Luke 22
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.
Luke 22:1. Ἡ λεγομένη, which is called) Therefore Luke takes it for granted, that the persons to whom he writes do not all know what the Jewish Passover was. So John 2:13. Add John 19:40; John 19:42.

And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.
Luke 22:2. [Καὶ ἐζήτουν, and the chief priests sought) Judas ‘sought’ the same thing, Luke 22:6. A most wicked pursuit.—V. g.]—γὰρ, for) This assigns the cause why they had to ‘seek’ suitable means and a favourable opportunity (πῶς ἀνέλωσιν αὐτὸν, how they might kill Him). [Most wretched (pitiful) fear, succeeded by atrocious joy, Luke 22:5.—V. g.]

Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
Luke 22:3. Εἰσῆλθε, entered) The time of the fact[230] is indicated in John 13:27 [“After receiving the sop.”] [It was before the day of unleavened bread that the thing (the entrance of Satan into Judas) so fearful to speak of occurred: Luke 22:7, John 13:1.—V. g.]

[230] i.e. Not the first entrance of Satan, but his taking full possession of Judas. Comp. Luke 22:3; Luke 22:6.—E. and T.

And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.
Luke 22:4. Τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσι καὶ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς, with the chief priests and captains) Different classes of men conspired together; στρατηγοὶ τοῦ ιἑροῦ were the leaders or officers of the Jews, in command of the soldiers who were on watch at the temple. See Luke 22:52. See Acts 4:1, with which comp. 1Ma 4:60-61.

And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
Luke 22:5. Ἐχάρησαν, they were glad) as at a thing which they had desired, though not expected.—συνέθεντο) they covenanted.

And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.
Luke 22:7. Ἦλθε, came) Sosinus Perastianus of Cephalonia explains this of the near approach, not of the actual advent of the day of unleavened bread, and for this object, in order that he may push forward the Passover to the Sabbath. See Cl. Hermann’s Hist. of the Controv. concerning the Passover (de Azymo), p. 489. But this ἦλθε, came, is much more strict in its force than the ἤγγιζεν, draw nigh, in Luke 22:1. Therefore Luke must clearly mean to mark the actual arrival of the day of unleavened bread, just in the same way as Matthew and Mark do. [ἔδει, it was necessary) according to the direction of the law.—V. g.]

And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.
Luke 22:8. Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην, Peter and John) Peter took precedency in point of dignity (‘amplitudine’); and yet John was, of the two, the more intimate with the Lord. [Whilst both of these were executing His commands, Jesus was still able, now that the traitor was put away from their company, the more to confirm the remaining nine in the faith.—V. g.]

And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.
And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
Luke 22:13. Εὗρον, they found) With the rejoicing of faith.

[14. Ἡ ὥρα, the hour) The evening hour, appointed for the eating of the Passover Lamb.—V. g.]

And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
Luke 22:15. Καὶ, and) There is described in the verses 15–18, a kind of prelude, as it were, to the Holy Supper. Comp. Matthew 26:29.—ἐπεθύμησα, I have desired) He had desired for the sake of the disciples, to whom He wished now at last to manifest Himself more openly in His very act of bidding them farewell; He had desired it for His own sake also, because He was about forthwith after it to enter into His glory.—τοῦτο) this, which is a Passover peculiarly memorable.—πρὸ, before) By this word, explanation is given of the τοῦτο, this. [His enemies were hardly leaving Him this much time (viz. sufficient to celebrate the Passover): but yet they were forced to delay the accomplishment of their purpose, even until both the Passover banquet and several remaining incidents had passed by.—V. g.]

For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Luke 22:16. Ἕως ὅτου, ever until) Then shall the heavenly banquet be celebrated. See Luke 22:30.—πληρωθῇ, it be fulfilled) i.e. until the Paschal Lamb, the type of the heavenly kingdom, be superseded by the Antitype, which fulfils it.—ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ, in the kingdom) Luke 22:18; Luke 22:30.

And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:
Luke 22:17. Δεξάμενος) Δέχομαι is said of that which is afforded or presented to another. Jesus acted, as the Head of the family: He caused the cup to be presented (held out) to Him.—ἑαυτοῖς, yourselves) He seems to have Himself drunk first. Comp. the preceding verses, but not also, Luke 22:20. Comp. Matthew 26:26, note. [“Jesus, when giving the bread and wine, is not said to have Himself eaten and drunk, for it was not for Himself that His body and blood were to be offered.”]

For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
Luke 22:18. Γὰρ, for) That is to say, Do not wait, until I drink any more here.—ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν) This the reading of a considerable number of the MSS. It corresponds to the οὐκέτι, not any more, in Luke 22:16.—Απʼ ἄρτι is the expression in Matthew 26:29.

And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
Luke 22:19. Τοῦτο, this) The form of expression is, this cup, in Luke 22:20; but, in the present instance, there is not added bread to the this; because bread does not so aptly accord with the complex term [which forms the predicate τὸ σῶμα δίδὁμενον] as the cup [accords with its predicate, ἠ καινὴ διαθήκηἐκχυνόμενον].—τὸ ὑπὲρ, which is given for you) As in the Old Testament, part of one of the same victim was presented to God, whilst part was eaten by the Israelites: so that one body, which Jesus Christ offered to the Father, is received[231] by Christians in the Holy Supper: ὑπὲρ, for, i.e. ἀντὶ, [a vicarious substitute for. “A ransom for many.”] Matthew 20:28.—διδόμενον, which is being given) to death.—ποιεῖτε, do) perform. Do has not in this passage the sacrificial notion. It is a wrong committed against the one and only Priest of the New Testament, to attribute priestly power and dignity before God to the ministers of the Holy Supper.—ἀνάμνησιν, remembrance) See 1 Corinthians 11:25-26, note.[232] [In that first Acts of institution of the Lord’s Supper, they had Jesus still present with them, and therefore there was no occasion, strictly speaking, for remembrance of Him. It is therefore the future which is looked forward to by the use of the term “remembrance.”—V. g.]

[231] True, if received be understood of a spiritual receiving.—E. and T.

[232] ”As often as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye do show forth the Lord’s death till He come.” The Lord’s Supper, according to Bengel, is a kind of compensating equivalent for our not having the Lord’s corporal presence with us. “What was visible in the Redeemer has passed into the sacraments.” Leo M. Serm. 2 de ascens. This is the Lutheran view.—E. and T.

Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
Luke 22:20. Ὡσαύτως, in like manner) Therefore we ought not either to separate or to confound the two parts of the Holy Supper; as if the bread were sufficient without the cup, or as if the blood were already received with [that is, in the receiving of] the body.[233] The ancients esteemed it unmannerly to eat bread as if one were drinking it (“panem bibere,” to swallow it, as a thirsty person would, a drink): and it is not our part either, to eat the drink of the Lord (the cup of the Lord given us to drink).—τὸ ποτήριον, the cup) viz. He took and gave. The τὸ has the force of a relative referring back to Luke 22:17, where the cup is mentioned along with the wine (“the fruit of the vine,” Luke 22:18). For a noun, when employed twice, very often on its first introduction has no article [ΔΕΞΆΜΕΝΟς ΠΟΤΉΡΙΟΝ, Luke 22:17]; whereas, when next it occurs, it has the article. Matthew 2:1; Matthew 2:7 [ΜΆΓΟΙΤΟῪς ΜΆΓΟΥς]; 1 Corinthians 8:1; Hebrews 2:8.—ΜΕΤᾺ ΤῸ ΔΕΙΠΝῆΣΑΙ) after the supper, not the Sacramental Supper: thus making a transition to greater subjects, and those about to be the last events.—ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, the New Testament in My blood) This is equivalent to that phrase, My blood, which is of the New Testament. [Matthew 26:28] Comp. note on 1 Corinthians 10:16.[234] So we find the expression, the promise of the Spirit, i.e. the Spirit that was promised, Galatians 3:14.—τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυνόμενον, which is being poured out [shed] for you. This forms part of the Predicate (for the full cup is not “poured out,” but is drunk off), and is joined with the clause, ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, in My blood, by apposition; cases similar to this occur, 2 Corinthians 8:23 [Apposition of the Genitive and Nominative, εἴτε ὑπὲρ Τίτου, κοινωνὸς ἐμός, etc.], Luke 11:28, where see the note; Revelation 1:5; LXX. Leviticus 6:8, Al. 15; Genesis 21:33 [ΤῸ ὌΝΟΜΑ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ, ΘΕῸς ΑἸΏΝΙΟς]; Deuteronomy 33:16.

[233] i.e. In receiving the bread; which, according to the Romish doctrine of ‘concomitance,’ not only contains the very body, but also the blood.—E. and T.

[234] He who partakes of this cup partakes of the New Testament sealed with the blood of Christ, and is a spiritual partaker of the body and blood of Christ Himself.—E. and T.

But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.
Luke 22:21. Πλὴν, but nevertheless) The antithesis is between τὸδιδόμενον, which is given (for you) in Luke 22:19, and παραδιδόντος, who betrayeth (Me) in this passage. Πλὴν is used to intimate, that the very delightful converse of Jesus with His disciples [Luke 22:15-20] is going to be presently brought to an abrupt close. [And, at the same time, He tacitly implies, that, as He is about immediately to be withdrawn from them, through the agency of a betrayer, for this reason the remembrance (ἀνάμνησιν) of Himself should be for the future celebrated by His disciples—V. g.] This particle serves as an argument that Judas was present, and took part in the Lord’s Supper. Comp. Luke 22:14 (“The twelve apostles sat with Him”). That this discourse is one continued one, is evident from this, that Luke has not even employed here that formula which he often uses, And He saith.—ἠ χεὶρ) the hand, which has taken the Holy Supper, and which has yet pledged its treacherous faith to the Lord’s enemies. [After having taken the thirty pieces of silver.—V. g.] So Ambrose (Bishop of Milan) said to Theodosius (repelling him from the Communion), “Wilt thou extend those hands of thine, which are yet reeking with the blood of unrighteously-perpetrated murder, and wilt thou with them take the most holy body of the Lord?” [μετʼ ἐμοῦ, with me) He does not say, with you. Therefore He separates the traitor as one to be distinguished from the rest of the disciples, and shows that now He Himself alone has to do with that wretched man, as with one who is an equivocal enemy.—V. g.]

And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!
Luke 22:22. Κατἀ τὸ ὡρισμένον, according to what was determined) What was determined or appointed, we may know from Scripture. See Luke 22:37 (“This that is written must yet be accomplished”); Mark 14:21 (“The Son of Man goeth, as it is written of Him”).—V. g.]

And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.
And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.
Luke 22:24. Δὲ καὶ) Not merely the traitor, but also the Eleven, caused uneasiness (exhibited a spirit displeasing) to the Lord.—φιλονεικία, a strife) which was fraught with danger. Comp. Luke 22:31. [This contention must certainly have occurred within the city: and to the words which Jesus spake in order to allay it, Luke adds, besides other topics, the prediction concerning Peter’s subsequent denial of his Lord, which Matthew and Mark mention after His departure from the city.—Harm., p. 516]—τίς δοκεῖ, which of them appears, or is to be accounted) Who is (the greater) according to the suffrages of all.—μείζων) the greater, as (the one to be accounted) the first, the second, the third, etc. The question was not merely concerning the greatest.

And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
Luke 22:25. Εὐεργέται) Aristotle, Eth. i. 8, ch. 13, βασιλεῖ πρὸς τοὺς βασιλευομένους φιλία ἐν ὑπεροχῇ εὐεργεσίας. Comp. note on Chrysost., περὶ ιἑρως, p. 452. So in 2Ma 4:2, Onias is said to be ὁ εὐεργέτης τῆς πόλεωςκαλουνται) The Middle Voice (call themselves, or would have themselves called). They claim this title to themselves.

But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
Luke 22:26. [Ὑμεῖς δὲ, but ye) Having lowered (humbled) them by this address to them, He exalts them by that other in Luke 22:28.—V. g.]—νεώτερος, younger) in age or in discipleship.

For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.
Luke 22:27. Γὰρ, for) He proves His proposition by His own example.—ἐγὼ, I) Jesus speaks in the first person, where He is speaking of ministering to others; previously He had said, in the third person, For who is greater?—ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν) in the midst of you, on a footing of equality. He appeals to what was present, and what was the existing state of things.

Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.
Luke 22:28. Δε, but) More shall be vouchsafed to you than you even hope for; not a mere precedency (primacy) of some kind or other among yourselves, but a kingdom to each of you individually. [The Lord knows truly how to advance His people to signal distinction. He revealed to them this very privilege, which was awaiting them, at that precise time when there was less danger impending of their being elated with pride by it.—V. g.]—πειρασμοῖς, temptations) The disciples were called after His temptation in the wilderness. Therefore the whole life of Jesus Christ was full of temptations [to which He was exposed from Satan, the world, the Scribes, etc.—V. g.], through which (temptations) He entered into glory. And such is the case with believers also. Christ also tempted (i.e. tried the faith of) the disciples. [They stood well at all points (in all respects). John 6:68 (“Jesus said, Will ye also go away—Lord to whom shall we go, thou?” etc.).—V. g.]

And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;
Luke 22:29. Καγὼ) and in turn [in return for your fidelity] I. The sense is: I also will warrant that you shall be unhurt amidst your dangerous temptations (comp. Revelation 3:10, “Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them,” etc.), even until ye enter into the kingdom. But this is expressed in an abbreviated form of phraseology; for the entrance into the kingdom takes for granted preservation amidst temptations. [Comp. John 6:39, “This is the Father’s will—that of all which He hath given Me I should lose nothing.”]—διατίθεμαι) now, by these very words. The promise is put before the warning. See Luke 22:31. Flacius and Beza translate the word, ‘paciscor,’ I covenant to give. E. Schmidius, “testamento dispono,” I assign by will. A word appropriate to one dying. Hebrews 9:15-16 [He is the mediator of the New Testament, that by means of death for, etc.—they that are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator”]. [However the word presently after must be taken in a wider sense when it is applied to the Father (διέθετό μοι ὁ πατήρ).—V. g.]—μοι, unto me) inasmuch as I have continued stedfast.[235]—βασιλείαν, a kingdom) In a kingdom there is wont to be a princely and splendid style of living and diet, as also royal power and the exercise of it. Both are promised in the following verse. [Then indeed the question, who is to be accounted the greater, will have easily passed away from the memory of all. He who duly considers these so great blessings which are promised will find no difficulty in making the world a secondary consideration in his aims.—V. g.]

[235] I have persevered; referring to the disciples having perseveringly continued, διαμεμενηκότες, Luke 22:28.—E. and T.

That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Luke 22:30. Ἵνα ἐσθίητε, that ye may eat) Not as those that serve. See Luke 22:27.—ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζηε μου, at My table) This is put in antithesis to the table of “the goodman of the house.” See Luke 22:12.—καθίσησθε, ye may sit) in My kingdom. See Matthew 19:28 [“In the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also,” etc.].—φυλὰς, tribes) Does this mean, that they shall judge each one tribe [there being an apostle apiece for each of the Twelve tribes].

And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:
Luke 22:31. Σίμων, Σίμων, Simon, Simon) A most weighty Epizeuxis.[236] Peter also had joined in the strife, mentioned in Luke 22:24, which was inimical to faith, John 5:44 [“How can ye believe, who receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only”].—ἰδοὺ, behold) That is to say, the fact is in this case manifest from its palpable effect; which effect, however, Peter did not suppose to have come from the Tempter, as it really had.—ὁ Σατανᾶς, Satan) not content with having entered into Judas. See Luke 22:3.—ἔξητήσατο, [“hath desired”] hath sought to get you out) viz. out from your safe-guard. Satan demanded, that Peter should be given up to him, as Job was: but the Saviour repulsed him. The antithesis is, ἐδεήθην, I have prayed.—ὑμᾶς· περὶ σοῦ, you [the apostles]; for thee) Satan had perceived that there was great faith in Peter, and yet also a great proneness to fall, and he supposed that, if Peter should be overcome, all of them would be overcome. But Jesus by preserving Peter, the ruin of whom would have carried with it the ruin of the rest, preserved them all. In fact this whole discourse of our Lord takes for granted, that Peter is the first of the apostles, by whose standing (maintenance of his ground as a believer), or else fall, the rest of them would either escape the risk, or else be the more endangered. But it was in respect of faith that he was the first, not in respect of authority and power. Whereas the pretended successor of Peter, after that he revolted from the pure simplicity of the faith, and yet claimed to himself alone the primacy in the faith and in authority, fell wholly and miserably into the ‘sieve’ [of Satan]. Those in the foremost van are generally followed by the rest of their fellow-soldiers: the foremost soldiers are imperilled more than the rest: the foremost need especially to be fortified with the care and prayers of themselves and of the ‘watchmen.’—σινιάσαι) σίνιον, a sieve. Hesychius explains σινιάσαι, i.e. σεῖσαι, κοσκινεῦσαι (to shake as in a sieve): corn is shaken and tossed about in a sieve: and men do so for the sake of cleansing it of chaff and refuse. But Satan’s sifting was for the sake of utterly destroying the faith of the apostles, whilst making them come into collision with one another, by means of raising agitations from without and from within, in things high and low alike.—ὡς, as) with as much ease [as one would, wheat].

[236] The forcible repetition of the same word in the same sentence. Append.—E. and T.

But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.
Luke 22:32. Ἐδεήθην) A striking word. I have prayed, although thou, Peter, wert not aware of what was being done. Jesus prayed for His disciples: therefore Satan was not able by his seeking to get Him to deliver them up (ἐξητήσασθαι, Luke 22:31, to get Jesus to deliver them up from their spiritual place of safety).—ἵνα μὴ ἐχλείπῃ, that thy faith might not fail) He does not say, that thou mightest not be sifted. Even though Satan sifted Peter, yet he did not altogether wrest from him his faith. Satan sought to cause an ‘eclipse’[237] of faith in Peter: but the light of faith immediately shone out again in him after the strife [Luke 22:24] and after the subsequent denial. Peter, during that instability on his part, was, notwithstanding, in secret ‘Peter’ [“A rock”] truly still: just as James and John, although they had externally a nice and refined manner of speech, were notwithstanding truly “the sons of thunder” still.—[ἡ πίστις, thy faith) which pride is assailing, and which Satan is bringing into jeopardy.—V. g.] σὺ ποτὲ) ΠΟΤῈ (John 9:13, ΠΟΤῈ, “a while before was blind”) is even used of a short interval of time, as Eustathius shows us. In this passage it conveys an indefinite idea [“when (soever) thou art converted,” Engl. Ver.], at some time or other, whenever it may be, at a long or short interval hence.—ἐπιστρέψας στήριξον, in thy turn strengthen [confirm]) To make up for the fact that [according as] thy brethren are now put in peril through thee: the verb ἐπιστρέφω is to be resolved into an adverb [“vicissim,” in thy turn. But Engl. Ver. “When thou art converted”], as the Heb. שוּב. Comp. ἜΣΤΡΕΨΕ, Acts 7:42.[238]—στήριξον, confirm, strengthen) What I now do to thee, that do thou to those like thee [those liable to fall as thou art], whom thou hast previously weakened (by the fall). Peter did so not long after, Acts 2, 3, 4, and in both of his Epistles, where this very word is often repeated; 1 Peter 5:10; 2 Peter 1:12; 2 Peter 3:17; 2 Peter 3:16; 2 Peter 2:14. And often one may thus observe the words of Jesus subsequently employed by the apostles.—τοὺς ἀδελφούς σου) thy brethren, saith Jesus, not our brethren. For the footing on (the manner in) which Peter has his ‘brethren’ is one thing, that on (in) which the Lord has His brethren is quite another thing. The rest of the apostles were brethren of Peter, Matthew 23:8 [“One is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren”]: but inasmuch as these afterwards did not need the confirmation (strengthening) of Peter, it is to be understood of other believers of a feebler sort.

[237] Como ἐκλείπη, from which ‘eclipse’ is derived.—E. and T.

[238] “Then God turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven.” Engl. Vers. Rather, “God in His turn, in righteous retribution, gave them up,” etc.—E. and T.

And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.
Luke 22:33. Μετὰ σοῦ, with thee) These words, especially as being put in the beginning of the sentence, are emphatic. Comp. Psalm 18:30.[239] ἕτοιμος, ready) Peter has much trust in himself. [There had been need of full willingness and of no common power. It is not without good reason one may conjecture that Peter, in his so overweening self-confidence, had respect to those things which had been mentioned but a while before concerning the perseverance of the disciples and the intercession of the Lord (Luke 22:28; Luke 22:32). And no doubt both had their efficacy, but not that kind of efficacy which he at the time imagined they had.—V. g.]—εἰς, into) The most grievous of all trials are imprisonment and death [But it was not becoming that Jesus should be kept confined in a prison. From the time that He once began, He continued on, even until He breathed His last, without hindrance amidst the very bands (or “in the very hands”) of His enemies, and on the cross, to do and teach all that was good.—V. g.]

[239] Rather 29, “By thee (LXX. ἐν σοὶ) I have run through a troop, and by my God have I leaped over a wall.”—E. and T.

And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.
Luke 22:34. Σήμερον, this day) although thou mayest seem to thyself, Peter, to be ready.

And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing.
Luke 22:35. Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, and He said to them) This is intended to stir up the disciples to watchfulness, that they may not rely on their own strength.—ὅτε) when, not, as often soever. For we read of the Seventy having been so sent but once, ch. Luke 10:4; and the Twelve also but once, ch. Luke 9:3 [Comp. the note on Matthew 10:1].—ἀπέστειλα, I sent) The Lord fed and supplied them whilst they were present with Him.—βαλαντίου καὶ πήρας, purse and wallet [‘scrip”]) On the difference between these words, see the note on Matthew 10:9-10.[240]

[240] The former was for money; the latter, for bread and other provisions.—E. and T.

Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.
Luke 22:36. [Ἀλλὰ νῦν, but now) When Jesus (the Master) committed Himself as an evil-doer to the hands of men, it was not suitable (seasonable) to supply the disciples with an extraordinary safeguard against the world. For that very reason He permits them to avail themselves of the ordinary helps which minister to the supply of food and to self-defence: and accordingly He informs them of the fact at this time, which was exactly the right time fur doing so.—V. g.]—πήραν, wallet) viz. He that hath a wallet, let him take it. That is to say, no one will be a friend to you, many will be enemies.—ὁ μὴ ἔχων) He who hath not, viz. money [not as Engl. Vers. “He who hath no sword”], wherewith to buy.—τὸ ἱμάτιον, garment) which is more necessary than a purse.—ἀγοράσει, shall buy) See Appar. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.[241] The Consequent is put for the Antecedent. That is to say, Ye shall find men at the present time, not only not inclined to confer benefits on you, but altogether hostile in their behaviour towards you. It was for this reason that the Apostles, from this time even up to the day of Pentecost, kept themselves not only as private indivduals, but sometimes shut up in their respective homes: John 16:32 [“Ye shall be scattered every one to his own”]; Luke 19:27; Luke 20:10; Luke 20:19 [“The doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews”].—[μάχαιραν, a sword) not that they might kill any one, but that they might restrain the sword of others.—V. g.]

[241] D reads ἄρειπωλήσαιἀγοράσει (so d); but ABQ Orig. and Rec. Text, ἀράτωπωλησάτωἀγορασάτω: abc, “tollat, vendat, emat.”—E. and T.

For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end.
Luke 22:37. Ἔτι τοῦτο) even yet this last [crowning accomplishment of prophecy], after so many others.—τὸ) Mark 15:28, note.[242]—καὶ, and) This last step presupposes all the others.—τὰ περὶ ἐμοῦ, the things which have been written concerning Me) viz. the things which have been written concerning the Messiah, as about to suffer: comp. ch. Luke 24:27, at the end.—τέλος ἔχει, have their consummation or end) have obtained their consummation. Just before we have τελεσθῆναι, must be accomplished or consummated. The latter, the act (τελεσθῆναι), has reference to men, among whom it is done; the former, the consummation (τέλος), has reference to the matter of fact. See Romans 10:4 [“Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth;” τέλος νόμου].

[242] μετὰ ἀνόμων, more forcible than the LXX. Isaiah 53:12, ἐν τοῖς ἀνόμοις: “He suffered Himself to be numbered with transgressors,” as if He were one of them, through the imputation of their sins to Him, not merely “among transgressors.”—E. and T.

And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
Luke 22:38. Ὧδε, here) They had found in the room where they had supped, or else had brought with them, the two swords: see Luke 22:49. [For previously they had not been girt with swords; otherwise the Lord would have interdicted the use of them, when the disciples were being prepared for their embassy, Luke 22:35.—V. g.]—δύο, two) Comp. John 6:9[243]—ἱκανόν ἐστι, it is enough) i.e. There is no need of more than two swords. Jesus uttered so brief a reply as this, in order that the disciples might be able sufficiently to understand His mind (intention and meaning in what He said) as to buying a sword, Luke 22:36. Comp. John 14:30.[244] [245] not dissimilar phrase occurs, 1Ma 2:33, ἓως τοῦ νο͂ν ἱκανόν· ἐξέλθετε; Deuteronomy 3:26, ἱκανούσθω σοί.

[243] The “two small fishes;” expressing the same disproportion, as here, between the means, and the effects produced, when God’s blessing is vouchsafed.—E. and T.

[244] ‘Hereafter I will not talk much with you, for the prince of this world cometh,” etc. This accounts for the brevity of His reply.—E. and T.

[245] the Alexandrine MS.: in Brit. Museum: fifth century: publ. by Woide, 1786–1819: O. and N. Test. defective.

And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.
Luke 22:39. Κατὰ τὸ ἔθος, according to His custom) So the disciples were less struck by any immediate (present) sense of strangeness.—εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν, to the mount of Olives) It was to this mountain a red cow used to be led forth to be immolated. See S. R. Zeller on Maimon. as to the red cow, pp. 360, 501.—ἠκολούθησαν, followed) of their own accord.

And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
Luke 22:40. Ἐπὶ τοῦ τόπου, at the place) The aspect (sight) of the very place excited emotions in Jesus.—[μὴ, that ye enter not) Prayers are not merely recommended in general terms as a remedy against temptation; but the material and subject for prayer is indicated by this expression.—V. g.]

And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,
Luke 22:41. Ἀπεσπάσθη, He was severed [‘withdrawn’] from them) with earnest intention [with serious feeling, “serio affectu”].

Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
Luke 22:42. Εἰ βούλει παρενεγκεῖν, if thou he willing, remove) The Infinitive put for the Imperative is a frequent usage of the Greeks. See note on Revelation 10:9.[246] And in this passage, indeed, such an Enallage (or change of mood and tense) expresses the reverential modesty of Jesus towards the Father. But in this passage, if we suppose an aposiopesis of the verb παρένεγκε [and make παρενεγκεῖν the Infin. after βούλει, this feeling of reverential modesty will be still more expressively conveyed.

[246] The Infinitive expressing the absolute idea of the verb, irrespective of the particular relations of mood and tense, tends to impart the feeling of majesty to the language when used for the Imperative; especially when God speaks. It was often used archaically for the Imperative, and also for the Imperfect Indicative, in both Latin and Greek.—E. and T.

And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.
Luke 22:43. Δὲ, but now [and at this moment!) The very appearance of the angel was a sign of His actually then drinking the cup, and of His prayer being granted [Hebrews 5:7], So utterly incapable is human reason of comprehending the profound depths of His agony in the garden, that some have in former times omitted this whole paragraph. See the Apparat.[247] When His baptism is mentioned along with the cup, the cup means His internal passion [suffering], as, for instance, His desertion by the Father on the cross; the baptism means His external suffering: comp. Mark 10:38, note. Where the ‘cup’ is mentioned alone, His whole passion generally is understood, at least in such a way as that, under the internal, there is also included the external suffering.—ἐνισχύων, strengthening) not by exhortation, but by invigoration. The same verb occurs, Acts 9:19 [Paul, “when he had received meat, was strengthened”].

[247] AB 1 MS. of Memph. Theb. omit from ὤφθη to γῆν, Luke 22:43-44. Hilary 1062, writes, “Nec sane ignorandum a nobis est, et in Græcis et in Latinis codicibus complurimis vel de adveniente angelo, vel de sudore sanguinis, nil scriptum reperiri.” But Hilary, 1061, “(Lucas) angelum astitisse comfortantem eum, quo assistante orare prolixius cæperit ita ut guttis sanguinum corporis sudor efflueret (non Matt. et Marc.)” The Syrians are charged by Photius, the Armenians by Nicon, with having erased the passage in question. DQLXabc Vulg. and Euseb. Canons have it. Iren. 219, writes, “Nec (si veram carnem non habuisset) sudasset globos sanguinis.” Just, cum Tryph. p. 331 (Ed. Col.), also supports it.—E. and T.

And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
Luke 22:44. Ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ) Ἀγωνία, the height of grief and distress (comp. note on Matthew 26:37, where the expressions are λυπεῖσθαι καὶ ἀδημονεῖν, for which Mark has ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι καὶ ἀδ.), arose from the presentation to Him of that cup. The same word occurs in 2Ma 3:14; 2Ma 3:16; 2Ma 3:21; 2Ma 15:19. It properly denotes the distress and agitation of mind which is attendant on entering upon a contest [ἀγών], and an arduous undertaking, even though unattended with any doubt as to the favourable issue.—ἐκτενέστερον, more intensely.[248] [This was done at His second and third departures, Matthew 26:42; Matthew 26:44; Matthew 26:39. Therefore it was immediately after His first supplication that the angel appeared; and after each of His prayers we may suppose that the angel strengthened Jesus.”—V. g.]) The more intensely with both mind and voice: Hebrews 5:7. Therefore not only were the (three) nearer disciples (Peter, James, and John) able to hear Him, but also the eight others.—ἐγένετο δὲ, but His sweat became) Hereby is set forth (exhibited) the intensity of His distress and agony.—ὁ ἱδρῶς, sweat) Although it was cold at the time: John 18:18. [That sweat was drawn out by the power received through the angel, by the agony of the struggle, by the intensity of His prayers, and His desire of drinking the cup.—V. g.]—ὡσεὶ θρόμβοι) αἵματος θρόμβοι, clotted drops (hillocks), from θρέψαι, i.e. πῆξαι, to fix or coagulate. Θρόμβοι αἵματος, drops, thick and clotted, of real blood. The force of the particle ὡσεὶ falls on θρόμβοι, not on αἵματος, as is evident from the fact of it (not αἵματος) having the epithet, and in the Plural, καταβαίνοντες. The blood streaming from the pores in smaller drops became clotted together by reason of its copiousness. If the sweat had not been a bloody one, the mention of blood might have been altogether omitted, for the word θρόμβοι even by itself was sufficient to express thick sweat.—ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, upon the earth) by reason of its copiousness. Thereby the earth received its blessing.

[248] More earnestly straining every nerve in prayer. Ἐκτενής, Th. τείνω, I stretch or strain.—E. and T.

And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow,
[45. Καὶ ἀναστὰς, and when He rose up) Given up completely to the will of the Father.—V. g.]

And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.
Luke 22:46. Ἀναστάντες, rise up and pray) This posture of the body, therefore, is suited for overcoming drowsiness.

And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
Luke 22:47. Προήρχετο αὐτοὺς) Some read προήρχετο αὐτῶν. But the same phrase occurs in Mark 6:33, προῆλθον αὐτοὺς they outwent them: by comparing this passage with the present, it is evident that the traitor reached our Lord more quickly than the band which accompanied him.

But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
Luke 22:48. [Εἶπεν αὐτῷ, said unto him) In the confused din of the multitude (comp. Luke 22:51-52), the exceedingly wise course of proceeding which Jesus adopted is well worthy of observation.—V. g.]—φιλήματι, with a kiss) The traitor abuses the highest token of love with the highest degree of daring presumption. Comp. the note on Luke 7:45. [None of His most intimate disciples and friends had ever kissed the Lord. The traitor alone dared to profane with impure lips the face of the Lord. This unprecedented act matched well with his unprecedented treachery.]

When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?
Luke 22:49. Τὸ ἐσόμενον, what was about to follow) Contrary to their own opinion, which heretofore they had continued to hold.

And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
Luke 22:50. Καὶ, and) without waiting for the Lord’s reply to the question, put in Luke 22:49. See Luke 22:51.

And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
Luke 22:51. Εἶπεν, said) to Peter and all the others, Matthew 26:52 [“Then said Jesus unto him (Peter), Put up again thy sword into his place; for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword”].—ἐᾶτε, suffer ye) So Acts 5:38 [ἐᾶτε αὐτοὺς, let them alone].—ἓως τούτου, thus far) Do not go any further. So 1Ma 2:33, ἓως τοῦ νῦν; Leviticus 26:18, עד אלה, ἓως τούτου.

Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
Luke 22:52. Παραγενομένους, who were come to Him) The servants and attendants had been sent, whereas the priests had come of their own accord.—στρατηγοὺς τοῦ ἱεροῦ) The Jewish Captains of the watches stationed in the temple.—ἐξεληλύθατε, ye have come out) with sudden tumult.[249]

[249] No interrogation is marked by Bengel or Tischendorf; but there is in the English Version.—E. and T.

When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
Luke 22:53. Ὑμῶν, your hour) An hour not given to you before, [although long ago looked and waited for by you.—V. g.]—ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους, the power of darkness) John 9:4 [“The night cometh, when no man can work”], Luke 14:30 [“The prince of this world”]: of darkness, that is to say, of Satan.[250] The abstract put for the concrete. An allusion to the time in which he spake, viz. the night.

[250] Ephesians 6:12, “The rulers of the darkness of this world.”—E. and T.

Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. And Peter followed afar off.
And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.
Luke 22:55. Ἐν μέσῳ, in the midst) as the place admitted.

But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.
Luke 22:56. Πρὸς τὸ φῶς, by the light [of the fire]) If he had avoided the light, he might have been better able to have remained unobserved.

And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.
And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not.
Luke 22:58. Οὐκ εἰμὶ, I am not) Whilst Peter is denying himself, he is all the time denying his Lord: and whilst he is denying that he is (says “that he is not”), he in fact ceases to be [viz. of the Lord’s followers]. His very words show the flutter of agitation he was in.

And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.
Luke 22:59. Ὥρας, one hour) When once wounded, he does not recover himself in a whole hour.

And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
Luke 22:61. Ἐνέβλεψε, looked upon) By this one intimation of a mere look, when there was no opportunity of speaking, Jesus roused the whole mind and attention of Peter. Comp. John 1:42 [Andrew brought Simon to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him (ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ) He said, “Thou art Simon,” etc.] as regards “the look,” which Peter may even afterwards have remembered.

And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him.
Luke 22:63-64. [Οἱ συνέχουτες, who held fast) during the whole night.—V. g.]—δέροντες· ἔτυπτον· παίσας) Δέρειν is used of beating the whole body; τύπτειν, of striking a part; παίειν, of smiting or wounding with violence, and so as to give pain. [No one of mortal men, not even the direst of malefactors, ever endured so great wantonness as Christ, the Just One, suffered to the utmost.—Harm., p. 540.]

And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?
[64. Τίς ἐστιν, who is it?) To not a few, who are more desirous from their heart to escape observation than was that wanton mass, composed of the scum of mankind, it shall hereafter at last be said, THOU ART THE MAN (who smote the Saviour): even though the matter (this final award) is about to be put off until the last day.—V. g.]

And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying,
Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:
And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.
Luke 22:68. Ἐὰν δὲ, but if) Comp. Jeremiah 38:15 [Jeremiah said unto Zedekiah, “If I declare it unto thee, wilt thou not surely put me to death? and if I give thee counsel, wilt thou not hearken unto me?”]—ἐρωτήσω, if I ask) The truth easily convicts the contumacious by means of questioning. [Ch. Luke 20:3, Jesus, when questioned as to His authority, replies, “I will also ask you one thing, the baptism of John,” etc.]

Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God.
Luke 22:69. Ἀπὸ τοῦ νο͂ν) [not ‘hereafter,’ as Engl. Vers., but] from this point, when “ye are not willing to let Me go.” This itself was His path to glory. The idea being expressed without a copulative conjunction, is thereby rendered emphatic.[251]—Ὁ ΥἹῸς ΤΟῦ ἈΝΘΡΏΠΟΥ, the Son of Man) This is the last place where Jesus calls Himself the Son of Man.

[251] But ABDLXab Vulg. and 2 MSS. of Memph. read δὲ after ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν. Orig. 3,715b, and c, read ἀπὸ γὰρ τοῦ νῦν.—E. and T.

Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
Luke 22:70. Οὖν, Art thou then [therefore]) They drew the inference from the Predicate [which He attributed to Himself] in Luke 22:69, and this with great emphasis. Art Thou? say they, not, Shalt Thou be? [Luke 22:71. Αὐτοὶἠκούσαμεν, we ourselves—have heard) They of themselves: they give testimony against themselves.[252]—V. g.]

[252] That is to say, they bear witness themselves that they have heard Jesus’ testimony to His divinity out of His own mouth, and yet they believed not. This will be their heaviest condemnation.—E. and T.

And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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