Zephaniah 1:5
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
those who bow down on the roofs to worship the starry host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD and who also swear by Molek,

New Living Translation
For they go up to their roofs and bow down to the sun, moon, and stars. They claim to follow the LORD, but then they worship Molech, too.

English Standard Version
those who bow down on the roofs to the host of the heavens, those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

New American Standard Bible
"And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

King James Bible
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

Holman Christian Standard Bible
those who bow in worship on the rooftops to the heavenly host; those who bow and pledge loyalty to the LORD but also pledge loyalty to Milcom;

International Standard Version
I'll wipe out those who worship the stars that they view from their housetops, those who bow down and swear to the LORD and who also swear by Milcom,

NET Bible
I will remove those who worship the stars in the sky from their rooftops, those who swear allegiance to the LORD while taking oaths in the name of their 'king,'

New Heart English Bible
those who worship the host of heaven on the housetops, those who worship and swear by the LORD and also swear by Malcam,

GOD'S WORD® Translation
I will remove those who worship all the stars in the sky on their rooftops and those who worship by swearing loyalty to the LORD while also swearing loyalty to the god Milcom.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;

New American Standard 1977
“And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven,
            And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,

Jubilee Bible 2000
and those that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops and those that worship swearing by the LORD and by their king

King James 2000 Bible
And those that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and those that worship and that swear by the LORD, and yet swear by Milcom;

American King James Version
And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

American Standard Version
and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship, that swear to Jehovah and swear by Malcam;

Douay-Rheims Bible
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the tops of houses, and them that adore, and swear by the Lord, and swear by Melchom.

Darby Bible Translation
and them that bow down to the host of the heavens upon the housetops; and them that bow down to Jehovah, that swear by [him], and swear by Malcham;

English Revised Version
and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship, which swear to the LORD and swear by Malcam;

Webster's Bible Translation
And them that worship the host of heaven upon the house-tops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

World English Bible
those who worship the army of the sky on the housetops, those who worship and swear by Yahweh and also swear by Malcam,

Young's Literal Translation
And those bowing themselves On the roofs to the host of the heavens, And those bowing themselves, Swearing to Jehovah, and swearing by Malcham,
Study Bible
Zephaniah Prophesies Judgment on Judah
4"So I will stretch out My hand against Judah And against all the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And I will cut off the remnant of Baal from this place, And the names of the idolatrous priests along with the priests. 5"And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom, 6And those who have turned back from following the LORD, And those who have not sought the LORD or inquired of Him."…
Cross References
Acts 10:9
The next day at about the sixth hour, as the men were approaching the city on their journey, Peter went up on the roof to pray.

1 Kings 11:5
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and after Milcom the detestable idol of the Ammonites.

1 Kings 11:33
because they have forsaken Me, and have worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the sons of Ammon; and they have not walked in My ways, doing what is right in My sight and observing My statutes and My ordinances, as his father David did.

2 Kings 17:32
They also feared the LORD and appointed from among themselves priests of the high places, who acted for them in the houses of the high places.

2 Kings 17:41
So while these nations feared the LORD, they also served their idols; their children likewise and their grandchildren, as their fathers did, so they do to this day.

2 Kings 23:12
The altars which were on the roof, the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, the king broke down; and he smashed them there and threw their dust into the brook Kidron.

Jeremiah 5:2
"And although they say, 'As the LORD lives,' Surely they swear falsely."

Jeremiah 5:7
"Why should I pardon you? Your sons have forsaken Me And sworn by those who are not gods. When I had fed them to the full, They committed adultery And trooped to the harlot's house.

Jeremiah 7:9
"Will you steal, murder, and commit adultery and swear falsely, and offer sacrifices to Baal and walk after other gods that you have not known,

Jeremiah 7:10
then come and stand before Me in this house, which is called by My name, and say, 'We are delivered!'-- that you may do all these abominations?
Treasury of Scripture

And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

worship. See on

2 Kings 23:12 And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, …

Jeremiah 19:13 And the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, …

Jeremiah 32:29 And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set …

and them.

1 Kings 18:21 And Elijah came to all the people, and said, How long halt you between …

2 Kings 17:33,41 They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner …

Matthew 6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and …

and that.

Deuteronomy 10:20 You shall fear the LORD your God; him shall you serve, and to him …

Isaiah 48:1 Hear you this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of …

Jeremiah 4:2 And you shall swear, The LORD lives, in truth, in judgment, and in …

Hosea 4:15 Though you, Israel, play the harlot, yet let not Judah offend; and …

by the Lord. or, to the Lord.

Isaiah 44:5 One shall say, I am the LORD's; and another shall call himself by …

Isaiah 45:23 I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, …

Romans 14:11 For it is written, As I live, said the Lord, every knee shall bow …

swear by.

Joshua 23:7 That you come not among these nations, these that remain among you; …

Malcham.

1 Kings 11:33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth …

Milcom.

Amos 5:26 But you have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, …

Moloch.

Verse 5. - I will also stretch out mine hand. This expression is used when God is about to do great things or inflict notable punishment (see Exodus 3:20; Exodus 15:12; Deuteronomy 4:34; Isaiah 5:25; Jeremiah 51:25, etc.). Judah. In so far as Judah was rebellious and wicked, it should incur the judicial punishment. Judgment was to begin at the house of God (1 Peter 4:17), the sin of the chosen people being more heinous than that of heathens. Hence it is added, upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, because, having in their very midst the temple of God, with its services and priests, they ought especially to have abhorred idolatry and maintained the true faith. The remnant of Baal; i.e. the last vestige. One cannot argue from this expression that the reform was already carried so far that Baal worship had almost disappeared. The next verse shows that idolatry still flourished; but the term implies merely that God would exterminate it so entirely that no trace of it should remain. The LXX. has, "the names of Baal," τὰ ὀνόματα τῆς Βάαλ (Hosea 2:17). (For Josiah's reform of these iniquities, see 2 Kings 23:4, etc.) The name of the Chemarims (Chemarim). The word means "black-robed," and is applied to the idolatrous priests whom the kings had appointed to conduct worship in high places (2 Kings 23:5; Hosea 10:5). "The name," says Dr. Pussy, "is probably the Syriac name of 'priest,' used in Holy Scripture of idolatrous priests, because the Syrians were idolaters" Not only shall the persons of these priests be cut off, but their very name and memory shall vanish (Zechariah 13:2). With the priests (kohanim). Together with the legitimate priests who had corrupted the worship of Jehovah (Zephaniah 3:4; Jeremiah 2:8; Ezekiel 8:11). Verse 5. - That worship the host of heaven upon the house tops. In this verse two classes of fame worshippers are mentioned, viz. star worshippers, and waverers. The worship of the sun, moon, and stars was a very ancient form of error, the heavenly bodies being regarded as the representatives of the powers of nature and the originators of events on earth (see Deuteronomy 4:19; Deuteronomy 17:3; Job 31:26, 27; 2 Kings 17:16). It was especially prevalent in the time of Manasseh (2 Kings 21:3), On the flat roofs of the houses, which were used as places of meditation, recreation, or conference (comp. Joshua 2:6; 1 Samuel 9:25; 2 Samuel 11:2; Acts 10:9), they erected altars for family worship of the heavenly bodies. Here they both burned incense (Jeremiah 19:13) and offered animal sacrifices (2 Kings 23:12). "In Syrian cities," says Dr. Thomson, "the roofs are a great comfort. The ordinary houses have no other place where the inmates, can either see the sun, smell the air, dry their clothes, set out their flower pots, or do numberless other things essential to their health and comfort. During a large part of the year the roof is the most agreeable place about the establishment, especially in the morning and evening. There multitudes sleep during the summer" ('The Land and the Book,' p. 39). Them that worship and that, etc.; rather, the worshippers who, etc. These were people who endeavoured to blend the worship of God with that of Baal, or halted between two opinions (1 Kings 18:21). Swear by the Lord; rather, swear to the Lord; i.e. bind themselves by oath to him, and at the same time swear by Malcham; swear by their king, Baal, or Moloch; call upon him as god. Septuagint, κατὰ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτῶν, "by their king." But it is, perhaps, best to retain the name untranslated, in which ease it would be the appellation of the god Moloch, who could hardly be omitted in enumerating the objects of idolatrous worship (see Jeremiah 49:1, 3; and notes on Amos 1:15; 5:26). And upon them that worship the host of heaven upon the house tops,.... The sun, moon, and stars, which some worshipped upon their house tops; the roofs of their houses being flat, as the roofs of the houses of the Jews generally were; from hence they had a full view of the host of heaven, and worshipped them openly; and fancied, the nearer they were to them, the more acceptable was their service; see Jeremiah 19:13,

and them that worship, and that swear the Lord, and that swear by Malcham; that is, that worship the true God, or at least pretend to do so, and swear by him when they take an oath: or, "that swear to the Lord"; as the words (n) may be rendered; that swear allegiance to him, to be true and faithful to him, to serve and obey him, and to keep his statutes and ordinances; and yet they swear by Malcham also, or Milchom, or Melchom, the same with Molech, or Mo, the god of the Ammonites. These were such as partly worshipped God, and partly idols; they divided their religion and devotion between them, sometimes served the one, and sometimes the other; they halted between two opinions, and were a sort of occasional conformists; and such were as detestable to God as those that worshipped idols; as the Papists are, who pretend to worship God and their images, or God in them, and with them; and so all such persons that seek for justification and salvation, partly by their own works, and partly by Christ, are displeasing to the Lord, and miss of the thing; stumbling at the stumbling stone, and so fall and perish.

(n) "qui jurant Domino", Drusius; "qui jurant Jehovae", Cocceius; "jurantes Domino Jehovae", Burkius. 5. worship the host of heaven—Saba: whence, in contrast to Sabeanism, Jehovah is called Lord of Sabaoth.

upon the housetops—which were flat (2Ki 23:5, 6, 12; Jer 19:13; 32:29).

swear by the Lord—rather, "swear to Jehovah" (2Ch 15:14); solemnly dedicating themselves to Him (compare Isa 48:1; Ho 4:15).

and—"and yet (with strange inconsistency, 1Ki 18:21; Eze 20:39; Mt 6:24) swear by Malcham," that is, "their king" [Maurer]: the same as Molech (see on [1167]Am 5:25), and "Milcom the god of … Ammon" (1Ki 11:33). If Satan have half the heart, he will have all; if the Lord have but half offered to Him, He will have none.1:1-6 Ruin is coming, utter ruin; destruction from the Almighty. The servants of God all proclaim, There is no peace for the wicked. The expressions are figurative, speaking every where desolation; the land shall be left without inhabitants. The sinners to be consumed are, the professed idolaters, and those that worship Jehovah and idols, or swear to the Lord, and to Malcham. Those that think to divide their affections and worship between God and idols, will come short of acceptance with God; for what communion can there be between light and darkness? If Satan have half, he will have all; if the Lord have but half, he will have none. Neglect of God shows impiety and contempt. May none of us be among those who draw back unto perdition, but of those who believe to the saving of the soul.
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