John 19:31
New International Version
Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jewish leaders did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken down.

New Living Translation
It was the day of preparation, and the Jewish leaders didn’t want the bodies hanging there the next day, which was the Sabbath (and a very special Sabbath, because it was Passover week). So they asked Pilate to hasten their deaths by ordering that their legs be broken. Then their bodies could be taken down.

English Standard Version
Since it was the day of Preparation, and so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away.

Berean Study Bible
It was the day of Preparation, and the next day was a High Sabbath. In order that the bodies would not remain on the cross during the Sabbath, the Jews asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies removed.

Berean Literal Bible
Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation, so that bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath--for that Sabbath was a high day--asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and they might be taken away.

King James Bible
The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

New King James Version
Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

New American Standard Bible
Now then, since it was the day of preparation, to prevent the bodies from remaining on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews requested of Pilate that their legs be broken, and the bodies be taken away.

NASB 1995
Then the Jews, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

NASB 1977
The Jews therefore, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Amplified Bible
Since it was the day of Preparation [for the Sabbath], in order to prevent the bodies from hanging on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high holy day) the Jews asked Pilate to have their legs broken [to hasten death] and the bodies taken away.

Christian Standard Bible
Since it was the preparation day, the Jews did not want the bodies to remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special day). They requested that Pilate have the men’s legs broken and that their bodies be taken away.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Since it was the preparation day, the Jews did not want the bodies to remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special day). They requested that Pilate have the men's legs broken and that their bodies be taken away.

American Standard Version
The Jews therefore, because it was the Preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross upon the sabbath (for the day of that sabbath was a high day ), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
But the Judeans, because it was evening, they were saying, “These bodies will not pass the night on their crosses, because the Sabbath day is approaching”, for it was a great Sabbath day. And they sought from Pilate to break the legs of those who had been crucified, and they would be taken away.

Contemporary English Version
The next day would be both a Sabbath and the Passover. It was a special day for the Jewish people, and they did not want the bodies to stay on the crosses during this day. So they asked Pilate to break the men's legs and take their bodies down.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Then the Jews, (because it was the parasceve,) that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that was a great sabbath day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

English Revised Version
The Jews therefore, because it was the Preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross upon the sabbath (for the day of that sabbath was a high day), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Good News Translation
Then the Jewish authorities asked Pilate to allow them to break the legs of the men who had been crucified, and to take the bodies down from the crosses. They requested this because it was Friday, and they did not want the bodies to stay on the crosses on the Sabbath, since the coming Sabbath was especially holy.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Since it was Friday and the next day was an especially important day of worship, the Jews didn't want the bodies to stay on the crosses. So they asked Pilate to have the men's legs broken and their bodies removed.

International Standard Version
Since it was the Preparation Day, the Jewish leaders did not want to leave the bodies on the crosses during the Sabbath, because that was a particularly important Sabbath. So they asked Pilate to have the men's legs broken and the bodies removed.

Literal Standard Version
The Jews, therefore, that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath, since it was the Preparation (for that Sabbath day was a great one), asked of Pilate that their legs may be broken, and they [are] taken away.

NET Bible
Then, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies should not stay on the crosses on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was an especially important one), the Jewish leaders asked Pilate to have the victims' legs broken and the bodies taken down.

New Heart English Bible
Therefore the Jewish leaders, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Weymouth New Testament
Meanwhile the Jews, because it was the day of Preparation for the Passover, and in order that the bodies might not remain on the crosses during the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was one of special solemnity)

World English Bible
Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies wouldn't remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Young's Literal Translation
The Jews, therefore, that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath, since it was the preparation, (for that sabbath day was a great one,) asked of Pilate that their legs may be broken, and they taken away.

Additional Translations ...
Context
Jesus' Side is Pierced
30When Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished.” And bowing His head, He yielded up His spirit. 31It was the day of Preparation, and the next day was a High Sabbath. In order that the bodies would not remain on the cross during the Sabbath, the Jews asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies removed. 32So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and those of the other.…

Cross References
Exodus 12:16
On the first day you are to hold a sacred assembly, and another on the seventh day. You must not do any work on those days, except to prepare the meals--that is all you may do.

Deuteronomy 21:23
you must not leave the body on the tree overnight, but you must be sure to bury him that day, because anyone who is hung on a tree is under God's curse. You must not defile the land that the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance.

Joshua 8:29
He hung the king of Ai on a tree until evening, and at sunset Joshua commanded that they take down the body from the tree and throw it down at the entrance of the city gate. And over it they raised a large pile of rocks, which remains to this day.

Joshua 10:26
After this, Joshua struck down and killed the kings, and he hung their bodies on five trees and left them there until evening.

Matthew 27:62
The next day, the one after Preparation Day, the chief priests and Pharisees assembled before Pilate.

John 19:14
It was the day of Preparation for the Passover, about the sixth hour. And Pilate said to the Jews, "Here is your King!"

John 19:42
And because it was the Jewish day of Preparation and the tomb was nearby, they placed Jesus there.


Treasury of Scripture

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) sought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

because.

John 19:14,42
And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! …

Matthew 27:62
Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate,

Mark 15:42
And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,

that the.

Deuteronomy 21:22,23
And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: …

that sabbath.

Leviticus 23:7-16
In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein…

their.

John 19:1
Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.

Proverbs 12:10
A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast: but the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel.

Micah 3:3
Who also eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them; and they break their bones, and chop them in pieces, as for the pot, and as flesh within the caldron.









(31) The account of the piercing of the side (John 19:31-37) is peculiar to St. John.

The preparation,. . . . an high day.--Comp. Excursus F: The Day of the Crucifixion of our Lord, p. 559. The Roman custom was to allow the bodies to remain on the cross. To the Jews this was defilement (Deuteronomy 21:22-23), against which they were the more anxious to take precaution because the approaching Sabbath was "an high day."

That their legs might be broken.--The breaking of the legs by means of clubs was a Roman punishment, known by the name of crurifragium, which sometimes accompanied crucifixion, and appears also to have been used as a separate punishment. It is not otherwise clear that its purpose was, or that its effect would be, to cause death, but this is the impression we derive from the present context (John 19:33).

Verses 31-37. -

(6) The piercing of the side, with its significance - the final close of the life of earth. Verse 31. - The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation; that is, the day before the sabbath (Mark 15:42). This note of time certainly blends both the synoptists and John in the assurance that the crucifixion took place on a Friday. It was also, according to the previous statement, the preparation of the Passover, which, we have seen, is better understood in that literal sense than in the sense of "the Friday of Passover week." Consequently, there was a twofold sanctity about that particular sabbath, seeing that the sabbatic rest of the day following the Paschal meal coincided with the ordinary weekly sabbath; (for great, or high, was the day of that sabbath) (cf. Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:7; and notes on John 13:1; 18:28; 19:14). It was a "great" and "high" day in a sense far more profoundly impressive than any that could be derived from the ceremonial enactments of the Hebrew code. The sabbath of his rest came at length. The toil, the agony, are over, the whole world is transformed during its hours into his resting-place. There has been no such sabbath since the creative Word rested from all his work. In order that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath. This statement, with the events which followed, strongly confirms our interpretation of the day of the Crucifixion. The Jews would scarcely have justified a crucifixion on the first sabbatic day of the feast, if they shrank from the proceeding here described as in danger of taking place on the ordinary sabbath. They follow the law (Deuteronomy 21:22, 23) so far as it would apply, and hasten the dissolution of the crucified, if it had not already occurred. (They) asked Pilate that their legs might be broken (crushed) [κατεαγῶσιν, the same as aorist passive, κατάγνυμι (Winer, Eng. trans., p. 85), ἀρθώσιν, first aorist passive], and that they might be taken away, as polluting corpses. The σκελοκοπία, equivalent to crurifragium, is a Roman custom, as it is clearly established by numerous authorities (Suet., 'Aug.,' 67; Seneca, ' De Ira.,' 3:32; see Wettstein); - a brutal custom, which added to the cruel shame and torment, even though it hastened the end.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Greek
It was
ἦν (ēn)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

[the] day of Preparation,
Παρασκευὴ (Paraskeuē)
Noun - Nominative Feminine Singular
Strong's 3904: The day of preparation, the day before the Sabbath, Friday. As if from paraskeuazo; readiness.

[and]
γὰρ (gar)
Conjunction
Strong's 1063: For. A primary particle; properly, assigning a reason.

[the next]
ἐκείνου (ekeinou)
Demonstrative Pronoun - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's 1565: That, that one there, yonder. From ekei; that one (neuter) thing); often intensified by the article prefixed.

day
ἡμέρα (hēmera)
Noun - Nominative Feminine Singular
Strong's 2250: A day, the period from sunrise to sunset.

was
ἦν (ēn)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

a High
μεγάλη (megalē)
Adjective - Nominative Feminine Singular
Strong's 3173: Large, great, in the widest sense.

Sabbath.
σαββάτου (sabbatou)
Noun - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's 4521: The Sabbath, a week.

In order that
ἵνα (hina)
Conjunction
Strong's 2443: In order that, so that. Probably from the same as the former part of heautou; in order that.

the
τὰ (ta)
Article - Nominative Neuter Plural
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

bodies
σώματα (sōmata)
Noun - Nominative Neuter Plural
Strong's 4983: Body, flesh; the body of the Church. From sozo; the body, used in a very wide application, literally or figuratively.

would not remain
μείνῃ (meinē)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 3306: To remain, abide, stay, wait; with acc: I wait for, await. A primary verb; to stay.

on
ἐπὶ (epi)
Preposition
Strong's 1909: On, to, against, on the basis of, at.

the
τοῦ (tou)
Article - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

cross
σταυροῦ (staurou)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's 4716: A cross.

during
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

the
τῷ (tō)
Article - Dative Neuter Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Sabbath,
σαββάτῳ (sabbatō)
Noun - Dative Neuter Singular
Strong's 4521: The Sabbath, a week.

the
Οἱ (Hoi)
Article - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Jews
Ἰουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi)
Adjective - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's 2453: Jewish. From Iouda; Judaean, i.e. Belonging to Jehudah.

asked
ἠρώτησαν (ērōtēsan)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 2065: Apparently from ereo; to interrogate; by implication, to request.

Pilate
Πιλᾶτον (Pilaton)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 4091: Pilate. Of Latin origin; close-pressed, i.e. Firm; Pilatus, a Roman.

to have
ἵνα (hina)
Conjunction
Strong's 2443: In order that, so that. Probably from the same as the former part of heautou; in order that.

the
τὰ (ta)
Article - Accusative Neuter Plural
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

legs
σκέλη (skelē)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Plural
Strong's 4628: The leg (from the hip downwards). Apparently from skello; the leg.

broken
κατεαγῶσιν (kateagōsin)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Passive - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 2608: To break down (in pieces), crush, break into. From kata and the base of rhegnumi; to rend in pieces, i.e. Crack apart.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

[the bodies]
αὐτῶν (autōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

removed.
ἀρθῶσιν (arthōsin)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Passive - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 142: To raise, lift up, take away, remove.


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