Passover
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Passover

the first of the three great annual festivals of the Israelites celebrated in the month Nisan (March-April, from the 14th to the 21st. (Strictly speaking the Passover only applied to the paschal supper and the feast of unleavened bread followed, which was celebrated to the 21st.) (For the corresponding dates in our month, see Jewish calendar at the end of this volume.) The following are the principal passages in the Pentateuch relating to the Passover: (Exodus 12:1-51; 13:3-10; 23:14-19; 34:18-26; Leviticus 23:4-14; Numbers 9:1-14; 28:16-25; 16:1-6) Why instituted . --This feast was instituted by God to commemorate the deliverance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage and the sparing of their firstborn when the destroying angel smote the first-born of the Egyptians. The deliverance from Egypt was regarded as the starting-point of the Hebrew nation. The Israelites were then raised from the condition of bondmen under a foreign tyrant to that of a free people owing allegiance to no one but Jehovah. The prophet in a later age spoke of the event as a creation and a redemption of the nation. God declares himself to be "the Creator of Israel." The Exodus was thus looked upon as the birth of the nation; the Passover was its annual birthday feast. It was the yearly memorial of the dedication of the people to him who had saved their first-born from the destroyer, in order that they might be made holy to himself. First celebration of the Passover . --On the tenth day of the month, the head of each family was to select from the flock either a lamb or a kid, a male of the first year, without blemish. If his family was too small to eat the whole of the lamb, he was permitted to invite his nearest neighbor to join the party. On the fourteenth day of the month he was to kill his lamb, while the sun was setting. He was then to take blood in a basin and with a sprig of hyssop to sprinkle it on the two side-posts and the lintel of the door of the house. The lamb was then thoroughly roasted, whole. It was expressly forbidden that it should be boiled, or that a bone of it should be broken. Unleavened bread and bitter herbs were to be eaten with the flesh. No male who was uncircumcised was to join the company. Each one was to have his loins girt, to hold a staff in his hand, and to have shoes on his feet. He was to eat in haste, and it would seem that he was to stand during the meal. The number of the party was to be calculated as nearly as possible, so that all the flesh of the lamb might be eaten; but if any portion of it happened to remain, it was to be burned in the morning. No morsel of it was to be carried out of the house. The lambs were selected, on the fourteenth they were slain and the blood sprinkled, and in the following evening, after the fifteenth day of the had commenced the first paschal meal was eaten. At midnight the firstborn of the Egyptians were smitten. The king and his people were now urgent that the Israelites should start immediately, and readily bestowed on them supplies for the journey. In such haste did the Israelites depart, on that very day, (Numbers 33:3) that they packed up their kneading troughs containing the dough prepared for the morrow's provisions, which was not yet leavened. Observance of the Passover in later times . --As the original institution of the Passover in Egypt preceded the establishment of the priesthood and the regulation of the service of the tabernacle. It necessarily fell short in several particulars of the observance of the festival according to the fully-developed ceremonial law. The head of the family slew the lamb in his own house, not in the holy place; the blood was sprinkled on the doorway, not on the altar. But when the law was perfected, certain particulars were altered in order to assimilate the Passover to the accustomed order of religious service. In the twelfth and thirteenth chapters of Exodus there are not only distinct references to the observance of the festival in future ages (e.g.) (Exodus 12:2,14,17,24-27,42; 13:2,5,8-10) but there are several injunctions which were evidently not intended for the first Passover, and which indeed could not possibly have been observed. Besides the private family festival, there were public and national sacrifices offered each of the seven days of unleavened bread. (Numbers 28:19) On the second day also the first-fruits of the barley harvest were offered in the temple. (Leviticus 23:10) In the latter notices of the festival in the books of the law there are particulars added which appear as modifications of the original institution. (Leviticus 23:10-14; Numbers 28:16-25; 16:1-6) Hence it is not without reason that the Jewish writers have laid great stress on the distinction between "the Egyptian Passover" and "the perpetual Passover." Mode and order of the paschal meal . --All work except that belonging to a few trades connected with daily life was suspended for some hours before the evening of the 14th Nisan. It was not lawful to eat any ordinary food after midday. No male was admitted to the table unless he was circumcised, even if he were of the seed of Israel. (Exodus 12:48) It was customary for the number of a party to be not less than ten. When the meal was prepared, the family was placed round the table, the paterfamilias taking a place of honor, probably somewhat raised above the rest. When the party was arranged the first cup of wine was filled, and a blessing was asked by the head of the family on the feast, as well as a special, one on the cup. The bitter herbs were then placed on the table, and a portion of them eaten, either with Or without the sauce. The unleavened bread was handed round next and afterward the lamb was placed on the table in front of the head of the family. The paschal lamb could be legally slain and the blood and fat offered only in the national sanctuary. (16:2) Before the lamb was eaten the second cup of wine was filled, and the son, in accordance with (Exodus 12:26) asked his father the meaning of the feast. In reply, an account was given of the sufferings of the Israelites in Egypt and of their deliverance, with a particular explanation of (26:5) and the first part of the Hallel (a contraction from Hallelujah), Psal 113, 114, was sung. This being gone through, the lamb was carved and eaten. The third cup of wine was poured out and drunk, and soon afterward the fourth. The second part of the Hallel, Psal 115 to 118 was then sung. A fifth wine-cup appears to have been occasionally produced, But perhaps only in later times. What was termed the greater Hallel, Psal 120 to 138 was sung on such occasions. The Israelites who lived in the country appear to have been accommodated at the feast by the inhabitants of Jerusalem in their houses, so far its there was room for them. (Matthew 26:18; Luke 22:10-12) Those who could not be received into the city encamped without the walls in tents as the pilgrims now do at Mecca. The Passover as a type . --The Passover was not only commemorative but also typical. "The deliverance which it commemorated was a type of the great salvation it foretold." --No other shadow of things to come contained in the law can vie with the festival of the Passover in expressiveness and completeness. (1) The paschal lamb must of course be regarded as the leading feature in the ceremonial of the festival. The lamb slain typified Christ the "Lamb of God." slain for the sins of the world. Christ "our Passover is sacrificed for us." (1 Corinthians 5:7) According to the divine purpose, the true Lamb of God was slain at nearly the same time as "the Lord's Passover" at the same season of the year; and at the same time of the day as the daily sacrifice at the temple, the crucifixion beginning at the hour of the morning sacrifice and ending at the hour of the evening sacrifice. That the lamb was to be roasted and not boiled has been supposed to commemorate the haste of the departure of the Israelites. It is not difficult to determine the reason of the command "not a bone of him shall be broken." The lamb was to be a symbol of unity--the unity of the family, the unity of the nation, the unity of God with his people whom he had taken into covenant with himself. (2) The unleavened bread ranks next in importance to the paschal lamb. We are warranted in concluding that unleavened bread had a peculiar sacrificial character, according to the law. It seems more reasonable to accept St, Paul's reference to the subject, (1 Corinthians 5:6-8) as furnishing the true meaning of the symbol. Fermentation is decomposition, a dissolution of unity. The pure dry biscuit would be an apt emblem of unchanged duration, and, in its freedom from foreign mixture, of purity also. (3) The offering of the omer or first sheaf of the harvest, (Leviticus 23:10-14) signified deliverance from winter the bondage of Egypt being well considered as a winter in the history of the nation. (4) The consecration of the first-fruits, the firstborn of the soil, is an easy type of the consecration of the first born of the Israelites, and of our own best selves, to God. Further than this (1) the Passover is a type of deliverance from the slavery of sin. (2) It is the passing over of the doom we deserve for your sins, because the blood of Christ has been applied to us by faith. (3) The sprinkling of the blood upon the door-posts was a symbol of open confession of our allegiance and love. (4) The Passover was useless unless eaten; so we live upon the Lord Jesus Christ. (5) It was eaten with bitter herbs, as we must eat our passover with the bitter herbs of repentance and confession, which yet, like the bitter herbs of the Passover, are a fitting and natural accompaniment. (6) As the Israelites ate the Passover all prepared for the journey, so do we with a readiness and desire to enter the active service of Christ, and to go on the journey toward heaven. --ED.)

ATS Bible Dictionary
Passover

Hebrew PESACH, Greek PASCHA, a passing over, a name given to the festival established and to the victim offered in commemoration of he coming forth out of Egypt, Exodus 12:1-51; because the night before their departure, the destroying angel, who slew the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews without entering them, they being marked with the blood of the lamb, which for this reason was called he Passover, Mark 14:12,14 1 1 Corinthians 5:7, or the paschal lamb.

The month of the exodus from Egypt, called Abib by Moses, and afterwards named Nisan, was ordained to be thereafter the first month of the sacred or ecclesiastical year. On the fourteenth day of this month, between the two evenings, (See EVENING,) they were to kill the paschal lamb, and to abstain from leavened bread. The day following, being the fifteenth, reckoned from six o-clock of the preceding evening, was the grand feast of the Passover, which continues seven days, usually called "the days of unleavened bread," or "the Passover," Luke 22:1; but only the first and the seventh day were peculiarly solemn, Le 23:5-8 Numbers 28:16,17 Matthew 26:17. They were days of rest, and were called Sabbaths by the Jews. The slain lamb was to be without defect, a male, and of that year. If no lamb could be found, they might take a kid. They killed a lamb or a kid in each family; but if any family was not large enough to eat the lamb, they might associate another small family with them. The Passover was to be slain and eaten only at Jerusalem, though the remainder of the festival might be observed in any place. The lamb was to be roasted entire, and eaten the same night, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs; not a bone of it was to be broken; and all that was not eaten was to be consumed by fire, Exodus 12:1-51 John 19:36. If any one was unable to keep the Passover at the time appointed, he was to observe it on the second month; he that willfully neglected it, forfeited the covenant favor of God; while on the other hand resident foreigners were admitted to partake of it, Numbers 9:6-14 2 Chronicles 30:1-27. The direction to eat the Passover in the posture and with the equipments of travelers seems to have been observed only on the first Passover. Besides the private family festival, there were public and national sacrifices offered on each of the seven days of unleavened bread, Numbers 28:19. On the second day also the first fruits of the barley harvest were offered in the temple, Le 23:10.

Jewish writers give us full descriptions of the Passover feast, from which we gather a few particulars. Those who were to partake having performed the required purification and being assembled at the table, the master of the feast took a cup of unfermented wine, and blessed God for the fruit of the vine, of which all ten drank. This was followed by a washing of hands. The paschal lamb was then brought in, with unleavened cakes, bitter herbs, and a sauce or fruit-paste. The master of the feast then blessed God for the fruits of the earth, and gave the explanations prescribed in Exodus 12:26,27, specifying each particular. After a second cup, with a second washing of hands, an unleavened cake was broken and distributed, and a blessing pronounced upon the Giver of Bread. When all had eaten sufficiently of the food before them, a third cup of thanksgiving, for deliverance from Egypt and for the gift of the law, was blessed and drunk, Matthew 26:27 1 1 Corinthians 10:16; this was called "the cup of blessing." The repast was usually closed by a fourth cup and psalms of praise, Psalm 136:1-26 145:10 Matthew 26:30.

Our Savior partook of the Passover for the last time, with his disciples, on the evening with which the day of his crucifixion commenced, Matthew 26:17 Mark 14:12 Luke 22:7. The following day, commencing with the sunset three hours after his death, was the Jewish Sabbath, and was also observed as "a Passover," John 13:29 18:28 19:14,31. Compare Matthew 27:62.

This sacred festival was both commemorative and typical in its nature and design; the deliverance which it commemorated was a type of the great salvation it foretold. The Savior identified himself with the paschal lamb as its great Antitype, in substituting the Lord's supper for the Passover. "Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us," 1 1 Corinthians 5:7; and as we compare the innocent lamb slain in Egypt with the infinite lamb of God, the contrast teaches us how infinite is the perdition which He alone can cause to "pass over" us, and how essential it is to be under the shelter of his sprinkled blood, before the night of judgment and ruin overtakes us.

The modern Jews also continue to observe the Passover. With those who live in Palestine the feast continues a week; but the Jews out of Palestine extend it to eight days, according to an ancient custom, by which the Sanhedrin sent two men to observe the first appearance of the new moon, who immediately gave notice of it to the chief of the council. For fear of error, they dept two days of the festival.

As to the Christian Passover, the Lord's supper, it was instituted by Christ when, at the last Passover supper he ate with his apostles, he gave them a symbol of his body to eat, and a symbol of his blood to drink, under the form of bread and wine; prefiguring that he should give up his body to the Jews and to death. The paschal lamb, which the Jews killed, tore to pieces, and ate, and whose blood preserved them from the destroying angel, was a type, and figure of our Savior's death and passion, and of his blood shed for the salvation of the world.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
The name given to the chief of the three great historical annual festivals of the Jews. It was kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites (Exodus 12:13) when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called also the "feast of unleavened bread" (Exodus 23:15; Mark 14:1; Acts 12:3), because during its celebration no leavened bread was to be eaten or even kept in the household (Exodus 12:15). The word afterwards came to denote the lamb that was slain at the feast (Mark 14:12-14; 1 Corinthians 5:7).

A detailed account of the institution of this feast is given in Exodus 12 and 13. It was afterwards incorporated in the ceremonial law (Leviticus 23:4-8) as one of the great festivals of the nation. In after times many changes seem to have taken place as to the mode of its celebration as compared with its first celebration (Comp. Deuteronomy 16:2, 5, 6; 2 Chronicles 30:16; Leviticus 23:10-14; Numbers 9:10, 11; 28:16-24). Again, the use of wine (Luke 22:17, 20), of sauce with the bitter herbs (John 13:26), and the service of praise were introduced.

There is recorded only one celebration of this feast between the Exodus and the entrance into Canaan, namely, that mentioned in Numbers 9:5. (see JOSIAH.) It was primarily a commemorative ordinance, reminding the children of Israel of their deliverance out of Egypt; but it was, no doubt, also a type of the great deliverance wrought by the Messiah for all his people from the doom of death on account of sin, and from the bondage of sin itself, a worse than Egyptian bondage (1 Corinthians 5:7; John 1:29; 19:32-36; 1 Peter 1:19; Galatians 4:4, 5). The appearance of Jerusalem on the occasion of the Passover in the time of our Lord is thus fittingly described: "The city itself and the neighbourhood became more and more crowded as the feast approached, the narrow streets and dark arched bazaars showing the same throng of men of all nations as when Jesus had first visited Jerusalem as a boy. Even the temple offered a strange sight at this season, for in parts of the outer courts a wide space was covered with pens for sheep, goats, and cattle to be used for offerings. Sellers shouted the merits of their beasts, sheep bleated, oxen lowed. Sellers of doves also had a place set apart for them. Potters offered a choice from huge stacks of clay dishes and ovens for roasting and eating the Passover lamb. Booths for wine, oil, salt, and all else needed for sacrifices invited customers. Persons going to and from the city shortened their journey by crossing the temple grounds, often carrying burdens...Stalls to change foreign money into the shekel of the temple, which alone could be paid to the priests, were numerous, the whole confusion making the sanctuary like a noisy Market" (Geikie's Life of Christ).

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A feast of the Jews, instituted to commemorate the sparing of the Hebrews in Egypt, when God, smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Israelites which were marked with the blood of a lamb.

2. (n.) The sacrifice offered at the feast of the Passover; the paschal lamb.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
PASSOVER

pas'-o-ver (pecach, from pacach, "to pass" or "spring over" or "to spare" (Exodus 12:13, 23, 17; compare Isaiah 31:5. Other conjectures connect the word with the "passing over" into a new year, with assyr pasahu, meaning "to placate," with Hebrew pacah, meaning "to dance," and even with the skipping motions of a young lamb; Aramaic paccha', whence Greek Pascha; whence English "paschal." In early Christian centuries folk-etymology connected pascha with Greek pascho, "to suffer" (see PASSION), and the word was taken to refer to Good Friday rather than the Passover):

1. Pecach and Matstsoth

2. Pecach mitsrayim

3. Pecach doroth

4. Matstsoth

5. The `Omer

6. Non-traditional Theories

7. The Higher Criticism

8. Historical Celebrations: Old Testament Times

9. Historical Celebrations: New Testament Times

10. The Jewish Passover

1. Pecach and Matstsoth:

The Passover was the annual Hebrew festival on the evening of the 14th day of the month of 'Abhibh (Abib) or Nisan, as it was called in later times. It was followed by, and closely connected with, a 7 days' festival of matstsoth, or unleavened bread, to which the name Passover was also applied by extension (Leviticus 23:5). Both were distinctly connected with the Exodus, which, according to tradition, they commemorate; the Passover being in imitation of the last meal in Egypt, eaten in preparation for the journey, while Yahweh, passing over the houses of the Hebrews, was slaying the firstborn of Egypt (Exodus 12:12; Exodus 13:2, 12); the matstsoth festival being in memory of the first days of the journey during which this bread of haste was eaten (Exodus 12:14-20).

2. Pecach mitsrayim:

The ordinance of pecach mitsrayim, the last meal in Egypt, included the following provisions:

(1) the taking of a lamb, or kid without blemish, for each household on the 10th of the month;

(2) the killing of the lamb on the 14th at even;

(3) the sprinkling of the blood on doorposts and lintels of the houses in which it was to be eaten;

(4) the roasting of the lamb with fire, its head with its legs and inwards-the lamb was not to be eaten raw nor sodden (bashal) with water;

(5) the eating of unleavened bread and bitter herbs;

(6) eating in haste, with loins girded, shoes on the feet, and staff in hand;

(7) and remaining in the house until the morning;

(8) the burning of all that remained; the Passover could be eaten only during the night (Exodus 12:1-23).

3. Pecach doroth:

This service was to be observed as an ordinance forever (Exodus 12:14, 24), and the night was to be lel shimmurim, "a night of vigils," or, at least, "to be much observed" of all the children of Israel throughout their generations (Exodus 12:42). The details, however, of the pecach doroth, or later observances of the Passover, seem to have differed slightly from those of the Egyptian Passover (Mishna, Pesachim, ix.5). Thus, it is probable that the victim could be taken from the flock or from the herd (Deuteronomy 16:2; compare Ezekiel 45:22). (3), (6) and (7) disappeared entirely, and judging from Deuteronomy 16:7, the prohibition against seething (Hebrew bashal) was not understood to apply (unless, indeed, the omission of the expression with water" gives a more general sense to the Hebrew word bashal, making it include roasting). New details were also added: for example, that the Passover could be sacrificed only at the central sanctuary (Deuteronomy 16:5); that no alien or uncircumcised person, or unclean person could partake thereof, and that one prevented by uncleanness or other cause from celebrating the Passover in season could do so a month later (Numbers 9:9). The singing of the Hallel (Psalms 113-118), both while the Passover was being slaughtered and at the meal, and other details were no doubt added from time to time.

4. Matstsoth:

Unleavened bread was eaten with the Passover meal, just as with all sacrificial meals of later times (Exodus 23:18; Exodus 34:25 Leviticus 7:12), independently perhaps of the fact that the Passover came in such close proximity with the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Exodus 12:8). Jewish tradition distinguishes, at any rate, between the first night and the rest of the festival in that the eating of matstsoth is an obligation on the first night and optional during the rest of the week (Pesachim 120a), although the eating of unleavened bread is commanded in general terms (Exodus 12:15, 18; Exodus 13:6, 7; 23:15; 34:18 Leviticus 23:6 Numbers 28:17). The eating of leavened bread is strictly prohibited, however, during the entire week under the penalty of kareth, "excision" (Exodus 12:15, 19; Exodus 13:3 Deuteronomy 16:3), and this prohibition has been observed traditionally with great care. The 1st and 7th days are holy convocations, days on which no labor could be done except such as was necessary in the preparation of food. The festival of matstsoth is reckoned as one of the three pilgrimage festivals, though strictly the pilgrimage was connected with the Passover portion and the first day of the festival.

During the entire week additional sacrifices were offered in the temple: an offering made by fire and a burnt offering, 2 young bullocks, 1 ram, 7 lambs of the first year without blemish, together with meal offerings and drink offerings and a goat for a sin offering.

5. The `Omer:

During the week of the matstsoth festival comes the beginning of the barley harvest in Palestine (Menachoth 65b) which lasts from the end of March in the low Jordan valley to the beginning of May in the elevated portions. The time of the putting-in of the sickle to the standing grain (Deuteronomy 16:9) and of bringing the sheaf of the peace offering is spoken of as the morrow after the Sabbath (Leviticus 23:15), that is, according to the Jewish tradition, the day after the first day, or rest-day, of the Passover (Mend. 65b; Meg Ta`an. 1; Josephus, Ant, III, x, 5), and according to Samaritan and Boethusian traditions and the modern Karites the Sunday after the Passover. At this time a wave offering is made of a sheaf, followed by an offering of a lamb with a meal and drink offering, and only thereafter might the new grain be eaten. From this day 7 weeks are counted to fix the date of Pentecost, the celebration connected with the wheat harvest. It is of course perfectly natural for an agricultural people to celebrate the turning-points of the agricultural year in connection with their traditional festivals. Indeed, the Jewish liturgy of today retains in the Passover service the Prayer of Dew (Tal) which grew up in Palestine on the basis of the needs of an agricultural people.

6. Non-traditional Theories:

Many writers, however, eager to explain the entire festival as originally an agricultural feast (presumably a Canaanitic one, though there is not a shred of evidence that the Canaanites had such a festival), have seized upon the `omer, or sheaf offering, as the basis of the hagh (festival), and have attempted to explain the matstsoth as bread hastily baked in the busy harvest times, or as bread quickly baked from the freshly exempted first-fruits. Wherein these theories are superior to the traditional explanation so consistently adhered to throughout the Pentateuch it is difficult to see. In a similar vein, it has been attempted to connect the Passover with the sacrifice or redemption of the firstborn of man and beast (both institutions being traditionally traced to the judgment on the firstborn of Egypt, as in Exodus 13:11-13; Exodus 22:29, 30; 23:19; 34:19, 20), so as to characterize the Passover as a festival of pastoral origin. Excepting for the multiplication of highly ingenious guesses, very little that is positive has been added to our knowledge of the Passover by this theory.

7. The Higher Criticism:

The Pentateuch speaks of the Passover in many contexts and naturally with constantly varying emphasis. Thus the story of the Exodus it is natural to expect fewer ritual details than in a manual of temple services; again, according to the view here taken, we must distinguish between the pecach mitsrayim and the pecach doroth. Nevertheless, great stress is laid on the variations in the several accounts, by certain groups of critics, on the basis of which they seek to support their several theories of the composition of the Pentateuch or Hexateuch. Without entering into this controversy, it will be sufficient here to enumerate and classify all the discrepancies said to exist in the several Passover passages, together with such explanations as have been suggested. These discrepancies, so called, are of three kinds:

(1) mere omissions,

(2) differences of emphasis, and

(3) conflicting statements.

The letters, J, E, D, P and H will here be used to designate passages assigned to the various sources by the higher criticism of today merely for the sake of comparison.

(1) There is nothing remarkable about the omission of the daily sacrifices from all passages except Leviticus 23:8 (H) and Numbers 28:19 (P), nor in the omission of a specific reference to the holy convocation on the first day in the contexts of Deuteronomy 16:8 and Exodus 13:6, nor even in the omission of reference to a central sanctuary in passages other than Deuteronomy 16. Neither can any significance be attached to the fact that the precise day is not specified in Exodus 23 (E) where the appointed day is spoken of, and in Leviticus 23:15 (H) where the date can be figured out from the date of Pentecost there given.

(2) As to emphasis, it is said that the socalled Elohist Covenant (E) (Exodus 23) has no reference to the Passover, as it speaks only of matstsh in Exodus 23:15, in which this festival is spoken of together with the other reghalim or pilgrimage festivals. The so-called Jehovistic source (Jahwist) (Exodus 34:18-21, 25) is said to subordinate the Passover to matstsoth, the great feast of the Jehovistic history (JE) (Exodus 12:21-27, 29-36, 38, 39; Exodus 13:3-16); in Deuteronomy (D) the Passover is said to predominate over matstsoth, while in Leviticus (P and H) it is said to be of first importance. JE and P emphasize the historical importance of the day. Whether these differences in emphasis mean much more than that the relative amount of attention paid to the paschal sacrifice, as compared with matstsoth, depends on the context, is of course the fundamental question of the higher criticism; it is not answered by pointing out that the differences of emphasis exist.

(3) Of the actual conflicts, we have already seen that the use of the words "flock" and "herd" in Deuteronomy and Hebrew bashal are open to explanation, and also that the use of the matstsoth at the original Passover is not inconsistent with the historical reason for the feast of matstsoth-it is not necessary to suppose that matstsoth were invented through the necessity of the Hebrews on their journey. There is, however, one apparent discrepancy in the Biblical narrative that seems to weaken rather than help the position of those critics who would ascribe very late dates to the passages which we have cited: Why does Ezekiel's ideal scheme provide sacrifices for the Passover different from those prescribed in the so-called P ascribed to the same period (Ezekiel 45:21)?

8. Historical Celebrations: Old Testament Times:

The children of Israel began the keeping of the Passover in its due season according to all its ordinances in the wilderness of Sinai (Numbers 9:5). In the very beginning of their national life in Palestine we find them celebrating the Passover under the leadership of Joshua in the plains of Jericho (Joshua 5:10). History records but few later celebrations in Palestine, but there are enough intimations to indicate that it was frequently if not regularly observed. Thus Solomon offered sacrifices three times a year upon the altar which he had built to Yahweh, at the appointed seasons, including the Feast of Unleavened Bread (1 Kings 9:25 equals 2 Chronicles 8:13). The later prophets speak of appointed seasons for pilgrimages and sacrifices (compare Isaiah 1:12-14), and occasionally perhaps refer to a Passover celebration (compare Isaiah 30:29, bearing in mind that the Passover is the only night-feast of which we have any record). In Hezekiah's time the Passover had fallen into such a state of desuetude that neither the priests nor the people were prepared for the king's urgent appeal to observe it. Nevertheless, he was able to bring together a large concourse in Jerusalem during the 2nd month and institute a more joyful observance than any other recorded since the days of Solomon. In the 18th year of King Josiah, however, there was celebrated the most memorable Passover, presumably in the matter of conformity to rule, since the days of the Judges (2 Kings 23:21 2 Chronicles 35:1). The continued observance of the feast to the days of the exile is attested by Ezekiel's interest in it (Ezekiel 45:18). In post-exilic times it was probably observed more scrupulously than ever before (Ezra 6:19).

9. Historical Celebrations: New Testament Times:

Further evidence, if any were needed, of the importance of the Passover in the life of the Jews of the second temple is found in the Talmud, which devotes to this subject an entire tractate, Pecachim on which we have both Babylonian and Palestine gemara'. These are devoted to the sacrificial side and to the minutiae of searching out and destroying leaven, what constitutes leaven, and similar questions, instruction in which the children of Israel sought for 30 days before the Passover. Josephus speaks of the festival often (Ant., II, xiv, 6; III, x, 5; IX, iv, 8; XIV, ii, 2; XVII, ix, 3; BJ, II, i, 3; V, iii, 1; VI, ix, 3). Besides repeating the details already explained in the Bible, he tells of the innumerable multitudes that came for the Passover to Jerusalem out of the country and even from beyond its limits. He estimates that in one year in the days of Cestius, 256, 500 lambs were slaughtered and that at least 10 men were counted to each. (This estimate of course includes the regular population of Jerusalem. But even then it is doubtless exaggerated.) The New Testament bears testimony, likewise, to the coming of great multitudes to Jerusalem (John 11:55; compare also John 2:13; John 6:4). At this great festival even the Roman officers released prisoners in recognition of the people's celebration. Travel and other ordinary pursuits were no doubt suspended (Compare Acts 12:3; Acts 20:6). Naturally the details were impressed on the minds of the people and lent themselves to symbolic and homiletic purposes (compare 1 Corinthians 5:7 John 19:34-36, where the paschal lamb is made to typify Jesus; and Hebrews 11:28). The best-known instance of such symbolic use is the institution of the Eucharist on the basis of the paschal meal. Some doubt exists as to Whether the Last Supper was the paschal meal or not. According to the Synoptic Gospels, it was (Luke 22:7 Matthew 26:17 Mark 14:12); while according to John, the Passover was to be eaten some time following the Last Supper (John 18:28). Various harmonizations of these passages have been suggested, the most in genious, probably, being on theory that when the Passover fell on Friday night, the Pharisees ate the meal on Thursday and the Sadducees on Friday, and that Jesus followed the custom of the Pharisees (Chwolson, Das letzte Passahmal Jesu, 2nd edition, Petersburg, 1904). Up to the Nicene Council in the year 325, the church observed Easter on the Jewish Passover. Thereafter it took precautions to separate the two, condemning their confusion as Arianism.

10. The Jewish Passover:

After the destruction of the temple the Passover became a home service. The paschal lamb was no longer included. Only the Samaritans have continued this rite to this day. In the Jewish home a roasted bone is placed on the table in memory of the rite, and other articles symbolic of the Passover are placed beside it: such as a roasted egg, said to be in memory of the free-will offering; a sauce called charoceth, said to resemble the mortar of Egypt; salt water, for the symbolic dipping (compare Matthew 26:23); the bitter herbs and the matstsoth. The cedher (program) is as follows: sanctification; washing of the hands; dipping and dividing the parsley; breaking and setting aside a piece of matstsah to be distributed and eaten at the end of the supper; reading of the haggadhah shel pecach, a poetic narrative of the Exodus, in answer to four questions asked by the youngest child in compliance with the Biblical command found 3 times in Exodus and once in Deuteronomy, "Thou shalt tell thy son on that day"; washing the hands for eating; grace before eating; tasting the matstsah; tasting the bitter herbs; eating of them together; the meal; partaking of the matstsah that had been set aside as 'aphiqomen or dessert; grace after meat; Hallel; request that the service be accepted. Thereafter folk-songs are sung to traditional melodies, and poems recited, many of which have allegorical meanings. A cup of wine is used at the sanctification and another at grace, in addition to which two other cups have been added, the 4 according to the Mishna (Pecachim x.1) symbolizing the 4 words employed in Exodus 6:6, 7 for the delivery of Israel from Egypt. Instead of eating in haste, as in the Egyptian Passover, it is customary to recline or lean at this meal in token of Israel's freedom.

The prohibition against leaven is strictly observed. The searching for hidden leaven on the evening before the Passover and its destruction in the morning have become formal ceremonies for which appropriate blessings and declarations have been included in the liturgy since the days when Aramaic was the vernacular of the Jews. As in the case of other festivals, the Jews have doubled the days of holy convocation, and have added a semi-holiday after the last day, the so-called 'iccur chagh, in token of their love for the ordained celebration and their loathness to depart from it.

Nathan Isaacs

Greek
3957. pascha -- the Passover, the Passover supper or lamb
... the Passover, the Passover supper or lamb. Part of Speech: Aramaic Transliterated
Word (Indeclinable) Transliteration: pascha Phonetic Spelling: (pas'-khah ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3957.htm - 6k

4005. pentekoste -- fiftieth, Pentecost, the second of the three ...
... pentekoste Phonetic Spelling: (pen-tay-kos-tay') Short Definition: Pentecost Definition:
Pentecost, a feast of the Jews, the fiftieth day after Passover. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4005.htm - 7k

1207 -- second, after the first.
... deuteros and protos; second-first, ie (specially) a designation of the Sabbath
immediately after the Paschal week (being the second after Passover day, and the ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1207.htm - 6k

106. azumos -- unleavened
... as a negative particle) and zume; unleavened, ie (figuratively) uncorrupted; (in
the neutral plural) specially (by implication) the Passover week -- unleavened ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/106.htm - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
6453. pesach -- passover
... 6452b, 6453. pesach. 6454 . passover. Transliteration: pesach Phonetic
Spelling: (peh'-sakh) Short Definition: Passover. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/6453.htm - 6k

4682. matstsah -- unleavened bread or cake
... concretely, sweet (ie Not soured or bittered with yeast); specifically, an unfermented
cake or loaf, or (elliptically) the festival of Passover (because no ...
/hebrew/4682.htm - 6k

Library

The Passover visit
... The DESIRE of AGES Chapter 8 The Passover Visit. ... It was in accordance with this custom
that Jesus in His boyhood made the Passover visit to Jerusalem. ...
/.../white/the desire of ages/chapter 8 the passover visit.htm

The New Passover
... D.; ST. MATTHEW Chaps. XVIII to XXVIII THE NEW PASSOVER. ... And the disciples did as
Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the passover.20. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture b/the new passover.htm

From the Work on the Passover. When Servilius Paulus was Proconsul ...
... Fragments. I. From the Work on the Passover. When Servilius Paulus was ... treatise
was then written. From the Work on the Passover. [3604] ...
//christianbookshelf.org/unknown/the decretals/i from the work on.htm

The New Passover
... THE NEW PASSOVER. 'And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed
the Passover, the disciples said unto Him, Where wilt ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture d/the new passover.htm

When Christ Ate the Passover.
... Chapter XIII. When Christ Ate the Passover. It must be acknowledged that
one of the most difficult questions of solution presented ...
/.../the new testament commentary vol iii john/when christ ate the passover.htm

Why the Passover is Said to be that of the "Jews. " Its ...
... 11. Why the Passover is Said to Be that of the "Jews." Its Institution: and the
Distinction Between "Feasts of the Lord" And Feasts Not So Spoken of. ...
/.../origen/origens commentary on the gospel of john/11 why the passover is.htm

Christ Our Passover
... CHRIST OUR PASSOVER. ... It was a help aiding gross conceptions and common minds to
grasp the inward relation between Jesus and that Passover rite. ...
/.../expositions of holy scripture st john chaps xv to xxi/christ our passover.htm

The Passover: an Expiation and a Feast, a Memorial and a Prophecy
... THE BOOK OF EXODUS THE PASSOVER: AN EXPIATION AND A FEAST, A MEMORIAL AND A
PROPHECY. 'And ... all. We have called the Passover a sacrifice. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture k/the passover an expiation and.htm

Christ Our Passover
... Christ Our Passover. A Sermon (No.54). ... At New Park Street Chapel, Southwark. "For
even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us.""1 Corinthians 5:7. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 2 1856/christ our passover.htm

In the First Three Gospels the Passover is Spoken of Only at the ...
... Tenth Book. 14. In the First Three Gospels the Passover is Spoken of Only at the
Close of the Ministry; In John at the Beginning. ... Heracleon on the Passover. ...
/.../origen/origens commentary on the gospel of john/14 in the first three.htm

Thesaurus
Passover (81 Occurrences)
... Egyptian bondage (1 Corinthians 5:7; John 1:29; 19:32-36; 1 Peter 1:19; Galatians
4:4, 5). The appearance of Jerusalem on the occasion of the Passover in the ...
/p/passover.htm - 58k

Passover-offering (7 Occurrences)
Passover-offering. Passover-lambs, Passover-offering. Passover-offerings .
Multi-Version Concordance Passover-offering (7 Occurrences). ...
/p/passover-offering.htm - 8k

Passover-offerings (4 Occurrences)
Passover-offerings. Passover-offering, Passover-offerings. Passovers .
Multi-Version Concordance Passover-offerings (4 Occurrences). ...
/p/passover-offerings.htm - 8k

Passover-lambs (1 Occurrence)
Passover-lambs. Passover, Passover-lambs. Passover-offering . Multi-Version
Concordance Passover-lambs (1 Occurrence). 2 Chronicles ...
/p/passover-lambs.htm - 6k

Passover-sacrifice (1 Occurrence)
Passover-sacrifice. Passovers, Passover-sacrifice. Past .
Multi-Version Concordance Passover-sacrifice (1 Occurrence). ...
/p/passover-sacrifice.htm - 6k

Celebrated (24 Occurrences)
... Hebrews 11:28 By faith he celebrated the passover and the sprinkling of the blood,
that the destroyer of the firstborn might not touch them. (DBY). ...
/c/celebrated.htm - 13k

Easter (1 Occurrence)
... Originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the Saxons, in honour
of whom sacrifices were offered about the time of the Passover. ...
/e/easter.htm - 12k

Fourteenth (25 Occurrences)
... (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV). Leviticus 23:5 In the first month,
on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, is Yahweh's Passover. ...
/f/fourteenth.htm - 15k

Josi'ah (50 Occurrences)
... el. (See RSV). 2 Kings 23:23 but in the eighteenth year of king Josiah was
this passover kept to the LORD in Jerusalem. (See RSV). ...
/j/josi'ah.htm - 21k

Preparation (28 Occurrences)
... The addition of the phrase tou pascha, "of the passover," in John 19:14, and of
the phrase "for the day of that sabbath was a high day," in 19:31, seems to ...
/p/preparation.htm - 19k

Concordance
Passover (81 Occurrences)

Matthew 26:2
"You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 26:17
Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 26:18
He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him,'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."'"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 26:19
The disciples did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 26:26
During the meal Jesus took a Passover biscuit, blessed it and broke it. He then gave it to the disciples, saying, "Take this and eat it: it is my body."
(WEY)

Matthew 27:62
Now on the day after the getting ready of the Passover, the chief priests and Pharisees came together to Pilate,
(BBE)

Mark 14:1
It was now two days before the feast of the Passover and the unleavened bread, and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might seize him by deception, and kill him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 14:12
On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 14:14
and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house,'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 14:16
His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Mark 14:22
Also during the meal He took a Passover biscuit, blessed it, and broke it. He then gave it to them, saying, "Take this, it is my body."
(WEY)

Luke 2:41
His parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:1
Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover, drew near.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:7
The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:8
He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:11
Tell the master of the house,'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:13
They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:15
He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 22:19
Then, taking a Passover biscuit, He gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body which is being given on your behalf: this do in remembrance of me."
(WEY)

John 2:13
The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 2:23
Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover, during the feast, many believed in his name, observing his signs which he did.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 4:45
So when he came into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things that he did in Jerusalem at the feast, for they also went to the feast.
(See NIV)

John 6:4
Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 11:55
Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand. Many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover, to purify themselves.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 12:1
Then six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, who had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 13:1
Now before the feast of the Passover, Jesus, knowing that his time had come that he would depart from this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 18:28
They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 18:39
But you have a custom, that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Therefore do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 19:14
Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, at about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, "Behold, your King!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

John 19:31
Meanwhile the Jews, because it was the day of Preparation for the Passover, and in order that the bodies might not remain on the crosses during the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was one of special solemnity)
(WEY BBE)

John 19:42
Therefore, because it was the day of Preparation for the Jewish Passover, and the tomb was close at hand, they put Jesus there.
(WEY BBE)

Acts 12:4
When he had arrested him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four squads of four soldiers each to guard him, intending to bring him out to the people after the Passover.
(WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 5:7
Purge out the old yeast, that you may be a new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, has been sacrificed in our place.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Hebrews 11:28
By faith, he kept the Passover, and the sprinkling of the blood, that the destroyer of the firstborn should not touch them.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 12:11
This is how you shall eat it: with your waist girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste: it is Yahweh's Passover.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 12:21
Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, "Draw out, and take lambs according to your families, and kill the Passover.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 12:27
that you shall say,'It is the sacrifice of Yahweh's Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians, and spared our houses.'" The people bowed their heads and worshiped.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 12:43
Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, "This is the ordinance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat of it,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 12:48
When a stranger shall live as a foreigner with you, and will keep the Passover to Yahweh, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one who is born in the land: but no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 34:25
"You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the Passover be left to the morning.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 23:5
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, is Yahweh's Passover.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:2
"Moreover let the children of Israel keep the Passover in its appointed season.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:4
Moses spoke to the children of Israel, that they should keep the Passover.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:5
They kept the Passover in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at evening, in the wilderness of Sinai. According to all that Yahweh commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Numbers 9:6
There were certain men, who were unclean because of the dead body of a man, so that they could not keep the Passover on that day, and they came before Moses and before Aaron on that day.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:10
"Say to the children of Israel,'If any man of you or of your generations is unclean by reason of a dead body, or is on a journey far away, he shall still keep the Passover to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:12
They shall leave none of it until the morning, nor break a bone of it. According to all the statute of the Passover they shall keep it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:13
But the man who is clean, and is not on a journey, and fails to keep the Passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people. Because he didn't offer the offering of Yahweh in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 9:14
"'If a foreigner lives among you, and desires to keep the Passover to Yahweh; according to the statute of the Passover, and according to its ordinance, so shall he do. You shall have one statute, both for the foreigner, and for him who is born in the land.'"
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 28:16
"'In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, is Yahweh's Passover.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Numbers 33:3
They traveled from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the next day after the Passover the children of Israel went out with a high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 16:1
Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover to Yahweh your God; for in the month of Abib Yahweh your God brought you forth out of Egypt by night.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 16:2
You shall sacrifice the Passover to Yahweh your God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which Yahweh shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 16:5
You may not sacrifice the Passover within any of your gates, which Yahweh your God gives you;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Deuteronomy 16:6
but at the place which Yahweh your God shall choose, to cause his name to dwell in, there you shall sacrifice the Passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that you came forth out of Egypt.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Joshua 5:10
The children of Israel encamped in Gilgal. They kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at evening in the plains of Jericho.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Joshua 5:11
They ate unleavened cakes and parched grain of the produce of the land on the next day after the Passover, in the same day.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Kings 23:21
The king commanded all the people, saying, "Keep the Passover to Yahweh your God, as it is written in this book of the covenant."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Kings 23:22
Surely there was not kept such a Passover from the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Kings 23:23
but in the eighteenth year of king Josiah was this Passover kept to Yahweh in Jerusalem.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:1
Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of Yahweh at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover to Yahweh, the God of Israel.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:2
For the king had taken counsel, and his princes, and all the assembly in Jerusalem, to keep the Passover in the second month.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:5
So they established a decree to make proclamation throughout all Israel, from Beersheba even to Dan, that they should come to keep the Passover to Yahweh, the God of Israel, at Jerusalem: for they had not kept it in great numbers in such sort as it is written.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:15
Then they killed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the second month: and the priests and the Levites were ashamed, and sanctified themselves, and brought burnt offerings into the house of Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:17
For there were many in the assembly who had not sanctified themselves: therefore the Levites were in charge of killing the Passovers for everyone who was not clean, to sanctify them to Yahweh.
(Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 30:18
For a multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the Passover otherwise than it is written. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, The good Yahweh pardon everyone
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:1
Josiah kept a Passover to Yahweh in Jerusalem: and they killed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:6
Kill the Passover, and sanctify yourselves, and prepare for your brothers, to do according to the word of Yahweh by Moses.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:7
Josiah gave to the children of the people, of the flock, lambs and young goats, all of them for the Passover offerings, to all who were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bulls: these were of the king's substance.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:8
His princes gave for a freewill offering to the people, to the priests, and to the Levites. Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, the rulers of the house of God, gave to the priests for the Passover offerings two thousand and six hundred small livestock, and three hundred head of cattle.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:9
Conaniah also, and Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brothers, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, the chiefs of the Levites, gave to the Levites for the Passover offerings five thousand small livestock, and five hundred head of cattle.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:11
They killed the Passover, and the priests sprinkled the blood which they received of their hand, and the Levites flayed them.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:13
They roasted the Passover with fire according to the ordinance: and the holy offerings boiled they in pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and carried them quickly to all the children of the people.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:16
So all the service of Yahweh was prepared the same day, to keep the Passover, and to offer burnt offerings on the altar of Yahweh, according to the commandment of king Josiah.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:17
The children of Israel who were present kept the Passover at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:18
There was no Passover like that kept in Israel from the days of Samuel the prophet; neither did any of the kings of Israel keep such a Passover as Josiah kept, and the priests, and the Levites, and all Judah and Israel who were present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 35:19
In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah was this Passover kept.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ezra 6:19
The children of the captivity kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the first month.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ezra 6:20
For the priests and the Levites had purified themselves together; all of them were pure: and they killed the Passover for all the children of the captivity, and for their brothers the priests, and for themselves.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Ezra 6:21
The children of Israel who had come again out of the captivity, and all such as had separated themselves to them from the filthiness of the nations of the land, to seek Yahweh, the God of Israel, ate,
(See NAS)

Ezekiel 45:21
In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, you shall have the Passover, a feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall be eaten.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Passover

Passover: Christ Called "Our Passover"

Passover: Design of

Passover: Institution of

Passover: Jesus Crucified at the Time of

Passover: Jesus in the Temple Courtyard at the Time of

Passover: Observation of, Renewed by Hezekiah

Passover: Observation of, Renewed by Josiah

Passover: Observation of, Renewed by the Israelites Upon Entering Canaan

Passover: Observation of, Renewed: After the Return from Babylonian Captivity

Passover: Observed at the Place Designated by God

Passover: Observed by Jesus

Passover: Observed With Unleavened Bread (No Yeast)

Passover: Penalty for Neglecting to Observe

Passover: Peter Imprisoned at the Time of

Passover: Prisoner Released At, by the Romans

Passover: Re-Instituted by Ezekiel

Passover: Special Passover, for Those Who Were Unclean, or on a Journey, to be Held in the Second Month

Passover: Strangers Authorized to Celebrate

Passover: The Lamb Killed by Levites, for Those Who Were Ceremonially Unclean

Passover: The Lamb of, a Type of Christ

Passover: The Lord's Supper Ordained At

Related Terms

Passover-offering (7 Occurrences)

Passover-offerings (4 Occurrences)

Passover-lambs (1 Occurrence)

Passover-sacrifice (1 Occurrence)

Celebrated (24 Occurrences)

Easter (1 Occurrence)

Fourteenth (25 Occurrences)

Josi'ah (50 Occurrences)

Preparation (28 Occurrences)

Jewish (49 Occurrences)

Bitter (203 Occurrences)

Celebrate (66 Occurrences)

Regulations (37 Occurrences)

Preparations (16 Occurrences)

During (182 Occurrences)

Pentecost (3 Occurrences)

Observed (84 Occurrences)

Ready (451 Occurrences)

Unleavened (51 Occurrences)

Prepare (199 Occurrences)

Nigh (243 Occurrences)

Kids (12 Occurrences)

Festival (62 Occurrences)

Evenings (15 Occurrences)

Prescribed (31 Occurrences)

Biscuit (3 Occurrences)

Contributed (13 Occurrences)

Ceremonial (11 Occurrences)

Slew (206 Occurrences)

Sojourneth (27 Occurrences)

Sojourns (18 Occurrences)

Jeiel (13 Occurrences)

Calendar

Wilt (324 Occurrences)

Fasts (3 Occurrences)

Feasts (45 Occurrences)

Killed (352 Occurrences)

Statute (63 Occurrences)

Sojourn (51 Occurrences)

Sacrificed (112 Occurrences)

Meal (288 Occurrences)

Foreigner (99 Occurrences)

Native (35 Occurrences)

Slaughter (121 Occurrences)

Talmud

Jews (287 Occurrences)

Gilgal (39 Occurrences)

Lambs (107 Occurrences)

Wants (49 Occurrences)

Slaughtered (72 Occurrences)

Ordinance (89 Occurrences)

Chronology

Ceremonially (38 Occurrences)

Lamb (124 Occurrences)

Josiah (51 Occurrences)

Eat (690 Occurrences)

Leaven (24 Occurrences)

Prepared (246 Occurrences)

Holden (17 Occurrences)

Sojourner (81 Occurrences)

Rules (160 Occurrences)

Zacharias (11 Occurrences)

Killing (41 Occurrences)

Observe (216 Occurrences)

Native-born (16 Occurrences)

Nethanel (14 Occurrences)

Observes (14 Occurrences)

Guest (24 Occurrences)

Guest-chamber (4 Occurrences)

Guest-room (2 Occurrences)

Goodman (6 Occurrences)

Guestchamber (2 Occurrences)

Festivals (17 Occurrences)

Twilight (25 Occurrences)

Rite (6 Occurrences)

Roasted (13 Occurrences)

Eighteenth (11 Occurrences)

Exiles (46 Occurrences)

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