1 Kings 11:5
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
He followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molek the detestable god of the Ammonites.

New Living Translation
Solomon worshiped Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molech, the detestable god of the Ammonites.

English Standard Version
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Berean Study Bible
Solomon followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and Molech the abomination of the Ammonites.

New American Standard Bible
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and after Milcom the detestable idol of the Ammonites.

King James Bible
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Christian Standard Bible
Solomon followed Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Sidonians, and Milcom, the abhorrent idol of the Ammonites.

Contemporary English Version
Solomon also worshiped Astarte the goddess of Sidon, and Milcom the disgusting god of Ammon.

Good News Translation
He worshiped Astarte, the goddess of Sidon, and Molech, the disgusting god of Ammon.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Solomon followed Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Sidonians, and Milcom, the detestable idol of the Ammonites.

International Standard Version
Solomon pursued Astarte, the Sidonian goddess, and Milcom, that detestable Ammonite idol.

NET Bible
Solomon worshiped the Sidonian goddess Astarte and the detestable Ammonite god Milcom.

New Heart English Bible
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Solomon followed Astarte (the goddess of the Sidonians) and Milcom (the disgusting idol of the Ammonites).

JPS Tanakh 1917
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites.

New American Standard 1977
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and after Milcom the detestable idol of the Ammonites.

Jubilee Bible 2000
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites.

King James 2000 Bible
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

American King James Version
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

American Standard Version
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But Solomon worshipped Astarthe the goddess of the Sidonians, and Moloch the idol of the ammonites.

Darby Bible Translation
And Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

English Revised Version
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Webster's Bible Translation
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

World English Bible
For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Young's Literal Translation
And Solomon goeth after Ashtoreth goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites;
Study Bible
Solomon's Foreign Wives
4For when Solomon grew old, his wives turned his heart after other gods, and he was not wholeheartedly devoted to the LORD his God, as his father David had been. 5Solomon followed Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and Molech the abomination of the Ammonites. 6So Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD—and unlike his father David, he did not follow the LORD completely.…
Cross References
Judges 2:13
for they forsook Him and served Baal and the Ashtoreths.

Judges 10:6
And again the Israelites did evil in the sight of the LORD. They served the Baals, the Ashtoreths, the gods of Aram, Sidon, and Moab, and the gods of the Ammonites and Philistines. Thus they forsook the LORD and did not serve Him.

1 Samuel 7:3
Then Samuel said to all the house of Israel, "If you are returning to the LORD with all your hearts, then rid yourselves of the foreign gods and Ashtoreths among you, prepare your hearts for the LORD, and serve Him only. And He will deliver you from the hand of the Philistines."

1 Samuel 7:4
So the Israelites put away the Baals and Ashtoreths and served only the LORD.

1 Kings 11:6
So Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD--and unlike his father David, he did not follow the LORD completely.

1 Kings 11:7
At that time on a hill east of Jerusalem, Solomon built a high place for Chemosh the abomination of Moab and for Molech the abomination of the Ammonites.

1 Kings 11:33
For they have forsaken Me to worship Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Molech the god of the Ammonites. They have not walked in My ways, nor done what is right in My eyes, nor kept My statutes and judgments, as Solomon's father David did.

2 Kings 23:13
The king also desecrated the high places east of Jerusalem, to the south of the Mount of Corruption, which King Solomon of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Molech the abomination of the Ammonites.

Isaiah 44:19
And no one considers in his heart, no one has the knowledge or insight to say, "I burned half of it in the fire, and I baked bread on its coals, I roasted meat and I ate. Shall I make something detestable with the rest of it? Shall I bow down to a block of wood?"

Zephaniah 1:5
those who bow on the rooftops to worship the heavenly host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD but also swear by Molech,

Treasury of Scripture

For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Ashtoreth

1 Kings 11:33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth …

Judges 2:13 And they forsook the LORD, and served Baal and Ashtaroth.

Judges 10:6 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, …

1 Samuel 7:3,4 And Samuel spoke to all the house of Israel, saying, If you do return …

1 Samuel 12:10 And they cried to the LORD, and said, We have sinned, because we …

2 Kings 23:13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the …

Jeremiah 2:10-13 For pass over the isles of Chittim, and see; and send to Kedar, and …

Milcom

1 Kings 11:7 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination …

Leviticus 18:21 And you shall not let any of your seed pass through the fire to Molech, …

Leviticus 20:2-5 Again, you shall say to the children of Israel, Whoever he be of …

Molech

Zephaniah 1:5 And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them …

Malcham







(5) Ashtoreth (or, Astarte).--The goddess of the Zidonians, and possibly the Hittites, corresponding to Baal, the great Tyrian god, and representing the receptive and productive, as Baal the active and originative, power in Nature. As usual in all phases of Natureworship, Ashtoreth is variously represented, sometimes by the moon, sometimes by the planet Venus (like the Assyrian Ishtar, which seems a form of the same name)--in either case regarded as "the queen of heaven." (See Jeremiah 44:17; Jeremiah 44:25). There seems, indeed, some reason to believe that the name itself is derived from a root which is found both in Syriac and Persian, and which became aster in the Greek and astrum in Latin, and has thence passed into modern European languages, signifying a "star," or luminary of heaven. With this agrees the ancient name, Ashteroth-Karnaim (or, "the horned Ashteroth")of a city in Bashan (Genesis 14:5; Deuteronomy 1:4; Joshua 13:12). This place is the first in which the name Ashtoreth is used in the singular number, and expressly limited to the "goddess of the Ziaonians." In the earlier history we hear not unfrequently of the worship of the "Ashtaroth," that is, of the "Ashtoreths," found with the like plural Baalim, as prevalent in Canaan, and adopted by Israel in evil times (see Judges 2:13; Judges 10:6; 1Samuel 7:3; 1Samuel 12:10; 1Samuel 31:10); and the worship of the Asherah (rendered "groves" in the Authorised version), may perhaps refer to emblems of Astarte. In these cases, however, it seems not unlikely that the phrase, "Baalim and Ashtaroth," may be used generally of the gods and goddesses of various kinds of idolatry. The worship of the Tyrian Ashtoreth, as might be supposed from the idea which she was supposed to represent, was one of chartered license and impurity.

Milcom, the abomination of the Ammonites.--The name Milcom (like the Malcham of Jeremiah 49:1; Jeremiah 49:3) is probably only a variety of the well-known Molech, which is actually used for it in 1Kings 11:7. The name "Molech" (though here connected expressly with the Ammonite idolatry) is a general title, signifying only "king" (as Baal signifies "lord"), and might be applied to the supreme god of any idolatrous system. Thus the worship of "Molech," with its horrible sacrifice of children "passing through the fire," is forbidden in Leviticus 18:21; Leviticus 20:2, evidently as prevailing among the Canaanite races (comp. Psalm 106:37-38). Again, we know historically that similar sacrifice of children, by the same horrible rite, was practised by the Carthaginians in times of great national calamity--the god being in that case identified with Saturn, the star of malign influence. By comparison of Jeremiah 7:31; Jeremiah 19:5-6, it is very evident that this human sacrifice to Molech is also called "a burnt-offering to Baal;" and if Molech was the "fire-god," and Baal the "sun-god," the two deities might easily be regarded as cognate, if not identical. It is notable that, in this place, while Ashtoreth is mentioned, there is no reference to any worship of the Ph?nician Baal as such; possibly the Ammonite Molech-worship may have occupied its place. In any case, as the worship of Ashtoreth was stained with impurity, so the Molech-worship was marked by the other foul pollution of the sacrifice of human blood.

Chemosh, the abomination of the Moabites.--The name Chemosh probably means "the Conqueror," or "Subjugator," and indicates a god of battles. He is again and again described as the god of the Moabites who are called "the people of Chemosh" (see Numbers 21:29; Jeremiah 48:7; Jeremiah 48:13; Jeremiah 48:46); and the Moabite Stone speaks of the slain in war as an offering to Chemosh, and even refers to a deity, "Ashtar-Chemosh," which looks like a conjunction of Chemosh, like Baal, with Ashtoreth. In Judges 11:24, Jephthah refers to Chemosh as the god of the Ammonite king, an expression which may indicate a temporary supremacy of Moab over Ammon at that time, through which the name "Chemosh" superseded the name "Milcom" as descriptive of the Supreme Power. In the history, moreover, of the Moabite war against Jehoram (2Kings 3:26-27) it seems that to Chemosh, as to Molech, human sacrifice was offered.

Probably, in actual practice the various worships of the Tyrians and Canaanites, the Ammonites and the Moabites might run into each other. Unlike the awful and exclusive reverence to the Lord Jehovah, the devotion of polytheistic systems readily welcomes strange gods into its Pantheon. Polytheism is also apt to pass into what has been called "Henotheism," in which, of many gods each is for the moment worshipped, as if he stood alone, and concentrated in himself the whole attributes of deity. The generality and similarity of meaning in the names, Baal ("lord"), Molech ("king"), and Chemosh ("conqueror"), seem to point in this direction. Still, these worships are described as taking, in Jerusalem, distinct forms and habitations, which continued till the days of Josiah (2Kings 23:13), no doubt disused and condemned in days of religious faithfulness, such as those of Jehoshapliat and Hezekiah, but revived, and associated with newer idolatries, in days of apostasy.

Verse 5. - For Solomon went after [Rawlinson observes that this expression, which is "common in the Pentateuch, always signifies actual idolatry." He cites Deuteronomy 11:28; Deuteronomy 13:2; Deuteronomy 28:14; but it should be considered that in the two passages last cited the words are added, "and served them." And the true explanation would seem to be that, though "it is not stated that Solomon himself offered sacrifice to these idols," yet "even the building of altars for idols was a participation in idolatry, which was irreconcilable with true fidelity to the Lord" (Keil). Bahr contends that the words "went after Ashtoreth," etc., no more involve personal service than the word "built" in ver. 7 involves personal labour; but both expressions show that he regarded these idolatries not only without disfavour, but with positive approval and practical encouragement. "It is not likely he could be so insensate as to adore such deities, but so far was the uxorious king blinded with affection, that he gave not passage only to the idolatry of his heathenish wives, but furtherance" (Bp. Hall). And the distinction, so far as the sin is concerned, between this and actual idolatry is a fine one. It is not implied, however, that Solomon ever discarded the worship of Jehovah. To the end of his reign he would seem to have offered his solemn sacrifices on the great altar thrice a year. But his heart was elsewhere (ver. 9).] Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians [עַשְׁתֹּרֶת , Ἀστάρτη, probably connected with ἀστήρ, stella, and star, by some identified with the planet Venus, by others with the moon, is here mentioned for the first time in the singular (Ashtaroth, plural, is found in Genesis 14:5; Judges 2:13; Judges 10:6; 1 Samuel 7:4; 1 Samuel 12:10, etc.) With Baal, she divided the worship of the Phoenicians, the antiquity of which is evident from Genesis 14:5; Numbers 22:41. It was really an impure cultus of the reproductive powers (see below on 1 Kings 14:23). Interesting proof of the existence of a temple of this goddess at Sidon is supplied by an inscription discovered there in 1855 (see Dict. Bib. 1:123) ], and after Milcom [In Jeremiah 49:13; Amos 1:15, "Malcam," i.e., their king. According to Gesenius, the same as Molech (i.e., the king) in ver. 7, though Ewald, Movers, Keil regard them as different deities. But it seems more probable that it was the same deity, worshipped (2 Kings 23:10, 13) under different attributes. This is "the first direct historical allusion" to his worship in the Old Testament. A warning against it is found Leviticus 20:2-5. He was the fire god, as Baal was the sun god, and the sacrifices offered to him were those of children, who would seem to have not only "passed through the fire," but to have been burnt therein. Psalm 106:37, 38; Jeremiah 7:31; Jeremiah 19:5; Ezekiel 23:39, etc. See Dict. Bib. 2:403] the abomination [i.e., the hateful, detestable idol] of the Ammonites. [It has been suggested (Speaker's Commentary on Leviticus 20:2) that the children offered to Molech were children of incest or adultery., and we are reminded that Ammon was the child of incest. It must he remembered, however, that we have no record of Jewish children passing through the fire to Molech before the time of Ahaz (Bahr, Keil).] And Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians,.... Enticed by the Zidonian women, or woman, he had, 1 Kings 11:1. According to the Phoenician histories (i), Solomon married a daughter of Hiram, king of Tyre and Zidon; so Clemens of Alexandria says (k), that Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon; Ashtoreth is Astarte, the same with the Venus of the Greeks, so Suidas (l); and Lucian (m) expressly says, the Sidonians had a temple, said by them to belong to Astarte, which he takes to be the moon; and both Venus and Juno signify the same planet; See Gill on Judges 2:13.

and after Milcom the abomination of the Amnonites; the same with Molech, 1 Kings 11:7. See Gill on Leviticus 18:21. See Gill on Amos 1:13. After this he was drawn by his Ammonitish wife, or wives, 1 Kings 11:1, though the Jewish writers think he did not worship these idols, but suffered his wives to do it, and connived at it, which was his sin; so Ben Gersom and Abarbinel.

(i) Apud Tatian. contr. Graecos, p. 171. (k) Stromat. l. 1. p. 325. (l) In voce (m) De Dea Syria. 5-7. Ashtoreth—Astarte,

Milcom—Molech,

and Chemosh—He built altars for these three; but, although he is described (1Ki 11:8) as doing the same for "all his strange wives," there is no evidence that they had idols distinct from these; and there is no trace whatever of Egyptian idolatry.11:1-8 There is not a more melancholy and astonishing instance of human depravity in the sacred Scriptures, than that here recorded. Solomon became a public worshipper of abominable idols! Probably he by degrees gave way to pride and luxury, and thus lost his relish for true wisdom. Nothing forms in itself a security against the deceitfulness and depravity of the human heart. Nor will old age cure the heart of any evil propensity. If our sinful passions are not crucified and mortified by the grace of God, they never will die of themselves, but will last even when opportunities to gratify them are taken away. Let him that thinks he stands, take heed lest he fall. We see how weak we are of ourselves, without the grace of God; let us therefore live in constant dependence on that grace. Let us watch and be sober: ours is a dangerous warfare, and in an enemy's country, while our worst foes are the traitors in our own hearts.



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