John 18:28
New International Version
Then the Jewish leaders took Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness they did not enter the palace, because they wanted to be able to eat the Passover.

New Living Translation
Jesus' trial before Caiaphas ended in the early hours of the morning. Then he was taken to the headquarters of the Roman governor. His accusers didn't go inside because it would defile them, and they wouldn't be allowed to celebrate the Passover.

English Standard Version
Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the governor’s headquarters. It was early morning. They themselves did not enter the governor’s headquarters, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Passover.

Berean Study Bible
Then they led Jesus away from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. By now it was early morning, and the Jews did not enter the Praetorium to avoid being defiled and unable to eat the Passover.

Berean Literal Bible
Then they are leading Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. Now it was early, and they did not enter into the Praetorium, so that they should not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

New American Standard Bible
Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium, and it was early; and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium so that they would not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

King James Bible
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

Christian Standard Bible
Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the governor's headquarters. It was early morning. They did not enter the headquarters themselves; otherwise they would be defiled and unable to eat the Passover.

Contemporary English Version
It was early in the morning when Jesus was taken from Caiaphas to the building where the Roman governor stayed. But the crowd waited outside. Any of them who had gone inside would have become unclean and would not be allowed to eat the Passover meal.

Good News Translation
Early in the morning Jesus was taken from Caiaphas' house to the governor's palace. The Jewish authorities did not go inside the palace, for they wanted to keep themselves ritually clean, in order to be able to eat the Passover meal.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to the governor's headquarters. It was early morning. They did not enter the headquarters themselves; otherwise they would be defiled and unable to eat the Passover.

International Standard Version
Then Jesus was led from Caiaphas to the governor's headquarters early in the morning. The Jews did not go into the headquarters, to avoid becoming unclean and unable to eat the Passover meal.

NET Bible
Then they brought Jesus from Caiaphas to the Roman governor's residence. (Now it was very early morning.) They did not go into the governor's residence so they would not be ceremonially defiled, but could eat the Passover meal.

New Heart English Bible
They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
They brought Yeshua from the presence of Qaypha to the Praetorium, and it was dawn, and they did not enter the Praetorium, lest they would be defiled, until they had eaten the Passover.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Early in the morning, Jesus was taken from Caiaphas' house to the governor's palace. The Jews wouldn't go into the palace. They didn't want to become unclean, since they wanted to eat the Passover.

New American Standard 1977
They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium, and it was early; and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium in order that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Jubilee Bible 2000
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment, and it was early; and they themselves did not go into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the passover.

King James 2000 Bible
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

American King James Version
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

American Standard Version
They lead Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium: and it was early; and they themselves entered not into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor's hall. And it was morning; and they went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch.

Darby Bible Translation
They lead therefore Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium; and it was early morn. And they entered not into the praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but eat the passover.

English Revised Version
They lead Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the palace: and it was early; and they themselves entered not into the palace, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover.

Webster's Bible Translation
Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment-hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

Weymouth New Testament
So they brought Jesus from Caiaphas's house to the Praetorium. It was the early morning, and they would not enter the Praetorium themselves for fear of defilement, and in order that they might be able to eat the Passover.

World English Bible
They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Young's Literal Translation
They led, therefore, Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium, and it was early, and they themselves did not enter into the praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the passover;
Study Bible
Jesus Before Pilate
27Peter denied it once more, and immediately a rooster crowed. 28Then they led Jesus away from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. By now it was early morning, and the Jews did not enter the Praetorium to avoid being defiled and unable to eat the Passover. 29So Pilate went out to them and asked, “What accusation are you bringing against this man?”…
Cross References
Matthew 27:1
When morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people conspired against Jesus to put Him to death.

Matthew 27:2
They bound Him, led Him away, and handed Him over to Pilate the governor.

Matthew 27:27
Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole company around Him.

Mark 15:1
Early in the morning, the chief priests, elders, scribes, and the whole Sanhedrin devised a plan. They bound Jesus, led Him away, and handed Him over to Pilate.

Luke 22:66
At daybreak the council of the elders of the people, both the chief priests and scribes, met together. They led Jesus into their council and said,

Luke 23:1
Then the whole council rose and led Jesus away to Pilate.

John 11:55
Now the Jewish Passover was near, and many people went up from the country to Jerusalem to purify themselves before the Passover.

John 18:13
They brought Him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year.

John 18:15
Now Simon Peter and another disciple were following Jesus. Since that disciple was known to the high priest, he also went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest.

John 18:33
Pilate went back into the Praetorium, summoned Jesus, and asked Him, "Are You the King of the Jews?"

John 19:9
and he went back into the Praetorium. "Where are You from?" he asked. But Jesus gave no answer.

John 19:11
Jesus answered, "You would have no authority over Me if it were not given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed Me over to you is guilty of greater sin."

Acts 4:27
In fact, this is the very city where Herod and Pontius Pilate conspired with the Gentiles and the people of Israel against Your holy servant Jesus, whom You anointed.

Acts 10:28
He said to them, "You know how unlawful it is for a Jew to associate with a foreigner or visit him. But God has shown me that I should not call any man impure or unclean.

Acts 10:32
Therefore send to Joppa for Simon, who is called Peter. He is a guest in the home of Simon the tanner, by the sea.'

Acts 11:3
and said, "You visited uncircumcised men and ate with them."

Treasury of Scripture

Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas to the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

led.

Matthew 27:1,2
When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: …

Mark 15:1
And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.

Luke 23:1
And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate.

unto.

John 18:33
Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

John 19:9
And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

Matthew 27:27
Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers.

hall of judgment.

Proverbs 1:16
For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.

Proverbs 4:16
For they sleep not, except they have done mischief; and their sleep is taken away, unless they cause some to fall.

Micah 2:1
Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.

and they.

Psalm 35:16
With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed upon me with their teeth.

Isaiah 1:10-15
Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah…

Jeremiah 7:8-11
Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit…

eat.

John 18:39
But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

John 19:14
And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

Deuteronomy 16:2
Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the LORD thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the LORD shall choose to place his name there.







Lexicon
Then
οὖν (oun)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 3767: Therefore, then. Apparently a primary word; certainly, or accordingly.

they led
Ἄγουσιν (Agousin)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 71: A primary verb; properly, to lead; by implication, to bring, drive, go, pass, or induce.

Jesus
Ἰησοῦν (Iēsoun)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 2424: Of Hebrew origin; Jesus, the name of our Lord and two other Israelites.

away from
ἀπὸ (apo)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 575: From, away from. A primary particle; 'off, ' i.e. Away, in various senses.

Caiaphas
Καϊάφα (Kaiapha)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 2533: Caiaphas, Jewish high priest. Of Chaldee origin; the dell; Caiaphas, an Israelite.

into
εἰς (eis)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1519: A primary preposition; to or into, of place, time, or purpose; also in adverbial phrases.

the
τὸ (to)
Article - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Praetorium.
πραιτώριον (praitōrion)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 4232: Of Latin origin; the praetorium or governor's courtroom.

By now
δὲ (de)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 1161: A primary particle; but, and, etc.

it was
ἦν (ēn)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

early morning,
πρωΐ (prōi)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 4404: Early in the morning, at dawn. Adverb from pro; at dawn; by implication, the day-break watch.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

[the Jews]
αὐτοὶ (autoi)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Nominative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

{did} not
οὐκ (ouk)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3756: No, not. Also ouk, and ouch a primary word; the absolute negative adverb; no or not.

enter
εἰσῆλθον (eisēlthon)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 1525: To go in, come in, enter. From eis and erchomai; to enter.

the
τὸ (to)
Article - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Praetorium
πραιτώριον (praitōrion)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 4232: Of Latin origin; the praetorium or governor's courtroom.

to
ἵνα (hina)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2443: In order that, so that. Probably from the same as the former part of heautou; in order that.

avoid
μὴ (mē)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3361: Not, lest. A primary particle of qualified negation; not, lest; also (whereas ou expects an affirmative one) whether.

being defiled
μιανθῶσιν (mianthōsin)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Passive - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 3392: To stain, pollute, defile, corrupt. Perhaps a primary verb; to sully or taint, i.e. Contaminate.

[and unable]
ἀλλὰ (alla)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 235: But, except, however. Neuter plural of allos; properly, other things, i.e. contrariwise.

to eat
φάγωσιν (phagōsin)
Verb - Aorist Subjunctive Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 5315: A primary verb; to eat.

the
τὸ (to)
Article - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Passover.
πάσχα (pascha)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3957: The feast of Passover, the Passover lamb. Of Chaldee origin; the Passover.
(28) On the accusation before Pilate (John 18:28-38), comp. Notes on the parallels in Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2-5.

The hall of judgment.--Literally, the Pr?torium. Comp. Note on Matthew 27:27. It is interesting to observe the various renderings which our translators have given for this one word. Here, "hall of judgment," or "Pilate's house," and "judgment-hall;" John 18:33, "hall of judgment" without the marginal alternative; John 19:9, "judgment-hall;" in Matthew 27:27, "common-hall," or "governor's house;" in Mark 15:16, "praetorium" (the original word Anglicised); in Acts 23:35, "judgment-hall;" in Philippians 1:13, "palace," this being perhaps the only passage where "palace" does not give the right meaning. (Comp. Note there.)

And it was early.--The Greek word occurs in the division of the night in Mark 13:35 ("even," "midnight," "cock-crowing," "morning") for the time between cock-crowing and sunrise, as we should say roughly, from three to six o'clock; but comp. Matthew 27:1, and Luke 22:66. We must remember that Pilate must have sent the band (John 18:3), and was therefore expecting its return.

And they themselves went not into the judgment hall.--They sent Jesus in under guard of the Roman band, while they remained outside.

But that they might eat the passover.--Comp. Excursus F: The Day of the Crucifixion of our Lord.

Verse 28 - John 19:16. -

(3) The Roman trial, presupposing the decision of the Sanhedrin. Verses 28-32. - (a) [Without the Praetorium.] Pilate extorts the malign intention of the Jews, and dares them to disobey Roman law. Verse 28. - Then they lead Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the Praetorium - to the imperial palace of the Roman governor. The word is used primarily for the general's tent in the Roman camps, and for the legal residence of the chief of a province. Now, the ordinary residence of the Roman governors was at Caesarea, but at the time of the great feasts they were in the habit of going up to Jerusalem, and at a later time than this (Josephus, 'Bell. Jud.,' 2:14. 8; 15:5) the governors utilized for this purpose the former palace of Herod, a gorgeous residence in the upper city. It is, however, more probable that Pilate occupied the palace of the Castle of Antonia, overlooking the northwest corner of the temple area, and having means of direct communication with it. Edersheim inclines to the palace of Herod. From the high-priestly palace to the castle they led Jesus. And it was early. [In Matthew 14:25 and Mark 13:35 πρωῖ´ is equivalent to the fourth watch of the night, between three and six o'clock. The breadth of the phrase would cover the period of the hurried council (see Matthew 27; Mark 15.) and the session of Pilate. The Roman judgments were often conducted in early morning (Seneca, 'De Ira,' 2:7) - prima luce.] The council having in their indecent haste conveyed Jesus to the Praetorium, while (and) they themselves went not into the Praetorium, lest they should be defiled (μιαίνω, the solemn word for "profane" in Plato, Sophocles, and the LXX.). This defilement by entrance into the house of a Gentile was not an enactment of the Law, but was a purely rabbinic observance (Delitzsch, 'Talmudische Studien,' 14. (1874); 'Zeitschrift fur die gesammte Luth. Theol.'). We find it operative in Acts 10:28, and thus a hint given not merely of the author's knowledge of the inner life of Judaism, but of his quiet recognition of the stupendous spectacle of malicious ritualism, and of unscrupulous antagonism to the Holiest One, busying itself about attention to the letter of that which was only a rabbinic legislation. But might eat the Passover. Here in this passage we come once more face to face with the persistent puzzle occasioned by the divergent intimations of John and the synoptists as to the day of our Lord's death. In Matthew 26:17 and Mark 14:12-14 this very phrase is used for the preparation of that Paschal supper which our Lord celebrated with his disciples (see Introduction, pp. 93, etc.). So that we have at any rate a discordant verbal usage, however the problem be solved. The day is breaking, which constitutes, according to John (prima facie), the 14th of Nisan, in the evening of which and commencement of the 15th the Passover would be killed. According to the synoptists, that Passover meal was already over, and the first great day of the feast had commenced - the day of convocation, with sabbatic functions and duties. The statements are apparently in hopeless variance. Many emphasize, exaggerate, and declare insoluble the contradiction, repudiating either the authority of John or that of the synoptists. Meyer and Lucke give their verdict with John, the eye-witness, as against the synoptic tradition. Strauss and Keim, who also hold the invincible discrepancy, lift the synoptic account to a comparatively high state of historic validity, and thereby discredit the authenticity of the Fourth Gospel. We have two methods of reconciling the difficulty:

(1) An endeavor to show that the synoptic narrative itself is inconsistent with the idea that the night of the Passion was the night of the general Passover.

(a) That the entire proceeding of the trial was inconsistent with the feast-day;

(b) that Simon the Cyrenian could not bear the cross on that day;

(c) the circumstance that that Friday evening was the preparation of the Passover; and

(d) that the reckonings of the weeks till the Pentecost Sunday are all made to show that the synoptic narrative itself admits that the Crucifixion took place before the Passover meal. So also does the decision of the priests, that they would put Jesus to death μὴ ἐν τῆ ἑορτῆ (Matthew 26:5; Mark 14:2). On this understanding the passage before us is interpreted in its natural sense; the Jews were unwilling to contract ceremonial defilement, because they were about to eat the Passover, and so with respect to the other references in John's Gospel, which all, prima facto, suggest the same chronological arrangement.

(2) A very powerful argument has been constructed, however, which brings John's account here, as well as elsewhere, into harmony with the supposed assertion of a synoptic narrative, that the Paschal meal preceded the trial of Jesus. It is said by Hengstenberg, M'Clellan, Edersheim, and others that this unwillingness to defile themselves was because they were anticipating their midday meal, at which sacrificial offerings and thank offerings, also called chagigah, were regarded as "eating the Passover" (Deuteronomy 16:2, 3; 2 Chronicles 30:22; 2 Chronicles 35:7-9). It is argued that, if the Jews were thinking of a meal which would not come off till sundown, their fear of defilement was illusory. But examination of these passages shows that there is a distinction drawn between the Paschal lamb and the cattle which might form part of the general sacrificial feasting of the following days, and that the term "Passover" is strictly limited to the Paschal lamb. Moreover, the duration of the defilement thus contracted would certainly have prevented them from any participation in the slaying of the Paschal lamb "between the evenings" of the 14th and 15th of Nisan. Dr. Moulton has made the ingenious suggestion that John's statement here is brought into harmony with the synoptic narrative, by the supposition that the chief priests had been disturbed in their Passover preparations, and were intending to complete their meal as soon as the decision of the Roman governor had been given. This very supposition reveals the exceeding unlikelihood that all the hierarchs and chief scribes, Pharisees, and elders of the people had consented to forego the due solemnization of their national rite on that previous evening. This supposition involves a much greater violation of Passover regulation than that Jesus and the twelve should have anticipated the ceremony by a few hours. If the day is the 14th of Nisan, all, so far as John's account is concerned, is obvious. I am therefore disposed to agree with Meyer, Keim, De Pressense, Baur, Neander, De Wette, Ebrard, Ewald, Westcott, Godet, and Lucke, against Hengstenberg, Wieseler, Tholuck, Luthardt, M'Clellan, and many others. The full interpretation of the synoptic narrative is discussed elsewhere (Introduction, p. 92.). Certainly John makes no reference to the Passover in his account of the Last Supper, neither does he refer to the institution of the Lord's Supper. It will not be just to say, with Renan, that John has substituted the foot-washing for the sacramental least. (On the principle of his omissions, see Introduction, pp. 100-105.) 18:28-32 It was unjust to put one to death who had done so much good, therefore the Jews were willing to save themselves from reproach. Many fear the scandal of an ill thing, more than the sin of it. Christ had said he should be delivered to the Gentiles, and they should put him to death; hereby that saying was fulfilled. He had said that he should be crucified, lifted up. If the Jews had judged him by their law, he had been stoned; crucifying never was used among the Jews. It is determined concerning us, though not discovered to us, what death we shall die: this should free us from disquiet about that matter. Lord, what, when, and how, thou hast appointed.
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NT Gospels: John 18:28 They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into (Jhn Jo Jn) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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