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Smith's Bible DictionaryHouse
The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria, Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings. (Amos 5:11) The houses are usually of one story only, viz., the ground floor, and often contain only one apartment. Sometimes a small court for the cattle is attached; and in some cases the cattle are housed in the same building, or the live in a raised platform, and, the cattle round them on the ground. (1 Samuel 28:24) The windows are small apertures high up in the walls, sometimes grated with wood. The roofs are commonly but not always flat, and are usually formed of plaster of mud and straw laid upon boughs or rafters; and upon the flat roofs, tents or "booths" of boughs or rushes are often raised to be used as sleeping-places in summer. The difference between the poorest houses and those of the class next above them is greater than between these and the houses of the first rank. The prevailing plan of eastern houses of this class presents, as was the case in ancient Egypt, a front of wall, whose blank and mean appearance is usually relieved only by the door and a few latticed and projecting windows. Within this is a court or courts with apartments opening into them. Over the door is a projecting window with a lattice more or less elaborately wrought, which, except in times of public celebrations is usually closed. (2 Kings 9:30) An awning is sometimes drawn over the court, and the floor is strewed with carpets on festive occasions. The stairs to the upper apartments are in Syria usually in a corner of the court. Around part, if not the whole, of the court is a veranda, often nine or ten feet deep, over which, when there is more than one floor, runs a second gallery of like depth, with a balustrade. When there is no second floor, but more than one court, the women's apartments --hareems, harem or haram --are usually in the second court; otherwise they form a separate building within the general enclosure, or are above on the first floor. When there is an upper story, the kaah forms the most important apartment, and thus probably answers to the "upper room," which was often the guest-chamber. (Luke 22:12; Acts 1:13; 9:37; 20:8) The windows of the upper rooms often project one or two feet, and form a kiosk or latticed chamber. Such may have been "the chamber in the wall." (2 Kings 4:10,11) The "lattice," through which Ahasiah fell, perhaps belonged to an upper chamber of this kind, (2 Kings 1:2) as also the "third loft," from which Eutychus fell. (Acts 20:9) comp. Jere 22:13 Paul preached in such a room on account of its superior rise and retired position. The outer circle in an audience in such a room sat upon a dais, or upon cushions elevated so as to be as high as the window-sill. From such a position Eutychus could easily fall. There are usually no special bed-rooms in eastern houses. The outer doors are closed with a wooden lock, but in some cases the apartments are divided from each other by curtains only. There are no chimneys, but fire is made when required with charcoal in a chafing-dish; or a fire of wood might be made in the open court of the house (Luke 22:65) Some houses in Cairo have an apartment open in front to the court with two or more arches and a railing, and a pillar to support the wall above. It was in a chamber of this size to be found in a palace, that our Lord was being arraigned before the high priest at the time when the denial of him by St. Peter took place. He "turned and looked" on Peter as he stood by the fire in the court, (Luke 22:56,61; John 18:24) whilst he himself was in the "hall of judgment." In no point do Oriental domestic habits differ more from European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface is made useful for various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and preparing figs and raisins. The roofs are used as places of recreation in the evening, and often as sleeping-places at night. (1 Samuel 9:25,26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9; Daniel 4:29) They were also used as places for devotion and even idolatrous worship. (2 Kings 23:12; Jeremiah 19:13; 32:29; Zephaniah 1:6; Acts 10:9) At the time of the feast of tabernacles booths were erected by the Jews on the top of their houses. Protection of the roof by parapets was enjoined by the law. (22:8) Special apartments were devoted in larger houses to winter and summer uses. (Jeremiah 36:22; Amos 3:15) The ivory house of Ahab was probably a palace largely ornamented with inlaid ivory. The circumstance of Samson's pulling down the house by means of the pillars may be explained by the fact of the company being assembled on tiers of balconies above each other, supported by central pillars on the basement; when these were pulled down the whole of the upper floors would fall also. (Judges 16:26)
ATS Bible DictionaryHouse
Is often put for dwelling, residence; and hence the temple, and even the tabernacle, are called the house of God.
The universal mode of building houses in the East, is in the form of a hollow square, with an open court or yard in the center; which is thus entirely shut in by the walls of the house around it. Into this court all the windows open, there being usually no windows towards the street. Some houses of large size require several courts, and these usually communicate with each other. These courts are commonly paved; and in many large houses parts of them are planted with shrubs and trees, Psalm 84:3 128:3; they have also, when possible, a fountain in them, often with a jet d- eau, 2 Samuel 17:18. It is customary in many houses to extend an awning over the whole court in hot weather; and the people of the house then spend much of the day in the open air, and indeed often receive visits there. In Aleppo, at least, there is often on the south side of the court an alcove in the wall of the house, furnished with divans or sofas, for reclining and enjoying the fresh air in the hot seasons.
In the middle of the front of each house is usually an arched passage, leading into the court-not directly, lest the court should be exposed to view from the street, but by turning to one side. The outer door of this passage was, in large houses, guarded by a porter, Acts 12:13. The entrance into the house is either from this passage or from the court itself.
The following extracts from Dr. Shaw will interest the reader, and at the same time serve to illustrate many passages of Scripture. He remarks, "the general method of building, both in Barbary and the Levant, seems to have continued the same from the earliest ages, without the least alteration or improvement. Large doors, spacious chambers, marble pavements, cloistered courts, with fountains sometimes playing in the midst, are certainly conveniences very well adapted to the circumstances of these climates, where the summer heats are generally so intense. The jealously likewise of these people is less apt to be alarmed, while all the windows open into their respective courts, if we except a latticed window or balcony which sometimes looks into the streets", 2 Kings 9:30.
"The streets of eastern cities, the better to shade them from the sun, are usually narrow, with sometimes a range of shops on each side. If from these we enter into one of the principal houses, we shall first pass through a porch or gateway with benches on each side, there the master of the family receives visits and dispatches business; few persons, not even the nearest relations, having a further admission, except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are received into the court, or quadrangle, which, lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or such materials as will immediately carry off the water into the common sewers. When many people are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of marriage, the circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like nature, the company is rarely or never received into one of the chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which is strewed accordingly with mats and carpets for their more commodious entertainment. Hence it is probable that the place where our Savior and the apostles were frequently accustomed to give their instructions, was in the area, or quadrangle, of one of this kind of houses. In the summer season, and upon all occasions when a large company is to be received, this court is commonly sheltered from the heat or inclemency of the weather by a veil or awning, which, being expanded upon ropes from one side of the parapet wall to the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The psalmist seems to allude either to the tents of the Bedaween, or to some covering of this kind, in that beautiful expression, of spreading out the heavens like a curtain, Psalm 140:2. The court is for the most part surrounded with a cloister or colonnade; over which, when the house has two or three stories, there is a gallery erected, of the same dimensions with the cloister, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed work going round about it to prevent people from falling from it into the court. From the cloister and galleries we are conducted into large spacious chambers, of the same length with the court, but seldom or never communicating with one another. One of them frequently serves a whole family; particularly when a father indulges his married children to live with him; or when several person join in the rent of the same house. From whence it is, that the cities of these countries, which in general are much inferior in bigness to those of Europe, yet are so exceedingly populous, that great numbers op people are always swept away by the plague, or any other contagious distemper."
The chambers of the rich were often hung with velvet or damask tapestry, Esther 1:6; the upper part adorned with fretwork and stucco; and the ceilings with wainscot or mosaic work or fragrant wood, sometimes richly painted, Jeremiah 22:14. The floors were of wood or of painted tiles, or marbles; and were usually spread with carpets. Around the walls were mattresses or low sofas, instead of chairs. The beds were often at one end of the chamber, on a gallery several feet above the floor, with steps and a low balustrade,
"The top of the house," says Dr. Shaw, "which is always flat, is covered with a strong plaster of terrace; from whence, in the Frank language, it has attained the name of the terrace. It is usually surrounded by two walls; the outermost whereof is partly built over the street, partly makes the partition with the contiguous houses, being frequently so low that one may easily climb over it. The other, which I call the parapet wall, hangs immediately over the court, being always breast high; we render it the ?battlements,- De 22:8. Instead of this parapet wall, some terraces are guarded in the same manner the galleries are, with balustrades only, or latticed work; in which fashion probably, as the name seems to import, was the net, or ?lattice,- as we render it, that Ahaziah, 2 Kings 1:2, might be carelessly leaning over, when he fell down from thence into the court. For upon these terraces several office of the family, are performed; such as the drying of linen and flax, Joshua 2:6, the preparing of figs and raisins; here likewise they enjoy the cool, refreshing breezes of the evening; converse with one another, 1 Samuel 9:25 2 Samuel 11:2; and offer up their devotions, 2 Kings 23:12 Jeremiah 19:13 Acts 10:9. In the feast of Tabernacles booths were erected upon them, Nehemiah 8:16. When one of these cities is built upon level ground, we can pass from one end of it to the other, along the tops of the houses, without coming down into the street."
"Such, in general, is the manner and contrivance of the eastern houses. And if it may be presumed that our Savior, at the healing of the paralytic, was preaching in a house of this fashion, we preaching in a house of this fashion, we may, by attending only to the structure of it, give no small light to one circumstance of that history, which has given great offence to some unbelievers. Among other pretended difficulties and absurdities relating to this fact, it has been urged that the uncovering or breaking up on the roof, Mark 2:4, or the letting a person down through it, Luke 5:19, suppose that the crowd being so great around Jesus in the court below, that those who brought the sick man could not come near him, they went upon the flat roof, and removing a part of the awning, let the sick man down in his mattress over the parapet, quite at the feet of Jesus."
Dr. Shaw proceeds to describe a sort of addition to many oriental houses, which corresponds probably to the upper chambers often mentioned time the Bible. He says, "To most of these houses there is a smaller one annexed, which sometimes rises one story higher than the house; at other times it consists of one or two rooms only and a terrace; while others that are built, as they frequently are, over the porch or gateway, have (if have not) all the conveniences that belong to the house, properly so called. There is a door of communication from them into the gallery of the house, kept open or shut at the discretion of the master of the family; besides another door, which opens immediately from a privy stairs down into the porch, without giving the least disturbance to the house. These smaller houses are known by the name alee, or oleah, and in them strangers are usually lodged and entertained; and thither likewise the men are wont to retire, from the hurry and noise of their families, to be more at leisure for meditation or devotion, Matthew 6:6; besides the use they are at other times put to, in serving for wardrobes and magazines."
This then, or something like this, we may suppose to have been the ali-yah or upper chamber of the Hebrews. Such was the "little chamber upon the wall," which the Shunammite had built for Elisha, 2 Kings 4:10; the "summer parlor" of Eglon, Jud 3:20; and the "chamber over the gate," where David retired to weep, 2 Samuel 18:33; and perhaps in the New Testament the "upper chamber" where Tabitha was laid out, Acts 9:37, and whence Eutychus fell from the window of the third loft into the court, Acts 20:9.
The flat roof of oriental houses often afford a place of retirement and meditation; here Samuel communed with Saul, 1 Samuel 9:25; and from /1Sa 9:26, they would seem also to have slept there, as is still common in the East, 2 Samuel 11:2 Daniel 4:30. Mr. Wood says, "It has ever been a custom with them," the Arabs in the East, "equally connected with health and pleasure, to pass the nights in summer upon the house-tops, which for this very purpose are made flat, and divided from each other by walls. We found this way of sleeping extremely agreeable; as we thereby enjoyed the cool air, above the reach of gnats and vapors, without any other covering than the canopy of heaven, which unavoidably presents itself in different pleasing forms, upon every interruption of rest, when silence and solitude strongly dispose the mid to contemplation, Acts 10:9. The roof of an ancient house was the best and often the only place, from which to get a view of the region around; hence the resort to it in times of peril, Isaiah 15:3 22:1. In many cases roofs were coated with hardened earth, through which, when cracked or soaked through by rain, the water dripped, Proverbs 27:15; and in which, when neglected, the grass grows in spring, but soon withers after the rains have ceased, Psalm 129:6,7 Isaiah 37:27."
The common material for building the best oriental houses is stone. Brick is also used. But the houses of the people in the East in general are very bad constructions, consisting of mud walls, reeds, and rushes; whence they become apt illustrations of the fragility of human life, Job 4:19; and as mud, pebbles, and slime, or at best unburnt bricks are used informing the walls, the expression, "digging through houses," Job 24:16 Matthew 6:19 24:14, is easily accounted for; as is the behavior of Ezekiel, Ezekiel 12:5, who dug through such a wall in the sight of the people; whereby, as may be imagined, he did little injury to his house; notwithstanding which, the symbol was very expressive to the beholders. So also the striking illustration in Ezekiel 13:10-16. On the sites of many ancient cities of Syria and Babylonia only the ruins of public edifices disappeared ages ago. Travellers near the Ganges and the Nile speak of multitudes of huts on the sandy banks of those rivers being swept away in a night by sudden freshets, leaving not a trace behind. This may illustrate our Savior's parable, in Matthew 7:24-27. See TENT.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaASUPPIM; HOUSE OF ASUPPIM
a-sup'-im, (beth ha-'acuppim):
EDEN, HOUSE OF
The marginal explanation in the Revised Version (British and American) of Beth-merhak (beth ha-merchaq, "house of distance"), which is given in the text of 2 Samuel 15:17 instead of "a place that was far off."
FATHER'S HOUSE, FATHERS' HOUSE
(beth 'abh, beth 'abhoth): Father's house in the Old Testament is
hous (bayith; oikos, in classical Greek generally "an estate," oikia, oikema (literally, "habitation"), in Acts 12:1, "prison"):
HOUSE OF GOD
In Genesis 28:17, 22 = BETHEL (which see). In Judges, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Psalms, etc. (beth ha-'elohim), a designation of the sanctuary = "house of Yahweh" (of the tabernacle, Judges 18:31; Judges 20:18, 26 the King James Version; of the temple, 1 Chronicles 9:11; 1 Chronicles 24:5 the King James Version; 2 Chronicles 5:14 Psalm 42:4 Isaiah 2:3, etc.; of the 2nd temple, Ezra 5:8, 15 Nehemiah 6:10; Nehemiah 13:11; compare Matthew 12:4). Spiritually, in the New Testament, the "house of God" (oikos theou) is the church or community of believers (1 Timothy 3:15 Hebrews 10:21 1 Peter 4:17; compare 1 Corinthians 3:9, 16, 17 1 Peter 2:5).
sher'-ing (beth `eqedh ha-ro`im, "house of binding of the shepherds"; Codex Vaticanus Baithakath (Codex Alexandrinus Baithakad) ton poimenon): Here in the course of his extinction of the house of Ahab, Jehu met and destroyed 42 men, "the brethren of Ahaziah king of Judah" (2 Kings 10:12-14). Eusebius (in Onomasticon) takes the phrase as a proper name, Bethacath, and locates the village 15 miles from Legio in the plain. This seems to point to identification with Beit Kad, about 3 miles East of Jenin.
(oikos pneumatikos, "house spiritual"): A body of Christians (a church), as pervaded by the Spirit and power of God (1 Peter 2:5); a term applicable to God's house: "house of prayer," the temple (Matthew 21:13); to heaven: "my Father's house" (John 14:2); to the tabernacle: "Moses.... faithful in all his house" (Hebrews 3:2); to saints: as "the household of God" (Ephesians 2:19), and "the temple of the Holy Spirit" (1 Corinthians 6:19); hence, any "habitation of God in the spirit" (Ephesians 2:22) in which His glory dwells and His power and grace are manifest.
See FATHER'S HOUSE.
Easton's Bible DictionaryTill their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Genesis 47:3; Exodus 12:7; Hebrews 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone (1 Kings 7:9; Isaiah 9:10) and marble (1 Chronicles 29:2) used in building, and to the internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 7:2; 10:11, 12; 2 Chronicles 3:5; Jeremiah 22:14). "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra 6:4; Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4). "Ivory houses" had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory (1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chronicles 3:6; Psalm 45:8).
The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to in Scripture (2 Samuel 11:2; Isaiah 22:1; Matthew 24:17). Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them (2 Samuel 16:22). They were protected by parapets or low walls (Deuteronomy 22:8). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Proverbs 19:13; 27:15; Psalm 129:6, 7). They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1 Samuel 9:25, 26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 16:22; Dan. 4:29; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9), and as places of devotion (Jeremiah 32:29; 19:13).
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) A structure intended or used as a habitation or shelter for animals of any kind; but especially, a building or edifice for the habitation of man; a dwelling place, a mansion.
2. (n.) Household affairs; domestic concerns; particularly in the phrase to keep house. See below.
3. (n.) Those who dwell in the same house; a household.
4. (n.) A family of ancestors, descendants, and kindred; a race of persons from the same stock; a tribe; especially, a noble family or an illustrious race; as, the house of Austria; the house of Hanover; the house of Israel.
5. (n.) One of the estates of a kingdom or other government assembled in parliament or legislature; a body of men united in a legislative capacity; as, the House of Lords; the House of Commons; the House of Representatives; also, a quorum of such a body. See Congress, and Parliament.
6. (n.) A firm, or commercial establishment.
7. (n.) A public house; an inn; a hotel.
8. (n.) A twelfth part of the heavens, as divided by six circles intersecting at the north and south points of the horizon, used by astrologers in noting the positions of the heavenly bodies, and casting horoscopes or nativities. The houses were regarded as fixed in respect to the horizon, and numbered from the one at the eastern horizon, called the ascendant, first house, or house of life, downward, or in the direction of the earth's revolution, the stars and planets passing through them in the reverse order every twenty-four hours.
9. (n.) A square on a chessboard, regarded as the proper place of a piece.
10. (n.) An audience; an assembly of hearers, as at a lecture, a theater, etc.; as, a thin or a full house.
11. (n.) The body, as the habitation of the soul.
12. (n.) The grave.
13. (v. t.) To take or put into a house; to shelter under a roof; to cover from the inclemencies of the weather; to protect by covering; as, to house one's family in a comfortable home; to house farming utensils; to house cattle.
14. (v. t.) To drive to a shelter.
15. (v. t.) To admit to residence; to harbor.
16. (v. t.) To deposit and cover, as in the grave.
17. (v. t.) To stow in a safe place; to take down and make safe; as, to house the upper spars.
18. (v. i.) To take shelter or lodging; to abide to dwell; to lodge.
Greek3617. oikodespotes -- the master of a house
... the master of a house. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: oikodespotes
Phonetic Spelling: (oy-kod-es-pot'-ace) Short Definition: a head of a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3617.htm - 6k
3614. oikia -- a house, dwelling
3410. misthoma -- rent, a rented house
1430. doma -- a house, a housetop
3624. oikos -- a house, a dwelling
3618. oikodomeo -- to build a house
963. Bethania -- "house of affliction" or "house of dates ...
966. Bethsaida -- "house of fish," Bethsaida, the name of two ...
967. Bethphage -- "house of unripe figs," Bethphage, a village on ...
965. Bethleem -- "house of bread," Bethlehem, a city near Jer.
Strong's Hebrew1004. bayith -- a house
... << 1003b, 1004. bayith. 1005 >>. a house. Transliteration: bayith Phonetic Spelling:
(bah'-yith) Short Definition: house. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/1004.htm - 7k
1005. bayith -- a house
1037. Beth Millo -- "house of earthwork," a place near Shechem ...
1044. Beth-eqed -- "house of binding," a place in Palestine
1036. Beth Leaphrah -- "house to dust," a place in Palestine
1010. Beth Baal Meon -- "house of Baal of (the) habitation," a ...
1045. beth Ashtaroth -- house of Ashtaroth
4999. naah -- habitation, house, pasture, pleasant place
1047. Beth Peor -- "house of Peor," a place East of the Jordan
1041. Beth-azmaveth -- "house of Azmaveth," a place near Jer.
The Parable of the Tares: the House of Jesus.
Prayer and the House of God
The House Built Upon the Sand.
The House of Many Mansions.
The Old House and the New
The House of Zacharias.
The House of God.
At the House of Martha --The Good Shepherd.
At the Governor's House
ThesaurusBanquet-house (1 Occurrence)
Banquet-house. << Banquet, Banquet-house. Banqueting >>. Multi-Version
Concordance Banquet-house (1 Occurrence). Daniel 5 ...
/b/banquet-house.htm - 6k
Treasure-house (6 Occurrences)
Banqueting-house (1 Occurrence)
Store-house (23 Occurrences)
Prison-house (29 Occurrences)
Tower-house (6 Occurrences)
Round-house (6 Occurrences)
Summer-house (4 Occurrences)
Winter-house (2 Occurrences)
Royal-house (1 Occurrence)
Bible ConcordanceHouse (20110 Occurrences)
House occurs 20110 times in 12 translations.
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