36, Syr-Sin. abbreviates.

38. ἐδεῖτο δὲ αὐτοῦ ὁ ἀνήρ. The δέ marks the contrast between Him and the rest. Mk. says that the request was made as Jesus was stepping into the boat. Mt. omits the whole incident. The man fears the unfriendly populace, and clings to his preserver.

39. διηγοῦ ὅσα σοι ἐποίησεν ὁ Θεός. In Galilee and Judæa, where Jesus and His disciples preached, He commonly told those who were healed to be silent about their cures. In this half-heathen Peræa there were no other missionaries, and the man was not fitted for permanent work with Christ elsewhere. Moreover, here there was no danger of the miracle being used for political purposes. Lastly, it might be beneficial to a healed demoniac to have free converse with all after his gloomy isolation. The ὁ Θεός is last with emphasis. Jesus shows the man that he must attribute his deliverance to God. Both Lk. and Mk. preserve the highly natural touch that, in spite of this command, the man proclaimed what Jesus had done for him. Note also that καθʼ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν is much in excess of εις τὸν οἶκόν σου and κηρύσσων of διηγοῦ. See on 9:10.

καθʼ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν. With κηρύσσων, not with ἀπῆλθεν: Win. 69. d.a, p. 499. Mk. has ἐν τῇ Δεκαπόλει. Nowhere else in N.T. does καθ ὀλην occur: Lk. commonly writes καθʼ ὅλης (4:14, 23:5 ; Acts 9:31, Acts 9:42, Acts 9:10:37). He nowhere mentions Decapolis.

40-56. The Healing of the Woman with the Issue and the Raising of the Daughter of Jairus. Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:21-43. The name of Bernice (Veronica) for this woman first appears in the Acts of Pilate, Gospel of Nicodemus, Pt. 1Ch_7. Respecting the statues, which Eusebius saw at Cæsarea, and which he believed to represent Christ and this woman, see H. E. vii. 18, 1-3. Sozomen says that Julian removed the statue of Christ and substituted one of himself, which was broken by a thunderbolt (5:21). Philostorgius says the same (7:3). Malalas gives the petition in which the woman asked Herod Antipas to be allowed to erect the memorial (Chrongr. x. 306-8). That the statues existed, and that Christians thus misinterpreted their meaning, need not doubted Pseudo-Ambrosius would have it that the woman was Martha the sister of Lazarus.

40-48, In these verses also the marks of Lk.’s style are very conspicuous (see, above on vv. 35-39). In ver. 40). we have ἐν δὲ τῷ c.infin. (see on 3:21) ὑποστρέθειν (see on 1:56) ἀπεδέξατο (see on ver. 40), ἦσαν. c. particip. (see on 1:10), πάντες (see on 9:43), and προσδοκῶντες (see on 3:15). In ver. 41, καὶ ἰδού (see on 1:20), καὶ οὐτος (1:36) ὑτῆρχεν (see on ver. 41), παρὰ τοὺς πὸδας (see on 7:38). In ver. 42, καὶ αὐτή (see on 1:17) and ἐν δὲτῳ c. infin. In ver. 44, παραχρῆμα (see on 5:25). In ver. 45, πάντων (6:30, 7:35) and ἐπιστάτα (5). In ver. 46, ἐξελθεῖν ἀπό (see on 4:35). In ver. 47, ἀπήγγειλεν (see on ver. 20), ἐνώπιον (see on 1:15), παντός, τοῦ λαοῦ, ἰάθη and παραχρῆμα. Not one of these expressions is found in the parallel passages in Mt. and Mk. See on 9:28-36.

40. ἀπεδέξατο. Peculiar to Lk. (9:11; Acts 2:41, Acts 2:18:27, Acts 2:17, Acts 2:24:3, Acts 2:28:30, and possibly 15:4). The meaning is they “received Him with pleasure, welcomed Him” (Euthym. Theophyl. Schanz). See on 4:42 and on 11:29. In class. Grk. the verb means “accept as a teacher, as an authority,” or “admit arguments as valid”: so in Xen. Plat. Arist. etc.

41. Ἰάειρος. The same name as Jair (Numbers 32:41; Jdg 10:3). It is strange that the name (= “he will give light”) should be used as an argument against the historical character of the narrative. It is not very appropriate to the circumstances.

ὑπῆρχεν. Very freq. in Lk., esp. in Acts: not in Mt. Mk. or Jn. The use of this verb as almost equivalent to εἶναι is the beginning of the modern usage. But the classical meaning of a present state connected with a previous state still continues in N. T. (9:48, 11:13, 16:14, 23, 23:50). See Sp. Comm. on 1 Corinthians 7:26. Here also Christ does not refuse the homage (4:8), as Peter (Acts 10:26) and the Anget (Revelation 19:10) do.

42. μονογενής. As in the cases of the widow’s son and the lunatic boy (7:12, 9:38), this fact may have influenced Christ. On all three occasions Lk. alone mentions the fact.

ἐτῶν δώδεκα. A critical time in a girl’s life. Not only Lk., who frequently notes such things (2:36, 37, 42, 3:23, 13:11), but Mk. also gives the age. All three mention that the woman with the issue had been suffering for twelve years. For ἀπέθνησκεν Mk. has ἐσχάτως ἔχει and Mt. ἄρτι ἐτελεύτησεν. The reason for the difference between Mt. and the others is plain. Lk. and Mk. give the arrivals, both of the father, who says, “She is dying,” and of the messenger, who says, “She is dead.” Mt. condenses the two into one.

συνέπνιγον. Mk. has συνέθλιβον, which is less strong: see on ver. 14. In both cases the συν· expresses the pressing together all round Him. The crowd which had been waiting for Him (ver. 40) now clings to Him in the hope of witnessing a miracle.

43. οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει. “Being in a condition of hemorrhage.” The constr. is quite simple and intelligible; comp. ἐν φθορᾷ ἐν ἐκστάσει, ἐν δόξη ἐν ἐκτενείᾳ, ἐν ἕχθρᾳ. The form ῥύσις is from the unused π̔ύω, from which come the late forms ἐρρυσα and ἐρρυκα, and π̔εῦσις is often a v l. Win. 29:3. b, p. 230.

λατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον. “Having, in addition to all her sufferings, spent all her resources on physicians,” or “for for pbysiclans,” or “in physicians.” This use of βίος for “means of living” is freq. in N.T. (15:12, 30, 21:4; Mark 12:44; 1 John 3:17) and in class. Grk. In class. Grk. βίος is a higher word than ζωή, the former being that which is fecaber to man, the latter that which he shares with brutes and vegetables. In N.T. βίος retains its meaning, being either the “period of human life,” as 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4, or “means of life,” as here. But ζωή is raised above βίος, and means that vital principle which through Christ man shares with God. Hence βίος is comparatively rare in N.T., which is not much concerned with the duration of temporal life or the means of prolonging it; whereas ζωή occurs more than a hundred times. See Trench, Syn. xxvii.; Crem. Lex. p. 272 ; Lft. on Ign. ad Rom. vii. 3.

WH. follow B D, Arm. in omitting ἰατροῖς … βίον. Treg. at RV., indicate doubt in marg. Syr-Sin. omits.

οὐκ ἴσχυσεν. This use of ἰσχύω for “be able” is freq. in Lk. See on 6:48. It is natural that “the physician” does not add, as Mk. does, that she had suffered much at the hands of the physicians, and was worse rather than better for their treatment. The remedies which they tried in such cases were sometimes very severe, and sometimes loathsome and absurd. See Lightfoot, p. 614; Tristram, Eastern Customs in Bible Lands, pp. 22, 23.

44. προσελθοῦσα ὄπισθεν ἥψατο. She came from behind that He might not see her. Her malady made her levitically unclean, and she did not wish to own this publicly. Her faith is tinged with superstition. She believes that Christ’s garments heal magically, independently of His will. In other cases those who touched Him in faith seem to have done so openly. Comp. 6:19; Matthew 14:36; Mark 3:10, Mark 6:56.

For ὅπισθεν a has de retro: comp, Baruch 6:5, visa itaque turba de retro (Vulg.). Hence the French derriere.

τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου. “The tassel” rather than “the fringe” or “hem of His garment.” The square overgarment or Tallith had tassels of three white threads with one of hyacinth at each of the four corners. Edersh. L. & T. 1. p. 624 (but see D. B.2 art. “Hem of Garment”). Of the four corners two hung in front, and two behind. It was easy to touch the latter without the wearer feeling the touch. D.C.G. art. “Border.”

ἔστη ἡ π̔ύσις. It “stood still, ceased to flow.” Mk. has ἐξηράνθη. “This is the only passage in the N.T. in which ἱστάναι is used in this sense. It is the usual word in the medical writers to denote the stoppage of bodily discharges, and especially such as are mentioned here” (Hobart, p. 15). Both παραχρῆμα, for which Mk. has εὐθύς, and προσαναλώσασα, for which Mk. has δαπανήσασα, are also claimed as medical (pp. 16, 96).

45. There is no reason for supposing that the miracle wrought without the will of Jesus. He knew that someone had been healed by touching His garment; and we may believe that He read the woman’s heart as she approached Him in the belief that He could heal her. Lk. evidently dates the cure from her touching His garment; Mt. seems to place it in Christ’s words to her; Mk. in both places.

τίς ὁ ἀψάμενός μου; This does not seem to be one of those cases in which Christ asked for information. He knew that He had been touched with a purpose, and He probably knew who had done it. Mk.’s περιεβλέπετο ἰδεῖν τὴν τοῦτο ποιήσασαν rather implies that He knew where to look. For the woman’s sake she must be induced to avow her act. Note the masc., which makes the question all the more general: Mk. has τίς μου ἥψατο τῶν ἱματίων. The verb implies more than touching, “laying hold of.” For other cases in which Jesus asked questions of which He knew the answer comp. 24:17; Mark 9:33. See some good remarks in the S. P. C. K. Comm. on Luke 8:46.

ἀρνουμένων δὲ πάντων. This explains, and to some extent excuses, Peter’s characteristic interference. Lk. alone tells us that Peter took the lead in this. See on 9:20, and comp. Mark 1:36. Note the πάντων, and see on 9:43 and 11:4. For ἐπιστάτα see on 5:5.

συνέχουσίν σε. “Hold Thee in, keep Thee a prisoner”; 19:43, 22:63; comp. 4:38. Here only in N. T. does ἀποθλίβειν occur: Lat. affligere (Vulg.), comprimere (f), contribulare (d); om. a b ff.2

46. ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξεληλυθυῖαν ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ. For the constr. see Burton., § 458, and comp. Hebrews 13:23; and for δύναμις see on 4:36.

47. τρέμουσα ἦλθεν. The πάντων in ver. 45, if taken literally, implies that she had previously denied her action. The ἦλθεν, however, seems to show that she had gone a little way from Him after being healed. But she may also have been afraid that she had done wrong in touching His garment. Either or both would explain the τρέμουσα. She is afraid that the boon may be with drawn. For the attraction διʼ ἥν αἰτίαν see small print on 3:19, and Burton., § 350: τοῦ λαοῦ is also characteristic.

48. ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκένσε. All three record these words. It was me grasp of her faith, not of her hand, that wrought the cure. Thus her low view of the manner of Christ’s healing is corrected.

49. ἔρχεταί τις παρὰ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου. A member of his household arrives and tells Jairus that it is now too late. The delay caused by the incident with the woman must have been agonizing to him. But this trial is necessary for the development of his faith, as well as for that of the woman, and Jesus curtails no item in His work. The τέθηκεν is placed first with emphasis. For σκύλλε see on 7:6. See also Blass on Acts 10:44.

50. Μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευσον. Change of tense. “Cease to fear; only make an act of faith” In Mark 5:36 we have μόνονπίστευε, “only continue to believe.” In either case the meaning is, “In the presence of this new difficulty let faith prevail, and will be well.” For μή φοβοῦ see on 1:13

51. οὐκ ἀφῆκεν εἰσελθεῖν τινὰ σὺν αὐτῷ “Did not allow anyone to enter with Him into the room.” He and the disciples had already entered the house, and the parents had been there from the first. Here, as in ver, 38, Lk. has σύν where Mk. has μετά: see on 1:56.

Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάνην καὶ Ἰάκωβον. The chosen three (ἐκλεκτῶν ἐκλεκτότεροι as Clem. Alex. calls them) are probably admitted for me sake of me Twelve, whose faith would be strengthened by the miracle. These three sufficed as witnesses. Moreover, they were in character most fitted to profit by the miracle. Here, as in 9:28 and Acts 1:13, John is placed before James. Elsewhere the other order, which is almost certainly the order of age, prevails (5:10, 6:14, 9:54), and always in Mt.(4:21, 10:2, 17:1) and Mk. (1:19, 29, 3:17, 5:37, 9:2, 10:35, 41, 13:3, 14:33).

Irenæus had a text which omitted καὶ Ἰωάνην. Quintus autem ingressus Dominus ad mortuam puellam suscitavit eam, nullum enim, inquit, permisit intrare nisi Petrum et jacobum et patrem et matrem puellæ (2:24, 4). No existing text makes this omission; but many authorities transpose James and John in order to have the usual order (א A L S X L, Boh. Aeth. Arm. Goth.). But the evidence of B C D A F G K, a b c d e f ff2 1 q r Cod. Am. Cod. Brix. etc. is decisive. There is similar confusion in 9:28 and Acts 1:13.

52. ἔκλαιον δὲ πάντες καὶ ἐκόπτοντο αὐτήν. The mourners (2 Chronicles 35:25; Jeremiah 9:17) were not in the room with the corpse: Mt. and Mk. tell us that Christ turned them out of the house. The πάντες is again peculiar to Lk.’s account: comp.vv. 40, 45, 47. The acc. after κόπτομαι is class. (Eur. Tro. 623; Aristoph. Lys. 396): “they beat their breasts for her, bewailed her.” Comp. 23:27; Genesis 23:2; 1 Samuel 25:1.

οὐ γὰρ ἀπέθανεν ἀλλὰ καθεύδει. This declaration is in all three narratives. Neander, Olshausen, Keim, and others understand it literally; and possibly Origen is to be understood as taking the same view. A miracle of power is thus turned into a miracle of knowledge. But the εἰδότες in ver. 53 is conclusive as to the Evangelist’s meaning: not “supposing,” but “knowing that she was dead.” The καθεύδει is rather to be understood in the same sense as Λάζαρος κεκοίμηται (John 11:11). But the cases are not parallel, for there Jesus prevents all possibility of misunderstanding by adding Λάζαρος ἀπέθανεν. Yet the fact that Jesus has power to awaken explains in both cases why He speaks of sleep. We may, however, be content, with Hase, to admit that certainty is unattainable as to whether the maiden was dead or in a trance.

54. κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῆς. All three mention that He laid hold of her, although to touch a dead body was to incur ceremonial uncleanness. In like manner He touched the leper: see on 5:13. This laying hold of her hand and the raised voice (ἐφώνησεν) are consonant with waking one out of sleep, and the two may be regarded as the means of the miracle. Comp. and contrast throughout Acts 9:36-42.

Ἡ παῖς, ἔγειρε. “Arise, get up,” not “awake.” Mt. omits the command; Mk. gives the exact words, Talitha cumi. For the nom. with the art. as voc. see on 10:21, 18:11, 13. For ἐφώνησεν comp. ver. 8, 16:24.

55. ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτῆς. There can be no doubt that the Evangelist uses the phrase of the spirit returning to a dead body, which is the accurate use of the phrase. Only the beloved physician makes this statement. In LXX it is twice used of a living man’s strength reviving; of the fainting Samson (Jdg 15:19), and of the starving Egyptian (1 Samuel 30:12). Note that Lk. has his favourite παραχρῆμα, where Mk. has his favourite εὐθύς; and comp. ver. 44, 5:25, 18:43, 22:60.

διέταξεν αὐτῇ δοθῆναι φαγεῖν. This care of Jesus in commanding food after the child’s long exhaustion would be of special interest to Lk. In their joy and excitement the parents might have forgotten it. The charge is somewhat parallel to ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητπὶ αὐτοῦ (7:15) of the widow’s son at Nain. In each case He intimates that nature is to resume its usual course: the old ties and the old responsibilities are to begin again.

56. παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν τὸ γεγονός. The command has been rejected as an unintelligible addition to the narrative. No such command was given at Nain or at Bethany. The object of it cannot have been to keep the miracle a secret. Many were outside expecting the funeral, and they would have to be told why no funeral was to take place. It can hardly have been Christ’s intention in this way to prevent the multitude from making a bad use of the miracle. This command to the parents would not have attained such an object It was given more probably for the parents’ sake, to keep them from letting the effect of this great blessing evaporate in vainglorious gossip. To thank God for it at home would be far more profitable than talking about it abroad.

§ Found in Luke alone.

A A. Cod. Alexandrinus, sæc. v. Once in the Patriarchal Library at Alexandria; sent by Cyril Lucar as a present to Charles 1. in 1628, and now in the British Museum. Complete.

L L. Cod. Regius Parisiensis, sæc. viii. National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

M M. Cod. Campianus, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

X X. Cod. Monacensis, sæc. ix. In the University Library at Munich. Contains 1:1-37, 2:19-3:38, 4:21-10:37, 11:1-18:43, 20:46-24:53.

Vulg. Vulgate.

Rhem. Rheims (or Douay).

Cov. Coverdale.

Jos. Josephus.

Wic. Wiclif.

Wetst. Wetstein.

WH. Westcott and Hort.

Trench, Trench, New Testament Synonyms.

Beng. Bengel.

Tyn. Tyndale.

1 The work as a whole, and the dissertation on thin question in particular, deserve special commendation.

D. B. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2nd edition.

om. omit.

אԠא Cod. Sinaiticus, sæc. iv. Brought by Tischendorf from the Convent of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai; now at St. Petersburg. Contains the whole Gospel complete.

B B. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. 4. In the Vatican Library certainly since 15331 (Batiffol, La Vaticane de Paul 3, etc., p. 86).

D D. Cod. Bezae, sæc. vi. Given by Beza to the University Library at Cambridge 1581. Greek and Latin. Contains the whole Gospel.

Latt. Latin.

Goth. Gothic.


C. Cod. Ephraemi Rescriptus, sæc. 5. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the following portions of the Gospel: 1:2-2:5, 2:42-3:21, 4:25-6:4, 6:37-7:16, or 17, 8:28-12:3, 19:42-20:27, 21:21-22:19, 23:25-24:7, 24:46-53.

These four MSS. are parts of what were once complete Bibles, and are designated by the same letter throughout the LXX and N.T.

G G. Cod. Harleianus, sæc. ix. In the British Museum. Contains considerable portions.

K K. Cod. Cyprius, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

Syr Syriac.

Sin. Sinaitic.

R R. Cod. Nitriensis Rescriptus, sæc. 8. Brought from a convent in the Nitrian desert about 1847, and now in the British Museum. Contains 1:1-13, 1:69-2:4, 16-27, 4:38-5:5, 5:25-6:8, 18-36, 39, 6:49-7:22, 44, 46, 47, 8:5-15, 8:25-9:1, 12-43, 10:3-16, 11:5-27, 12:4-15, 40-52, 13:26-14:1, 14:12-15:1, 15:13-16:16, 17:21-18:10, 18:22-20:20, 20:33-47, 21:12-22:15, 42-56, 22:71-23:11, 38-51. By a second hand 15:19-21.

Harcl. Harclean.

Hier. Palestinian (Jerusalem).

Boh. Bohairic.

Arm. Armenian.

Aeth. Ethiopic.

1 See some valuable remarks by Sanday in the Contemp. Rev. Sept. 1892, p. 348. He inclines to the second explanation, but with reserve.

Burton. Burton, N.T. Moods and Tenses.

Wsctt. Westcott.

Win. Winer, Grammar of N.T. Greek (the page refers to Moulton’s edition).

1 That the man had ever seen a Roman legion, “at once one and many, cruet and inexorable and strong,” is perhaps not probable. But see Trench Miracles, p. 171, 8th ed. For other Latin words comp. 10:35, 11:33, 19:20.

F F. Cod. Boreeli, sæc. ix. In the Public Library at Utrecht. Contains considerable portions of the Gospel.

S S. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. x. In the Vatican. The earliest dated MS. of the Greek Testament. Contains the whole Gospel.

Crem. Cremer, Lexicon of New Testament Greek.

Euthym. Euthymius Zigabenus.

Treg. Tregelles.

RV. Revised Version.

Edersh. Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.

Clem. Alex. Clement of Alexandria.

Cod. Am. Codex Amiatimus.

And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils,
And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered unto him of their substance.
And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable:
A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way side; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it.
And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.
And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it.
And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit an hundredfold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
Those by the way side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.
They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.
And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.
But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.
No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light.
For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad.
Take heed therefore how ye hear: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.
Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press.
And it was told him by certain which said, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee.
And he answered and said unto them, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.
Now it came to pass on a certain day, that he went into a ship with his disciples: and he said unto them, Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. And they launched forth.
But as they sailed he fell asleep: and there came down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled with water, and were in jeopardy.
And they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, master, we perish. Then he arose, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm.
And he said unto them, Where is your faith? And they being afraid wondered, saying one to another, What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him.
And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is over against Galilee.
And when he went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain man, which had devils long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs.
When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not.
(For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven of the devil into the wilderness.)
And Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? And he said, Legion: because many devils were entered into him.
And they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep.
And there was there an herd of many swine feeding on the mountain: and they besought him that he would suffer them to enter into them. And he suffered them.
Then went the devils out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked.
When they that fed them saw what was done, they fled, and went and told it in the city and in the country.
Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man, out of whom the devils were departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
They also which saw it told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed.
Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought him to depart from them; for they were taken with great fear: and he went up into the ship, and returned back again.
Now the man out of whom the devils were departed besought him that he might be with him: but Jesus sent him away, saying,
Return to thine own house, and shew how great things God hath done unto thee. And he went his way, and published throughout the whole city how great things Jesus had done unto him.
And it came to pass, that, when Jesus was returned, the people gladly received him: for they were all waiting for him.
And, behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue: and he fell down at Jesus' feet, and besought him that he would come into his house:
For he had one only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she lay a dying. But as he went the people thronged him.
And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed of any,
Came behind him, and touched the border of his garment: and immediately her issue of blood stanched.
And Jesus said, Who touched me? When all denied, Peter and they that were with him said, Master, the multitude throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
And Jesus said, Somebody hath touched me: for I perceive that virtue is gone out of me.
And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling down before him, she declared unto him before all the people for what cause she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately.
And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.
While he yet spake, there cometh one from the ruler of the synagogue's house, saying to him, Thy daughter is dead; trouble not the Master.
But when Jesus heard it, he answered him, saying, Fear not: believe only, and she shall be made whole.
And when he came into the house, he suffered no man to go in, save Peter, and James, and John, and the father and the mother of the maiden.
And all wept, and bewailed her: but he said, Weep not; she is not dead, but sleepeth.
And they laughed him to scorn, knowing that she was dead.
And he put them all out, and took her by the hand, and called, saying, Maid, arise.
And her spirit came again, and she arose straightway: and he commanded to give her meat.
And her parents were astonished: but he charged them that they should tell no man what was done.
ICC New Testament commentary on selected books

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Luke 7
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