Scribes
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Scribes

(Heb.sopherim), I. Name . -- (1) Three meanings are connected with the verb saphar , the root of sopherim -- (a) to write, (b) to set in order, (c) to count. The explanation of the word has been referred to each of these. The sopherim were so called because they wrote out the law, or because they classified and arranged its precepts, or because they counted with scrupulous minuteness every elapse and letter It contained. (2) The name of Kirjath-sepher, (Joshua 15:15; Judges 1:12) may possibly connect itself with some early use of the title, and appears to point to military functions of some kind. (Judges 5:14) The men are mentioned as filling the office of scribe under David and Solomon. (2 Samuel 8:17; 20:25; 1 Kings 4:3) We may think of them as the king's secretaries, writing his letters, drawing up his decrees, managing his finances. Comp (2 Kings 12:10) In Hezekiah's time transcribed old records, and became a class of students and interpreters of the law, boasting of their wisdom. (Jeremiah 8:8) After the captivity the office became more prominent, as the exiles would be anxious above all things to preserve the sacred books, the laws, the hymns, the prophecies of the past. II. Development of doctrine . --Of the scribes of this period, with the exception of Ezra and Zadok, (Nehemiah 13:13) we have no record. A later age honored them collectively as the men of the Great Synagogue. Never perhaps, was so important a work done so silently. They devoted themselves to the careful study of the text, and laid down rules for transcribing it with the most scrupulous precision. As time passed on the "words of the scribes" were honored above the law. It was a greater crime to offend against them than against the law. The first step was taken toward annulling the commandments of God for the sake of their own traditions. (Mark 7:13) The casuistry became at once subtle and prurient, evading the plainest duties, tampering with conscience. (Matthew 15:1-6; 23:16-23) We can therefore understand why they were constantly denounced by our Lord along with the Pharisees. While the scribes repeated the traditions of the elders, he "spake as one having authority," "not as the scribes." (Matthew 7:29) While they confined their teachings to the class of scholars, he "had compassion on the multitudes." (Matthew 9:36) While they were to be found only in the council or in their schools, he journeyed through the cities and villages. (Matthew 4:23; 9:35) etc. While they spoke of the kingdom of God vaguely, as a thing far off, he proclaimed that it had already come nigh to men. (Matthew 4:17) In our Lord's time there were two chief parties:

  1. the disciples of Shammai, conspicuous for their fierceness, appealing to popular passions, using the sword to decide their controversies. Out of this party grew the Zealots.
  2. The disciples of Hillel, born B.C. 112, and who may have been one of the doctors before whom the boy Jesus came in the temple, for he lived to be 120 years old. Hillel was a "liberal conservative, of genial character and broad range of thought, with some approximations to a higher teaching." In most of the points at issue between the two parties, Jesus must have appeared in direct antagonism to the school of Shammai, in sympathy with that of Hillel. So far, on the other hand, as the temper of the Hillel school was one of mere adaptation to the feeling of the people, cleaving to tradition, wanting in the intuition of a higher life, the teaching of Christ must have been felt as unsparingly condemning it. III. Education and life. --The special training for a scribe's office began, probably, about the age of thirteen. The boy who was destined by his parents to the calling of a scribe went to Jerusalem and applied for admission in the school of some famous rabbi. After a sufficient period of training, probably at the age of thirty the probationer was solemnly admitted to his office. After his admission there was a choice of a variety of functions, the chances of failure and success. He might give himself to any one of the branches of study, or combine two or more of them. He might rise to high places, become a doctor of the law, an arbitrator in family litigations, (Luke 12:14) the head of a school, a member of the Sanhedrin. He might have to content himself with the humbler work of a transcriber, copying the law and the prophets for the use of synagogues, or a notary, writing out contracts of sale, covenants of espousals, bills of repudiation. The position of the more fortunate was of course attractive enough. In our Lord's time the passion for distinction was insatiable. The ascending scale of rab, rabbi, rabban, presented so many steps on the ladder of ambition. Other forms of worldliness were not far off. The salutations in the market-place, (Matthew 23:7) the reverential kiss offered by the scholars to their master or by rabbis to each other the greeting of Abba, father (Matthew 23:9) the long robes with the broad blue fringe, (Matthew 23:5) --all these go to make up the picture of a scribe's life. Drawing to themselves, as they did, nearly all the energy and thought of Judaism, the close hereditary caste of the priesthood was powerless to compete with them. Unless the Priest became a scribe also, he remained in obscurity. The order, as such, became contemptible and base. For the scribes there were the best places at feasts, the chief seats in synagogues. (Matthew 23:6; Luke 14:7)
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some military office (Judges 5:14; A.V., "pen of the writer;" R.V., "the marshal's staff;" marg., "the staff of the scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Samuel 8:17; 20:25; 1 Chronicles 18:16; 24:6; 1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 12:9-11; 18:18-37, etc.). They discharged various other important public duties as men of high authority and influence in the affairs of state.

There was also a subordinate class of scribes, most of whom were Levites. They were engaged in various ways as writers. Such, for example, was Baruch, who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord" (Jeremiah 36:4, 32).

In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law, gaining for themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with its contents. On them devolved the duty of multiplying copies of the law and of teaching it to others (Ezra 7:6, 10-12; Nehemiah 8:1, 4, 9, 13). It is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by their traditions (Matthew 23), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q.v.) are in the Gospels interchangeable (Matthew 22:35; Mark 12:28; Luke 20:39, etc.). They were in the time of our Lord the public teachers of the people, and frequently came into collision with him. They afterwards showed themselves greatly hostile to the apostles (Acts 4:5; 6:12).

Some of the scribes, however, were men of a different spirit, and showed themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers. Thus Gamaliel advised the Sanhedrin, when the apostles were before them charged with "teaching in this name," to "refrain from these men and let them alone" (Acts 5:34-39; Comp. 23:9).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
SCRIBES

skribz: The existence of law leads necessarily to a profession whose business is the study and knowledge of the law; at any rate, if the law is extensive and complicated. At the time of Ezra and probably for some time after, this was chiefly the business of the priests. Ezra was both priest and scholar (copher). It was chiefly in the interest of the priestly cult that the most important part of the Pentateuch was written. The priests were therefore also in the first instance the scholars and the guardians of the Law; but in the course of time this was changed. The more highly esteemed the Law became in the eyes of the people, the more its study and interpretation became a lifework by itself, and thus there developed a class of scholars who, though not priests, devoted themselves assiduously to the Law. These became known as the scribes, that is, the professional students of the Law. During the Hellenistic period, the priests, especially those of the upper class, became tainted with the Hellenism of the age and frequently turned their attention to paganistic culture, thus neglecting the Law of their fathers more or less and arousing the scribes to opposition. Thus, the scribes and not the priests were now the zealous defenders of the Law, and hence, were the true teachers of the people. At the time of Christ, this distinction was complete. The scribes formed a solid profession which held undisputed sway over the thought of the people. In the New Testament they are usually called (grammateis), i.e. "students of the Scriptures," "scholars," corresponding to the Hebrew (copherim) = homines literati, those who make a profession of literary studies, which, in this case, of course, meant chiefly the Law. Besides this general designation, we also find the specific word (nomikoi), i.e. "students of the Law," "lawyers" (Matthew 22:35 Luke 7:30; Luke 10:25; Luke 11:45, 52; 14:3); and in so far as they not only know the Law but also teach it they are called (nomodidaskaloi), "doctors of the Law" (Luke 5:17 Acts 5:34).

The extraordinary honors bestowed on these scholars on the part of the people are expressed in their honorary titles. Most common was the appellative "rabbi" = "my lord" (Matthew 23:7 and otherwise). This word of polite address gradually became a title. The word "rabboni" (Mark 10:51 John 20:16) is an extensive form, and was employed by the disciples to give expression to their veneration of Christ. In the Greek New Testament "rabbi" is translated as (kurie) (Matthew 8:2, 6, 8, 21, 25 and otherwise), or (didaskale) (Matthew 8:19 and otherwise), in Luke by (epistata) (Luke 5:5; Luke 8:24, 45; 9:33, 19; 17:13). Besides these, we find (pater), "father," and (kathegetes), "teacher" (Matthew 23:9 f).

From their students the rabbis demanded honors even surpassing those bestowed on parents. "Let the honor of thy friend border on the honor of thy teacher, and the honor of thy teacher on the fear of God" ('Abhoth 4 12). "The honor of thy teacher must surpass the honor bestowed on thy father; for son and father are both in duty bound to honor the teacher" (Kerithoth 6 9). Everywhere the rabbis demanded the position of first rank (Matthew 23:6 Mark 12:38 Luke 11:43; Luke 20:46). Their dress equaled that of the nobility. They wore (stolai), "tunics," and these were the mark of the upper class.

Since the scribes were lawyers (see LAWYER), much of their time was occupied in teaching and in judicial functions, and both these activities must be pursued gratuitously. Rabbi Zadok said: "Make the knowledge of the Law neither a crown in which to glory nor a spade with which to dig." Hillel used to say: "He who employs the crown (of the Law) for external purposes shall dwindle." That the judge should not receive presents or bribes was written in the Law (Exodus 23:8 Deuteronomy 16:19); hence, the Mishna said: "If anyone accept pay for rendering judgment, his judgment is null and void." The rabbis were therefore obliged to make their living by other means. Some undoubtedly had inherited wealth; others pursued a handicraft besides their study of the Law. Rabbi Gamaliel II emphatically advised the pursuit of a business in addition to the pursuit of the Law. It is well known that the apostle Paul kept up his handicraft even after he had become a preacher of the gospel (Acts 18:3; Acts 20:34 1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Corinthians 9:6 2 Corinthians 11:7 1 Thessalonians 2:9 2 Thessalonians 3:8), and the same is reported of many rabbis. But in every instance the pursuit of the Law is represented as the worthier, and warning is given not to overestimate the value of the ordinary avocation. It was a saying of Hillel: "He that devotes himself to trade will not become wise." The principle of gratuity was probably carried out in practice only in connection with the judicial activity of the scribes; hardly in connection with their work as teachers. Even the Gospels, in spite of the admonition that the disciples should give without pay because they had received without pay (Matthew 10:8), nevertheless also state that the workman is worthy of his hire (Matthew 10:10 Luke 10:7); and Paul (1 Corinthians 9:14) states it as his just due that he receive his livelihood from those to whom he preaches the gospel, even though he makes use of this right only in exceptional cases (1 Corinthians 9:3-18 2 Corinthians 11:8, 9 Galatians 6:6 Philippians 4:10, 18). Since this appears to have been the thought of the times, we are undoubtedly justified in assuming that the Jewish teachers of the Law also demanded pay for their services. Indeed, the admonitions above referred to, not to make instruction in the Law the object of self-interest, lead to the conclusion that gratuity was not the rule; and in Christ's philippics against the scribes and Pharisees He makes special mention of their greed (Mark 12:40 Luke 16:14; Luke 20:47). Hence, even though they ostensibly gave instruction in the Law gratuitously, they must have practiced methods by which they indirectly secured their fees.

Naturally the place of chief influence for the scribes up to the year 70 A.D. was Judea. But not only there were they to be found. Wherever the zeal for the law of the fathers was a perceptible force, they were indispensable; hence, we find them also in Galilee (Luke 5:17) and in the Diaspora. In the Jewish epitaphs in Rome, dating from the latter days of the empire, grammateis are frequently mentioned; and the Babylonian scribes of the 5th and 6th centuries were the authors of the most monumental work of rabbinical Judaism-the Talmud.

Since the separation of the Pharisaic and the Sadducean tendencies in Judaism, the scribes generally belonged to the Pharisaic class; for this latter is none other than the party which recognized the interpretations or "traditions" which the scribes in the course of time had developed out of the body of the written Law and enforced upon the people as the binding rule of life. Since, however, "scribes" are merely "students of the Law," there must also have been scribes of the Sadducee type; for it is not to be imagined that this party, which recognized only the written Law as binding, should not have had some opposing students in the other class. Indeed, various passages of the New Testament which speak of the "scribes of the Pharisees" (Mark 2:16 Luke 5:30 Acts 23:9) indicate that there were also "scribes of the Sadducees."

Under the reign and leadership of the scribes, it became the ambition of every Israelite to know more or less of the Law. The aim of education in family, school and synagogue was to make the entire people a people of the Law. Even the common laborer should know what was written in the Law; and not only know it, but also do it. His entire life should be governed according to the norm of the Law, and, on the whole, this purpose was realized in a high degree. Josephus avers: "Even though we be robbed of our riches and our cities and our other goods, the Law remains our possession forever. And no Jew can be so far removed from the and of his fathers nor will he fear a hostile commander to such a degree that he would not fear his Law more than his commander." So loyal were the majority of the Jews toward their Law that they would gladly endure the tortures of the rack and even death for it. This frame of mind was due almost wholly to the systematic and persistent instruction of the scribes.

The motive underlying this enthusiasm for the Law was the belief in divine retribution in the strictest judicial sense. The prophetic idea of a covenant which God had made with His select people was interpreted purely in the judicial sense. The covenant was a contract through which both parties were mutually bound. The people are bound to observe the divine Law literally and conscientiously; and, in return for this, God is in duty bound to render the promised reward in proportion to the services rendered. This applies to the people as a whole as well as to the individual. Services and reward must always stand in mutual relation to each other. He who renders great services may expect from the justice of God that he will receive great returns as his portion, while, on the other hand, every transgression also must be followed by its corresponding punishment.

The results corresponded to the motives. Just as the motives in the main were superficial, so the results were an exceedingly shallow view of religious and moral life. Religion was reduced to legal formalism. All religious and moral life was dragged down to the level of law, and this must necessarily lead to the following results:

(1) The individual is governed by a norm, the application of which could have only evil results when applied in this realm. Law has the purpose of regulating the relations of men to each other according to certain standards. Its object is not the individual, but only the body of society. In the law, the individual must find the proper rule for his conduct toward society as an organism. This is a matter of obligation and of government on the part of society. But religion is not a matter of government; where it is found, it is a matter of freedom, of choice, and of conduct.

(2) By reducing the practice of religion to the form of law, all acts are placed on a paragraph with each other. The motives are no longer taken into consideration, but only the deed itself.

(3) From this it follows that the highest ethical attainment was the formal satisfaction of the Law, which naturally led to finical literalism.

(4) Finally, moral life must, under such circumstances, lose its unity and be split up into manifold precepts and duties. Law always affords opportunity for casuistry, and it was the development of this in the guidance of the Jewish religious life through the "precepts of the elders" which called forth Christ's repeated denunciation of the work of the scribes.

Frank E. Hirsch

Greek
1122. grammateus -- a writer, scribe
... 1122 (from , "to write") -- a . Word Origin from gramma Definition a writer, scribe
NASB Word Usage scribe (4), scribes (59), town clerk (1). ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1122.htm - 7k
Strong's Hebrew
7894. Shisha -- father of Solomon's scribes
... 7893, 7894. Shisha. 7895 . father of Solomon's scribes. Transliteration:
Shisha Phonetic Spelling: (shee-shaw') Short Definition: Shisha. ...
/hebrew/7894.htm - 6k

7756. Sukathim -- a family of scribes
... 7755, 7756. Sukathim. 7757 . a family of scribes. Transliteration: Sukathim
Phonetic Spelling: (soo-kaw-thee') Short Definition: Sucathites. ...
/hebrew/7756.htm - 6k

456. Elichoreph -- "God of autumn," one of Solomon's scribes
... Elichoreph. 457 . "God of autumn," one of Solomon's scribes. Transliteration:
Elichoreph Phonetic Spelling: (el-ee-kho'-ref) Short Definition: Elihoreph. ...
/hebrew/456.htm - 6k

8101. Shimathim -- a family of scribes
... 8100, 8101. Shimathim. 8102 . a family of scribes. Transliteration: Shimathim
Phonetic Spelling: (shim-aw-thee') Short Definition: Shimeathites. ...
/hebrew/8101.htm - 6k

5613b. sopher -- enumerator, secretary, scribe
... from the same as sepher Definition enumerator, secretary, scribe NASB Word Usage
learned (1), office (1), scribe (39), scribe's (2), scribes (5), secretaries (1 ...
/hebrew/5613b.htm - 5k

Library

The Disciples as Scribes.
... Book X. 14. The Disciples as Scribes. ... Or if they were unlearned and ignorant
men, how are they very plainly called scribes by the Saviour? ...
/.../origens commentary on the gospel of matthew/14 the disciples as scribes.htm

Concerning the Pharisees and Scribes who came and Inquired, Why do ...
... Book XI. 8. Concerning the Pharisees and Scribes Who Came and Inquired, Why
Do Thy Disciples Transgress the Tradition of the Elders? ...
/.../origens commentary on the gospel of matthew/8 concerning the pharisees and.htm

In Conflict with Scribes and Pharisees
... CHAPTER XII IN CONFLICT WITH SCRIBES AND PHARISEES. And he began to speak unto them
by parables. ... "How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David? ...
/.../mark/jesus of nazareth a biography/chapter xii in conflict with.htm

Scribes Refuted.
... Book I. Chapter LVIII."Scribes Refuted. "And, behold, one of the scribes,
shouting out from the midst of the people, says: The ...
/.../unknown/recognitions of clement /chapter lviii scribes refuted.htm

G. The Warning against the Scribes. Ch. 20:45-47
... CHS. 19:29 TO 21:38 G. The Warning Against The Scribes. Ch. 20:45-47. ... The scribes
were the professional teachers of the day, the trained expositors of the Law. ...
/.../erdman/the gospel of luke an exposition/g the warning against the.htm

Then Answered Certain of the Scribes and Pharisees, that they ...
... The Text of the Diatessaron. Section XVI. Then answered certain of the scribes
and Pharisees, that they might tempt him� [1] [1142 ...
/.../hogg/the diatessaron of tatian/section xvi then answered certain.htm

Concerning the Pharisees and Scribes Tempting Jesus (By Asking) ...
... Book XIV. 16. Concerning the Pharisees and Scribes Tempting Jesus (by Asking) Whether
Was Lawful for a Man to Put Away His Wife for Every Cause. ...
/.../origens commentary on the gospel of matthew/16 concerning the pharisees and.htm

Discourse of Jesus against the Scribes and Pharisees.
... THREE HOSTILE QUESTIONS ASKED OF JESUS. DISCOURSE OF JESUS AGAINST THE SCRIBES AND
PHARISEES. ... "But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ...
//christianbookshelf.org/barton/his life/discourse of jesus against the.htm

Jesus' Last Public Discourse. Denunciation of Scribes and ...
... Crucifixion. CX. Jesus' Last Public Discourse. Denunciation of Scribes and Pharisees.
(in the Court of the Temple. Tuesday, April 4, ad30.) ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/cx jesus last public discourse.htm

Having Called a Council, the High Priests and Scribes Annas and ...
... Part I."The Acts of Pilate. First Greek Form. Chapter 1. Having called a council,
the high priests and scribes Annas and Caiaphas and Semes and� ...
/.../unknown/the gospel of nicodemus /chapter 1 having called a.htm

Thesaurus
Scribes (85 Occurrences)
... The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and
issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Samuel 8:17; 20:25; 1 Chronicles 18:16 ...
/s/scribes.htm - 49k

Teachers (87 Occurrences)
... Teachers (87 Occurrences). Matthew 2:4 Gathering together all the chief priests
and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ would be born. ...
/t/teachers.htm - 31k

Elders (203 Occurrences)
... 16:21 From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem
and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be ...
/e/elders.htm - 39k

Hypocrites (22 Occurrences)
... Matthew 23:13 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ... Matthew
23:14 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ...
/h/hypocrites.htm - 13k

Woe (102 Occurrences)
... Matthew 23:13 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ... Matthew
23:14 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ...
/w/woe.htm - 37k

Wo (92 Occurrences)
... Matthew 23:13 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ... Matthew
23:14 "But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! ...
/w/wo.htm - 33k

False (303 Occurrences)
... (Root in BBE). Matthew 23:13 But a curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false
ones! ... Matthew 23:15 A curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false ones! ...
/f/false%20.htm - 34k

Questioning (65 Occurrences)
... Matthew 2:4 And he got together all the chief priests and scribes of the people,
questioning them as to where the birth-place of the Christ would be. (BBE). ...
/q/questioning.htm - 24k

Ones (687 Occurrences)
... (BBE). Matthew 23:13 But a curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false ones! ... (BBE).
Matthew 23:15 A curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false ones! ...
/o/ones.htm - 35k

Assembled (186 Occurrences)
... Matthew 2:4 So he assembled all the High Priests and Scribes of the people, and
anxiously asked them where the Christ was to be born. (WEY WBS). ...
/a/assembled.htm - 36k

Concordance
Scribes (85 Occurrences)

Matthew 2:4
Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ would be born.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 5:20
For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 7:29
for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 9:3
Behold, some of the scribes said to themselves, "This man blasphemes."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 12:38
Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered, "Teacher, we want to see a sign from you."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 15:1
Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 16:21
From that time, Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 17:10
His disciples asked him, saying, "Then why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 20:18
"Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn him to death,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 21:15
But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, "Hosanna to the son of David!" they were indignant,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:2
saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:13
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:14
"But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter.
(WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS)

Matthew 23:15
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:23
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:25
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:27
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:29
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 23:34
Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 26:3
Then the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas.
(WEB KJV WBS YLT)

Matthew 26:57
Those who had taken Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Matthew 27:41
Likewise the chief priests also mocking, with the scribes, the Pharisees, and the elders, said,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 1:22
They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 2:6
But there were some of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 2:16
The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 3:22
The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 7:1
Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 7:5
The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 8:31
He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 9:11
They asked him, saying, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 9:14
Coming to the disciples, he saw a great multitude around them, and scribes questioning them.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 9:16
He asked the scribes, "What are you asking them?"
(WEB KJV WBS YLT)

Mark 10:33
"Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem. The Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes. They will condemn him to death, and will deliver him to the Gentiles.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 11:18
The chief priests and the scribes heard it, and sought how they might destroy him. For they feared him, because all the multitude was astonished at his teaching.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 11:27
They came again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders came to him,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 12:28
One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 12:35
Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 12:38
In his teaching he said to them, "Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes, and to get greetings in the marketplaces,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 14:1
It was now two days before the feast of the Passover and the unleavened bread, and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might seize him by deception, and kill him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 14:43
Immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came-and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 14:53
They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 15:1
Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Mark 15:31
Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 5:21
The scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 5:30
Their scribes and the Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, "Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners?"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 6:7
The scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 9:22
saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 11:44
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it."
(WEB KJV WBS YLT)

Luke 11:53
As he said these things to them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to be terribly angry, and to draw many things out of him;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 14:3
And Jesus, answering, said to the scribes and Pharisees, Is it right to make people well on the Sabbath or not?
(BBE)

Luke 15:2
The Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man welcomes sinners, and eats with them." The Good News According to John
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 19:47
He was teaching daily in the temple, but the chief priests and the scribes and the leading men among the people sought to destroy him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 20:1
It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the Good News, that the priests and scribes came to him with the elders.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 20:2
That the chief priests and the scribes and the rulers of the people came to him and said, Make clear to us by what authority you do these things and who gave you this authority.
(BBE)

Luke 20:19
The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on him that very hour, but they feared the people-for they knew he had spoken this parable against them.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 20:39
Some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you speak well."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 20:46
"Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts;
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 22:2
The chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 22:66
As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Luke 23:10
The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

John 8:3
The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman taken in adultery. Having set her in the midst,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Acts 4:5
It happened in the morning, that their rulers, elders, and scribes were gathered together in Jerusalem.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Acts 6:12
They stirred up the people, the elders, and the scribes, and came against him and seized him, and brought him in to the council,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Acts 23:9
A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Genesis 41:8
And it came to pass in the morning, that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the scribes of Egypt, and all the sages who were therein, and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none to interpret them to Pharaoh.
(DBY YLT)

Genesis 41:24
and the thin ears devoured the seven good ears. And I told it to the scribes; but there was none to make it known to me.
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 7:11
And Pharaoh also called the sages and the sorcerers; and they too, the scribes of Egypt, did so with their enchantments:
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 7:22
And the scribes of Egypt did so with their sorceries; and Pharaoh's heart was stubborn, neither did he hearken to them, as Jehovah had said.
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 8:7
And the scribes did so with their sorceries, and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt.
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 8:18
And the scribes did so with their sorceries, to bring forth gnats; but they could not. And the gnats were on man and on beast.
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 8:19
Then the scribes said to Pharaoh, This is the finger of God! But Pharaoh's heart was stubborn, and he hearkened not to them, as Jehovah had said.
(DBY YLT)

Exodus 9:11
And the scribes could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boils were on the scribes, and on all the Egyptians.
(DBY YLT)

1 Kings 4:3
Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud, the recorder;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)

1 Chronicles 2:55
The families of scribes who lived at Jabez: the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These are the Kenites who came of Hammath, the father of the house of Rechab.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Chronicles 34:13
Also they were over the bearers of burdens, and set forward all who did the work in every manner of service: and of the Levites there were scribes, and officers, and porters.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Esther 3:12
Then the king's scribes were called in on the first month, on the thirteenth day of the month; and all that Haman commanded was written to the king's satraps, and to the governors who were over every province, and to the princes of every people, to every province according its writing, and to every people in their language. It was written in the name of King Ahasuerus, and it was sealed with the king's ring.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)

Esther 8:9
Then the king's scribes were called at that time, in the third month Sivan, on the twenty-third day of the month; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews, and to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, to every province according to its writing, and to every people in their language, and to the Jews in their writing, and in their language.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)

Jeremiah 8:8
How do you say, We are wise, and the law of Yahweh is with us? But, behold, the false pen of the scribes has worked falsely.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Daniel 1:20
And in all matters of judicious wisdom, as to which the king enquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the scribes and magicians that were in all his realm.
(DBY YLT)

Daniel 2:2
And the king commanded to call the scribes, and the magicians, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, to shew the king his dreams; and they came and stood before the king.
(DBY YLT)

Daniel 2:27
Daniel answered in the presence of the king and said, The secret that the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the magicians, the scribes, the astrologers, shew unto the king;
(DBY YLT)

Daniel 4:7
Then came in the scribes, the magicians, the Chaldeans, and the astrologers; and I told the dream before them; but they did not make known unto me the interpretation of it.
(DBY YLT)

Daniel 4:9
O Belteshazzar, master of the scribes, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in thee, and no secret is too hard for thee, tell me the visions of my dream which I have seen, and the interpretation of it.
(DBY YLT)

Daniel 5:11
There is a man in thy kingdom in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father, light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods was found in him; and the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, even the king thy father, made him master of the scribes, magicians, Chaldeans, and astrologers;
(DBY YLT)

Nahum 3:17
Your crowned ones are like the locusts, and your scribes like the clouds of insects which take cover in the walls on a cold day, but when the sun comes up they go in flight, and are seen no longer in their place.
(BBE RSV)

Subtopics

Scribes

Scribes were Ready Writers

Scribes: Acted as Keepers of the Muster-Rolls of the Host

Scribes: Acted as Notaries in Courts of Justice

Scribes: Acted as Religious Teachers

Scribes: Acted as Secretaries to Kings

Scribes: Acted as Secretaries to Prophets

Scribes: Acted as Writers of Public Documents

Scribes: Antiquity of

Scribes: Families Celebrated for Furnishing: Kenites

Scribes: Families Celebrated for Furnishing: Levi

Scribes: Families Celebrated for Furnishing: Zebulun

Scribes: Generally Men of Great Wisdom

Scribes: Illustrated of Well Instructed Ministers of the Gospel

Scribes: Modern were Doctors of the Law

Scribes: Modern were Frequently Pharisees

Scribes: Modern: Active in Procuring Our Lord's Death

Scribes: Modern: Condemned by Christ for Hypocrisy

Scribes: Modern: Esteemed Wise and Learned

Scribes: Modern: Often offended at out Lord's Conduct and Teaching

Scribes: Modern: Persecuted the Christians

Scribes: Modern: Regarded As Interpreters of Scripture

Scribes: Modern: Sat in Moses' Seat

Scribes: Modern: Tempted Our Lord

Scribes: Modern: Their Manner of Teaching Contrasting With That of Christ

Scribes: Modern: Wore Long Robes and Loved Pre-Eminence

Scribes: Often Learned in the Law

Scribes: Wore an Inkhorn at Their Girdles

Related Terms

Teachers (87 Occurrences)

Elders (203 Occurrences)

Hypocrites (22 Occurrences)

Woe (102 Occurrences)

Wo (92 Occurrences)

False (303 Occurrences)

Questioning (65 Occurrences)

Ones (687 Occurrences)

Assembled (186 Occurrences)

Sought (199 Occurrences)

Led (260 Occurrences)

Taught (134 Occurrences)

Jambres (2 Occurrences)

Jannes (2 Occurrences)

Flashings (5 Occurrences)

Behoveth (75 Occurrences)

Secretaries (5 Occurrences)

Sanhedrim (20 Occurrences)

Seeking (182 Occurrences)

Elamarna

Tablets (31 Occurrences)

El-amarna

Curse (211 Occurrences)

Gathered (384 Occurrences)

Question (153 Occurrences)

Rulers (310 Occurrences)

Tell (3056 Occurrences)

Walk (315 Occurrences)

Delivered (427 Occurrences)

Yourselves (530 Occurrences)

Questioned (57 Occurrences)

Killed (352 Occurrences)

Kill (310 Occurrences)

Jabez (3 Occurrences)

Greater (219 Occurrences)

Within (400 Occurrences)

Important (39 Occurrences)

Feared (134 Occurrences)

Tirathites (1 Occurrence)

Demanded (40 Occurrences)

Condemnation (30 Occurrences)

Sect (10 Occurrences)

Sorceries (11 Occurrences)

Party (47 Occurrences)

Eating (151 Occurrences)

Angry (269 Occurrences)

Themselves (911 Occurrences)

Wherefore (448 Occurrences)

Sinners (132 Occurrences)

Suffer (195 Occurrences)

Chief (696 Occurrences)

Courts (59 Occurrences)

Condemn (43 Occurrences)

Council (51 Occurrences)

Destroy (379 Occurrences)

Ahijah (23 Occurrences)

Sanhedrin (19 Occurrences)

Enter (372 Occurrences)

Psalms (44 Occurrences)

Full (1047 Occurrences)

Eat (690 Occurrences)

Vehemently (5 Occurrences)

Notorious (16 Occurrences)

Unwashen (3 Occurrences)

Undergo (91 Occurrences)

Outside (215 Occurrences)

Likewise (149 Occurrences)

Lieutenants (4 Occurrences)

Graves (37 Occurrences)

Greeted (17 Occurrences)

Greatly (297 Occurrences)

Greetings (48 Occurrences)

Widows (33 Occurrences)

Inside (185 Occurrences)

Inquired (74 Occurrences)

Fiercely (8 Occurrences)

Flowing (123 Occurrences)

Thinking (58 Occurrences)

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