Altar
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Smith's Bible Dictionary
Altar

The first altar of which we have any account is that built by Noah when he left the ark. (Genesis 8:20) In the early times altars were usually built in certain spots hallowed by religious associations, e.g., where God appeared. (Genesis 12:7; 13:18; 26:25; 35:1) Though generally erected for the offering of sacrifice, in some instances they appear to have been only memorials. (Genesis 12:7; Exodus 17:15,16) Altars were most probably originally made of earth. The law of Moses allowed them to be made of either earth or unhewn stones. (Exodus 20:24,25) I. The Altar of Burnt Offering . It differed in construction at different times. (1) In the tabernacle, (Exodus 27:1) ff.; Exod 38:1 ff., it was comparatively small and portable. In shape it was square. It as five cubits in length, the same in breadth, and three cubits high. It was made of planks of shittim (or acacia) wood overlaid with brass. The interior was hollow. (Exodus 27:8) At the four corners were four projections called horns made, like the altar itself, of shittim wood overlaid with brass, (Exodus 27:2) and to them the victim was bound when about to be sacrificed. (Psalms 118:27) Round the altar, midway between the top and bottom, ran a projecting ledge, on which perhaps the priest stood when officiating. To the outer edge of this, again, a grating or network of brass was affixed, and reached to the bottom of the altar. At the four corners of the network were four brazen rings, into which were inserted the staves by which the altar was carried. These staves were of the same material as the altar itself. As the priests were forbidden to ascend the altar by steps, (Exodus 20:26) it has been conjectured that a slope of earth led gradually up to the ledge from which they officiated. The place of the altar was at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.)" (Exodus 40:29) (2) In Solomon's temple the altar was considerably larger in its dimensions. It differed too in the material of which it was made, being entirely of brass. (1 Kings 8:64; 2 Chronicles 7:7) It had no grating, and instead of a single gradual slope, the ascent to it was probably made by three successive platforms, to each of which it has been supposed that steps led. The altar erected by Herod in front of the temple was 15 cubits in height and 50 cubits in length and breadth. According to (Leviticus 6:12,13) a perpetual fire was to be kept burning on the altar. II. The Altar of Incense , called also the golden altar to distinguish it from the altar of burnt offering which was called the brazen altar. (Exodus 38:30) (a) That in the tabernacle was made of acacia wood, overlaid with pure gold. In shape it was square, being a cubit in length and breadth and two cubits in height. Like the altar of burnt offering it had horns at the four corners, which were of one piece with the rest of the altar. This altar stood in the holy place, "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony." (Exodus 30:6; 40:5) (b) The altar of Solomon's temple was similar, (1 Kings 7:48; 1 Chronicles 28:18) but was made of cedar overlaid with gold. III. Other Altars . In (Acts 17:23) reference is made to an alter to an unknown God. There were several altars in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague. Since they knew not what god was offended and required to be propitiated.

ATS Bible Dictionary
Altar

A table-like structure, on which sacrifices and incense were offered, built of various materials, usually of stone, but sometimes of brass, etc. It is evident that sacrifices were offered long before the flood; but the first mention of an altar in Scripture is when Noah left the ark. Mention is made of altars reared by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses. The latter was commanded to build an altar of earth, Exodus 20:24. If stone was employed, it must be rough and unhewn, probably lest the practice of sculpture should lead them to violate the second commandment. It was not to be furnished with steps, De 27:2-6.

The altars in the Jewish tabernacle, and in the temple at Jerusalem, were the following: 1. The altar of burnt offerings. 2. The altar of incense. 3. The table of showbread, for which see BREAD.

1.THE ALTAR OF BURNT-OFFERINGS was a kind of coffer of shittim- wood covered with brass plates, about seven feet six inches square, and four feet six inches in height. At the four corners were four horns, or elevations. It was portable, and had rings and staves for bearing in, Exodus 27:1-28:43. It was placed in the court before the tabernacle, towards the east. The furniture of the altar was of brass, and consisted of a pan, to receive the ashes that fell through the grating; shovels; basins, to contain the blood with which the altar was sprinkled; and forks, to turn and remove the pieces of flesh upon the coals. The fire was a perpetual one, kindled miraculously, and carefully cherished. Upon this altar the lamb of the daily morning and evening sacrifice was offered, and the other stated and voluntary blood-sacrifices and meat and drink-offerings. To this also certain fugitives were allowed to flee and find protection. The altar in Solomon's temple was larger, being about thirty feet square and fifteen feet high, 2 Chronicles 4:1. It is said to have been covered with thick plates of brass and filled with stones, with an ascent on the east side. It is often called "the brazen altar."

2.THE ALTAR OF INCENSE was a small table of shittim-wood, covered with plates of gold; it was eighteen inches square, and three feet high, Exodus 30:1-38 37:25, etc. At the four corners were four horns, and all around its top was a little border or crown. On each side were two rings, into which staves might be inserted for the purpose of carrying it. It stood in the Holy place; not in the Holy of Holies, but before it, between the golden candlestick and the table of showbread, and the priests burned incense upon it every morning and evening. So Zacharias, Luke 1:9,11. See TEMPLE.

3.ALTAR AT ATHENS, inscribed "to the unknown God," Acts 17:23. It is certain. Both from Paul's assertion and the testimony of Greek writers, that altars to an unknown or gods existed at Athens. But the attempt to ascertain definitely whom the Athenians worshipped under this appellation must ever remain fruitless for want of sufficient data. The inscription afforded to Paul a happy occasion of proclaiming the gospel; and those who embraced it found it indeed that the Being whom they had thus ignorantly worshipped was the one only living and true God.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Hebrews mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth (Exodus 20:24) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous places (Genesis 22:9; Ezek. 6:3; 2 Kings 23:12; 16:4; 23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in Hebrews 13:10 for the sacrifice offered upon it--the sacrifice Christ offered.

Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens one bearing the inscription, "To the unknown God" (Acts 17:23), or rather "to an [i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of Athens."

The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah (Genesis 8:20). Altars were erected by Abraham (Genesis 12:7; 13:4; 22:9), by Isaac (Genesis 26:25), by Jacob (33:20; 35:1, 3), and by Moses (Exodus 17:15, "Jehovah-nissi").

In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple, two altars were erected.

(1.) The altar of burnt offering (Exodus 30:28), called also the "brasen altar" (Exodus 39:39) and "the table of the Lord" (Malachi 1:7).

This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Exodus 27:1-8. It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in breadth, and 3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood, and was overlaid with plates of brass. Its corners were ornamented with "horns" (Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:18).

In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Samuel 2:13, 14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6, 7.)

In Solomon's temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2 Chronicles 4:1. Comp. 1 Kings 8:22, 64; 9:25), and was made wholly of brass, covering a structure of stone or earth. This altar was renewed by Asa (2 Chronicles 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2 Kings 16:14), and "cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose reign it was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away by the Babylonians (Jeremiah 52:17).

After the return from captivity it was re-erected (Ezra 3:3, 6) on the same place where it had formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Macc. 4:47.) When Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away.

Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its place till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (70 A.D.).

The fire on the altar was not permitted to go out (Leviticus 6:9).

In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome, which occupies the site of the old temple, there is a rough projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have been left intact when Solomon's temple was built. It was in all probability the site of the altar of burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a cave, which may probably have been the granary of Araunah's threshing-floor (1 Chronicles 21:22).

(2.) The altar of incense (Exodus 30:1-10), called also "the golden altar" (39:38; Numbers 4:11), stood in the holy place "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony." On this altar sweet spices were continually burned with fire taken from the brazen altar. The morning and the evening services were commenced by the high priest offering incense on this altar. The burning of the incense was a type of prayer (Psalm 141:2; Revelation 5:8; 8:3, 4).

This altar was a small movable table, made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Exodus 37:25, 26). It was 1 cubit in length and breadth, and 2 cubits in height.

In Solomon's temple the altar was similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1 Kings 6:20; 7:48) overlaid with gold. In Ezek. 41:22 it is called "the altar of wood." (Comp. Exodus 30:1-6.)

In the temple built after the Exile the altar was restored. Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. 1:23; 4:49). Among the trophies carried away by Titus on the destruction of Jerusalem the altar of incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it in Hebrews 9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel appeared to him (Luke 1:11). It is the only altar which appears in the heavenly temple (Isaiah 6:6; Revelation 8:3, 4).

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A raised structure on which sacrifices are offered or incense burned to a deity (as a square or oblong erection of stone or wood).

2. (n.) In the Christian church, a construction of stone, wood, or other material for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; the communion table.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ALTAR

ol'-ter (mizbeach, literally, "place of slaughter or sacrifice," from zabhach, which is found in both senses; bomos, (only in Acts 17:23), thusiasterion):

I. CLASSIFICATION OF HEBREW ALTARS

Importance of the Distinction

II. LAY ALTARS

1. Pre-Mosaic

2. In the Mosaic Age

3. Dangers of the Custom

4. The Mosaic Provisions

III. HORNED ALTARS OF BURNT OFFERING

1. The Tabernacle Altar

2. The Altar of Joshua 22

3. The Altar till Solomon

4. The Horned Altar in Use

5. The Temple of Solomon

6. The Altar of Ahaz

7. Ezekiel

8. The Post-exilic Altar

9. Idolatrous and Unlawful Altars

10. The Horns

IV. ALTARS OF INCENSE

V. RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS 1. A Gezer Altar

2. The Taanach Altar of Incense

LITERATURE

A. CRITICAL

I. Classification of Hebrew Altars.

Before considering the Biblical texts attention must be drawn to the fact that these texts know of at least two kinds of altars which were so different in appearance that no contemporary could possibly confuse them. The first was an altar consisting of earth or unhewn stones. It had no fixed shape, but varied with the materials. It might consist of a rock (Judges 13:19) or a single large stone (1 Samuel 14:33-35) or again a number of stones (1 Kings 18:31). It could have no horns, nor it would be impossible to give the stone horns without hewing it, nor would a heap of earth lend itself to the formation of horns. It could have no regular pattern for the same reason. On the other hand we meet with a group of passages that refer to altars of quite a different type. We read of horns, of fixed measurements, of a particular pattern, of bronze as the material. To bring home the difference more rapidly illustrations of the two types are given side by side. The first figure represents a cairn altar such as was in use in some other ancient religions. The second is a conjectural restoration of Hebrew altars of burnt offering and incense of the second kind.

Importance of the Distinction:

Both these might be and were called altars, but it is so evident that this common designation could not have caused any eye-witness to confuse the two that in reading the Bible we must carefully examine each text in turn and see to which kind the author is referring. Endless confusion has been caused, even in our own time, by the failure to note this distinction, and the reader can hope to make sense of the Biblical laws and narratives only if he be very careful to picture to himself in every case the exact object to which his text refers. For the sake of clearness different terms will be adopted in this article to denote the two kinds of altars. The first will be termed "lay altars" since, as will be seen, the Law permitted any layman to offer certain sacrifices at an altar of earth or unhewn stone without the assistance of a priest, while the second while be styled "horned altars," owing to their possession of horns which, as already pointed out, could not exist in a lay altar that conformed with the provisions of the law.

II. Lay Altars.

1. Pre-Mosaic:

In Genesis we often read of the erection of altars, e.g. Genesis 8:20; Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:4. Though no details are given we are able to infer their general character with considerable precision. In reading the accounts it is sometimes evident that we are dealing with some rough improvised structure. For example, when Abraham builds the altar for the sacrifice of Isaac in Genesis 22 it cannot be supposed that he used metal or wrought stone. When Jacob makes a covenant with Laban a heap of stones is thrown up "and they did eat there by the heap" (31:46). This heap is not expressly termed an altar, but if this covenant be compared with later covenants it will be seen that in these its place is taken by an altar of the lay type (SBL, chapter 2), and it is reasonable to suppose that this heap was in fact used as an altar (compare Genesis 31:54). A further consideration is provided by the fact that the Arabs had a custom of using any stone as an altar for the nonce, and certainly such altars are found in the Mosaic and post-Mosaic history. We may therefore feel sure that the altars of Genesis were of the general type represented by Fig. 1 and were totally unlike the altars of Fig. 2.

2. In the Mosaic Age:

Thus Moses found a custom by which the Israelite threw up rude altars of the materials most easily obtained in the field and offered sacrificial worship to God on sundry occasions. That the custom was not peculiar to the Israelites is shown by such instances as that of Balaam (Numbers 23:1, etc.). Probably we may take the narrative of Jethro's sacrifice as a fair example of the occasions on which such altars were used, for it cannot be supposed that Aaron and all the elders of Israel were openly committing an unlawful act when they ate bread with Moses' father-in-law before God (Exodus 18:12). Again, the narrative in which we see Moses building an altar for the purposes of a covenant probably exemplifies a custom that was in use for other covenants that did not fall to be narrated (Exodus 24:4).

3. Dangers of the Custom:

But a custom of erecting altars might easily lend itself to abuses. Thus archaeology has shown us one altar-though of a much later date-which is adorned with faces, a practice that was quite contrary to the Mosaic ideas of preserving a perfectly imageless worship. Other possible abuses were suggested by the current practices of the Canaanites or are explained by the terms of the laws.

See HIGH PLACE.

4. The Mosaic Provisions:

Accordingly Moses regulated these lay altars. Leaving the occasion of their erection and use to be determined by custom he promulgated the following laws: "An altar of earth mayest thou make unto me, and mayest sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen; in all the place where I record my name I will come unto thee and I will bless thee. And if thou make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou lift thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. Neither mayest thou go up by steps unto mine altar," etc. (Exodus 20:24-26; so correct English Versions of the Bible). Several remarks must be made on this law.

It is a law for laymen, not priests. This is proved by the second person singular and also by the reason given for the prohibition of steps-since the priests were differently garbed. It applies "in all the place where I record my name," not, as the ordinary rendering has it, "in every place." This latter is quite unintelligible: it is usually explained as meaning places hallowed by theophanies, but there are plenty of instances in the history of lay sacrifices where no theophany can be postulated; see e.g. Genesis 31:54 1 Samuel 20:6, 29 (EPC, 185). "All the place" refers to the territory of Israel for the time being. When Naaman desired to cease sacrificing to any deity save the God of Israel he was confronted by the problem of deciding how he could sacrifice to Him outside this "place." He solved it by asking for two mules' burden of the earth of the "place" (2 Kings 5:17). Lastly, as already noticed, this law excludes the possibility of giving the altars horns or causing them to conform to any given pattern, since the stone could not be wrought One other law must be noticed in this connection: Deuteronomy 16:21 f: `Thou shalt not plant thee an 'asherah of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord thy God, which thou shalt make thee. Neither shalt thou set thee up a pillar, which the Lord thy God hateth.' Here again the reference is probably to the lay altars, not to the religious capital which was under the control of the priests.

III. Horned Altars of Burnt Offering.

1. The Tabernacle Altar:

In Exodus 27:1-8 (compare Exodus 38:1-7) a command is given to construct for the Tabernacle an altar of shittim wood covered with bronze. It was to be five cubits long by five broad and three high. The four corners were to have horns of one piece with it. A network of bronze was to reach halfway up the altar to a ledge. In some way that is defined only by reference to what was shown to Moses in the Mount the altar was to be hollow with planks, and it was to be equipped with rings and staves for facility of transport. The precise construction cannot be determined, and it is useless to speculate where the instructions are so plainly governed by what was seen by Moses in the Mount; but certain features that are important for the elucidation of the Bible texts emerge clearly. The altar is rectangular, presenting at the top a square surface with horns at the four corners. The more important material used is bronze, and the whole construction was as unlike that of the ordinary lay altar as possible. The use of this altar in the ritual of the Tabernacle falls under the heading SACRIFICE. Here we must notice that It was served by priests. Whenever we find references to the horns of an altar or to its pattern we see that the writer is speaking of an altar of this general type. Thus, a criminal seeking asylum fled to an altar of this type, as appears from the horns which are mentioned in the two historical instances and also from such expressions as coming down or going up. See ASYLUM.

2. The Altar of Joshua 22:

We read in Joshua 22:9 that the children of Reuben and the children of Gad built an altar. In 22:28 we find them saying, "Be hold the pattern of the altar," etc. This is decisive as to the meaning, for the lay altar had no pattern. Accordingly in its general shape this altar must have conformed to the type of the Tabernacle altar. It was probably not made of the same materials, for the word "build" is continually used in connection with it, and this word would scarcely be appropriate for working metal: nor again was it necessarily of the same size, but it was of the same pattern: and it was designed to serve as a witness that the descendants of the men who built it had a portion in the Lord. It seems to follow that the pattern of the Tabernacle altar was distinctive and unlike the heathen altars in general use in Palestine and this appears to be confirmed by modern excavations which have revealed high places with altars quite unlike those contemplated by the Pentateuch. See HIGH PLACE.

3. The Altar till Solomon:

In the subsequent history till the erection of Solomon's Temple attention need only be directed to the fact that a horned altar existed while the Ark was still housed in a tent. This is important for two reasons. It shows a historical period in which a horned altar existed at the religious capital side by side with a number of lay altars all over the country, and it negatives the suggestion of G. A. Smith (Jerusalem, II, 64) that the bare rock ec-Cakhra was used by Solomon as the altar, since the unhewn rock obviously could not provide a horned altar such as we find as early as 1 Kings 1:50-53.

4. The Horned Altar in Use:

Note too that we read here of bringing down from the altar, and this expression implies elevation. Further in 1 Kings 9:25 we hear that Solomon was in the habit of offering on the altar which he had built, and this again proves that he had built an altar and did not merely use the temple rock. (See also Watson in PEFS (January, 1910), 15, in reply to Smith.)

5. The Temple of Solomon:

For the reasons just given it is certain that Solomon used an altar of the horned type, but we have no account of the construction in Kings. According to a note preserved in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew, Solomon enlarged the altar erected by David on Araunah's threshing-floor (2 Samuel 24:25), but this notice is of very doubtful historical value and may be merely a glossator's guess. According to 2 Chronicles 4:1 the altar was made of bronze and was twenty cubits by twenty by ten. The Chronicler's dimensions are doubted by many, but the statement of the material is confirmed by 1 Kings 8:64 2 Kings 16:10-15. From the latter passage it appears that an altar of bronze had been in use till the time of Ahaz.

6. The Altar of Ahaz:

This king saw an altar in Damascus of a different pattern and had a great altar made for the temple on its model. As the text contrasts the great altar with the altar of bronze, we may refer that the altar of Ahaz was not made of bronze. Whether either or both of these altars had steps (compare Ezekiel 43:17) or were approached by a slope as in Fig. 2 cannot be determined with certainty. It may be noted that in Isaiah 27:9 we read of the stones of the altar in a passage the reference of which is uncertain.

7. Ezekiel:

Ezekiel also gives a description of an altar (Ezekiel 43:13-17), but there is nothing to show whether it is purely ideal or represents the altar of Solomon or that of Ahaz, and modern writers take different views. In the vision it stood before the house (Ezekiel 40:47). In addition he describes an altar or table of wood (Ezekiel 41:22). This of course could only be a table, not in any sense an altar. See TABLE.

8. The Post-exilic Altar:

Ezra 3:2 tells of the setting up of the altar by Zerubbabel and his contemporaries. No information as to its shape, etc., can be extracted from this notice. We read of a defilement of the temple altar in 1 Maccabees 1:54. This was made of stones (Exodus 20:24-26 having at this date been applied to the temple altar contrary to its original intent) and a fresh altar of whole stones was constructed (1 Maccabees 4:44-49). Presumably this altar had no horns.

9. Idolatrous and Unlawful Altars:

It is clear from the historical and prophetical books that in both kingdoms a number of unlawful altars were in use. The distinction which has been drawn between lay altars and horned altars helps to make these passages easy to understand. Thus when Amos in speaking of Bethel writes, "The horns of the altar shall be cut off," we see that he is not thinking of lay altars which could have no horns (Amos 3:14). Again Hosea's "Because Ephraim hath multiplied altars `to sin,' altars have been to him `for sin' " (Hosea 8:11, compare Hosea 10:1-8; Hosea 12:11 (12)), is not in contradiction to Exodus 20:24-26 because the prophet is not speaking of lay altars. The high places of Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:28-33) were clearly unlawful and their altars were unlawful altars of the horned type. Such cases must be clearly distinguished from the lay altars of Saul and others.

10. The Horns:

The origin of the horns is unknown, though there are many theories. Fugitives caught hold of them (1 Kings 1:50, 51), and victims could be tied to them (Psalm 118:27).

IV. Altars of Incense.

Exodus 30:1-10 contains the commands for the construction and use of an altar of incense. The material was shittim wood, the dimensions one cubit by one by two, and it also had horns. Its top and sides were overlaid with gold and it was surrounded by a crown or rim of gold. For facility of transport it had golden rings and staves. It stood before the veil in front of the ark.

Solomon also constructed an altar of incense (1 Kings 6:20; 1 Kings 7:48 1 Chronicles 28:18), cedar replacing shittim wood. The altar of incense reappears in 1 Maccabees 1:21; 4:49.

V. Recent Archaeological Materials.

Recently several altars have been revealed by excavations. They throw light on the Bible chiefly by showing what is forbidden. See especially HIGH PLACE.

1. A Gezer Altar:

Fig. 3 represents an altar found at Gezer built into the foundation of a wall dating about 600 B.C. Mr. Macalister describes it in the following words: "It is a four-sided block of limestone, 1 ft. 3 inches high. The top and bottom are approximately 10 1/2 and 9 inches square respectively; but these are only the average dimensions of the sides, which are not regularly cut. The angles are prolonged upward for an additional 1 1/2 inches as rounded knobs-no doubt the `horns' of the altar. The top is very slightly concave so as to hold perhaps an eighth of a pint of liquid" (PEFS (July, 1907), 196). The size suggests an altar of incense rather than an altar of burnt offering, but in view of the general resemblance between the Tabernacle altars of burnt offering and incense, this is a fact of minor importance. On the other hand, the shape, pattern and material are of great interest. That the altar violates in principle the law of Exodus 20:25 forbidding the dressing of the stones is obvious, though that passage does not apply in terms to altars of incense, but certainly the appearance of the block does recall in a general way the altars of the other type-the horned altars. Like them it is four-sided with a square top, and like them it has knobs or horns at each corner. Possibly it was formed in general imitation of the Temple altars. Other altars in Canaanite high places exemplify by their appearance the practices prohibited by the Pentateuch. See for illustrations H. Vincent, Canaan d'apres l'exploration recente; R. Kittel, Studien zur hebraischen Archaologie und Religions-Geschichte; S. R. Driver, Modern Research as Illustrating the Bible.

2. The Taanach Altar of Incense:

Importance attaches to a terra cotta altar of incense found by Sellin at Taanach, because its height and dimensions at the base recall the altar of Ex. "It was just 3 ft. high, and in shape roughly like a truncated pyramid, the four sides at the bottom being each 18 inches long, and the whole ending at the top in a bowl a foot in diameter.. The altar is hollow.. Professor Sellin places the date of the altar at about 700 B.C.. An incense-altar of exactly the same shape. but of much smaller size. has been found quite recently at Gezer in debris of about 1000-600 B.C." (Driver, Modern Research, etc., 85). These discoveries supply a grim comment on theories of those critics who maintain that incense was not used by the Hebrews before the time of Jeremiah. The form of the altar itself is as contrary to the principles of the Pentateuch law as any thing could be.

On altar furniture see POT; SHOVEL; BASIN; FLESH-HOOK; FIREPAN. On the site, TEMPLE, and generally, ARIEL; SACRIFICE; SANCTUARY; TABERNACLE; HIGH PLACE.

LITERATURE.

R. Kittel, Studien zur hebraischen Archaologie und Religions-Geschichte, I and II; Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics; Murray, Illustrated Bible Dictionary; EB, under the word "Altar"; EPC, chapter 6. The discussions in the ordinary works of reference must be used with caution for the reason given in I above.

Harold M. Wiener

I. IN WORSHIP: TABERNACLE AND TEMPLES

1. Patriarchal Altars

2. Sacred Sites

3. Pre-Tabernacle Altars II. THE ALTAR OF BURNT OFFERING; BRAZEN ALTAR

1. Altar before the Tabernacle

2. Its History

3. Altar of Solomon's Temple

4. Altar of Ezekiel's Temple

5. Altar of Second Temple

6. Altar of Herod's Temple

III. THE ALTAR OF INCENSE (GOLDEN ALTAR)

1. In the Tabernacle

2. Mode of Burning Incense

3. In Solomon's Temple and Later

4. In Herod's Temple

5. Symbolism of Incense Burning

B. IN WORSHIP

I. In Worship: Tabernacle and Temples.

In the literature of the Bible, sacrifices are prior to altars, and altars prior to sacred buildings. Their first mention is in the case of the altar built by Noah after the Flood (Genesis 8:20).

1. Patriarchal Altars:

The next is the altar built at the place of Shechem, by which Abraham formally took possession, on behalf of his descendants, of the whole land of Canaan (Genesis 12:7). A second altar was built between Bethel and Ai (Genesis 12:8). To this the patriarch returned on his way from Egypt (Genesis 13:4). His next place of sacrifice was Hebron (Genesis 13:18); and tradition still professes to show the place where his altar stood. A subsequent altar was built on the top of a mountain in the land of Moriah for the sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 22:9).

2. Sacred Sites:

Each of these four spots was the scene of some special revelation of Yahweh; possibly to the third of them (Hebron) we may attribute the memorable vision and covenant of Genesis 15. These sites became, in after years, the most venerated and coveted perquisites of the nation, and fights for their possession largely determined its history. To them Isaac added an altar at Beersheba (Genesis 26:25), probably a re-erection, on the same site, of an altar built by Abraham, whose home for many years was at Beersheba. Jacob built no new altars, but again and again repaired those at Shechem and Bethel. On one occasion he offered a sacrifice on one of the mountains of Gilead, but without mention of an altar (Genesis 31:54). There were thus four or five spots in Canaan associated at once with the worship of Yahweh, and the name of their great ancestor, which to Hebrews did not lose their sanctity by the passage of time, namely, Shechem, Bethel, Hebron, Moriah and Beersheba.

3. Pre-Tabernacle Altars:

The earliest provision for an altar as a portion of a fixed establishment of religion is found in Exodus 20:24-26, immediately after the promulgation of the Decalogue. Altars are commanded to be made of earth or of unhewn stone, yet so as to have, not steps, but only slopes for ascent to the same-the injunction implying that they stood on some elevation (see ALTAR, sec A, above). Before the arrival at Sinai, during the war with Amalek, Moses had built an emergency altar, to which he gave the name Yahweh-Nissi (Exodus 17:15). This was probably only a memorial altar (compare the altar `Ed in Joshua 22:21). At Sinai took place the great crisis in Israel's national history. It was required that the covenant about to be made with Yahweh should be ratified with sacrificial blood; but before Moses could sprinkle the Book of the Covenant and the people who covenanted (Exodus 24:6,; compare Hebrews 9:19), it was necessary that an altar should be built for the sacrificial act. This was done "under the mount," where, beside the altar, were reared twelve pillars, emblematic of the twelve tribes of Israel (Exodus 24:4). In connection with the tabernacle and the successive temples there were two altars-the Altar of Burnt Offering (the altar by preeminence, Ezekiel 43:13), and the Altar of Incense. Of these it is now necessary to speak more particularly.

II. The Altar of Burnt Offering (The Brazen Altar)

(mizbach ha-`olah), (mizbach ha-nechosheth).-(By "brass" throughout understand "bronze.")

1. Altar before the Tabernacle:

The altar which stood before the tabernacle was a portable box constructed of acacia wood and covered on the outside with plates of brass (Exodus 27:1). "Hollow with planks," is its definition (Exodus 27:8). It was five cubits long, five cubits broad, and three cubits high; on the ordinary reckoning, about 7 1/2 ft. on the horizontal square, and 4 1/2 ft. in height (possibly less; see CUBIT). On the "grating of network of brass" described as around and half-way up the altar (verses 4, 5), see GRATING. Into the corners of this grating, on two sides, rings were riveted, into which the staves were inserted by which the Ark was borne (see STAVES). For its corner projections, see HORNS OF THE ALTAR. The prohibition of steps in Exodus 20:26 and the analogy of later altars suggest that this small altar before the tabernacle was made to stand on a base or platform, led up to by a slope of earth. The right of sanctuary is mentioned in Exodus 21:14. For the utensils connected with the altar, see PAN; SHOVEL; BASIN; FLESH-HOOK; CENSER. All these utensils were made of brass.

2. Its History:

The history of the altar before the tabernacle was that of the tabernacle itself, as the two were not parted during its continuance (see TABERNACLE). Their abolition did not take place till Solomon's temple was ready for use, when the great high place at Gibeon (1 Kings 3:4) was dismantled, and the tabernacle and its holy vessels were brought to the new temple (1 Kings 8:4). Another altar had meanwhile been raised by David before the tabernacle he had made on Zion, into which the Ark of the Covenant was moved (1 Chronicles 15:1; 1 Chronicles 16:1). This would be a duplicate of that at Gibeon, and would share its supersession at the erection of the first temple.

3. Altar of Solomon's Temple:

In Solomon's temple the altar was considerably enlarged, as was to be expected from the greater size of the building before which it stood. We are indebted to the Chronicler for its exact dimensions (2 Chronicles 4:1). It formed a square of twenty cubits, with an elevation of ten cubits (30 x 30 x 15 ft.; or somewhat less). It is described as "an altar of brass" (2 Chronicles 4:1), or "brazen altar" (1 Kings 8:64 2 Chronicles 7:7; compare 2 Kings 16:14), either as being, like its predecessors, encased in brass, or, as others think, made wholly of brass. It was not meant to be portable, but that the altar itself was movable is shown by the fact of Ahaz having it removed (2 Kings 16:14). Further details of its structure are not given. The altar stood in "the middle of the court that was before the house," but proved too small to receive the gifts on the day of the temple's dedication (1 Kings 8:64 2 Chronicles 7:7). It remained, however, the center of Israelite worship for 2 1/2 centuries, till Ahaz removed it from the forefront of the house, and placed it on the northern side of is Damascene altar (2 Kings 16:14). This indignity was repaired by Hezekiah (compare 2 Kings 18:22), and the altar assumed its old place in the temple service till its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C.

4. Altar of Ezekiel's Temple:

The altar of Ezekiel's ideal temple was, as planned, a most elaborate structure, the cubit used for this purpose being that of "a cubit and an handbreadth" (Ezekiel 43:13), or the large cubit of history (see CUBIT). The paragraph describing it (Ezekiel 43:13-17) is very specific, though uncertainty rests on the meaning of some of the details. The altar consisted of four stages lying one above another, gradually diminishing in size till the hearth was reached upon which the fire was literal. This was a square of twelve cubits (18 ft.), from the corners of which 4 horns projected upward (Ezekiel 43:15). The base or lowest stage was one cubit in height, and had a border round about, half a cubit high (Ezekiel 43:13); the remaining stages were two, four, and four cubits high respectively (Ezekiel 43:14, 15); the horns may have measured another cubit (thus, the Septuagint). Each stage was marked by the inlet of one cubit (Ezekiel 43:13, 14). The basement was thus, apparently, a square of eighteen cubits or 27 ft. The word "bottom" (literally, "bosom") in Ezekiel's description is variously interpreted, some regarding it as a "drain" for carrying off the sacrificial blood, others identifying it with the "basement." On its eastern face the altar had steps looking toward the east (Ezekiel 43:17)-a departure from the earlier practice (for the reason of this, compare Perowne's article "Altar" in Smith, Dictionary of the Bible).

5. Altar of Second Temple:

Of the altar of the second temple no measurements are given. It is told only that it was built prior to the temple, and was set upon its base (Ezra 3:3), presumably on the Cakhra stone-the ancient site.

Read Complete Article...

HORNS OF THE ALTAR

(qare-noth ha-mizbeach):

1. The Brazen Altar:

These projections at the four corners of the altar of burnt offering were of one piece with the altar, and were made of acacia wood overlaid with brass (Exodus 27:2, "bronze"). In Ezekiel's altar-specifications their position is described as being on a level with the altar hearth (Ezekiel 43:15). Fugitives seeking asylum might cling to the horns of the altar, as did Adonijah (1 Kings 1:50), which is one proof among many that worshippers had at all times access to the neighborhood of the altar. On certain occasions, as at the consecration of Aaron and his sons (Exodus 29:12), and a sin offering for one of the people of the land (Leviticus 4:30), the horns were touched with sacrificial blood.

2. The Golden Altar:

The altar of incense, standing in the outer chamber of the sanctuary, had also four horns, which were covered with gold (Exodus 37:25). These were touched with blood in the case of a sin offering for a high priest, or for the whole congregation, if they had sinned unwittingly (Leviticus 4:7, 18).

See ALTAR; HORN.

W. Shaw Caldecott

Greek
2379. thusiasterion -- an altar
... an altar. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: thusiasterion Phonetic Spelling:
(thoo-see-as-tay'-ree-on) Short Definition: an altar Definition: an ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2379.htm - 7k

1041. bomos -- a platform, an altar
... a platform, an altar. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: bomos Phonetic
Spelling: (bo'-mos) Short Definition: an altar Definition: an altar ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1041.htm - 6k

2369. thumiaterion -- altar of incense, a censer
... altar of incense, a censer. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: thumiaterion
Phonetic Spelling: (thoo-mee-as-tay'-ree-on) Short Definition: altar of ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2369.htm - 6k

2768. keras -- a horn
... keras Phonetic Spelling: (ker'-as) Short Definition: a horn Definition: (a) a horn,
(b) a horn-like projection at the corner of an altar, (c) a horn as a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2768.htm - 6k

4574. sebasma -- an object of worship
... an object of worship. From sebazomai; something adored, ie An object of worship
(god, altar, etc) -- devotion, that is worshipped. see GREEK sebazomai. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4574.htm - 6k

399. anaphero -- to carry up, lead up
... Phonetic Spelling: (an-af-er'-o) Short Definition: I carry up, lead up, offer up
Definition: (a) I carry up, lead up, (b) I offer up (on a high altar) as a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/399.htm - 7k

Strong's Hebrew
4196. mizbeach -- an altar
... 4195, 4196. mizbeach. 4197 . an altar. Transliteration: mizbeach Phonetic
Spelling: (miz-bay'-akh) Short Definition: altar. Word ...
/hebrew/4196.htm - 6k

4056. madbach -- an altar
... 4055, 4056. madbach. 4057 . an altar. Transliteration: madbach Phonetic
Spelling: (mad-bakh') Short Definition: altar. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/4056.htm - 6k

741. ariel -- hearth, altar-hearth
... 740, 741. ariel. 742 . hearth, altar-hearth. Transliteration: ariel Phonetic
Spelling: (ar-ee-ale') Short Definition: hearth. ... altar. ...
/hebrew/741.htm - 6k

2025. harel -- altar
... harel. 2026 . altar. Transliteration: harel Phonetic Spelling: (har-ale') Short
Definition: altar. Word Origin another reading for ariel, qv. altar ...
/hebrew/2025.htm - 6k

415. El Elohe Yisrael -- "the mighty God of Israel," an altar of ...
El Elohe Yisrael. 414, 415. El Elohe Yisrael. 416 . "the mighty God of Israel,"
an altar of Jacob. Transliteration: El Elohe Yisrael Phonetic Spelling: (ale ...
/hebrew/415.htm - 6k

416. El Beth-el -- "the God of Bethel," an altar of Jacob
... El Beth-el. 417 . "the God of Bethel," an altar of Jacob. Transliteration: El
Beth-el Phonetic Spelling: (ale bayth-ale') Short Definition: El-bethel. ...
/hebrew/416.htm - 6k

4729c. meqatterah -- incense altar
... 4729b, 4729c. meqatterah. 4730 . incense altar. Transliteration: meqatterah
Short Definition: altars. Word Origin from the same ...
/hebrew/4729c.htm - 5k

3749. karkob -- border, rim (of an altar)
... 3748, 3749. karkob. 3750 . border, rim (of an altar). Transliteration:
karkob Phonetic Spelling: (kar-kobe') Short Definition: ledge. ...
/hebrew/3749.htm - 6k

3843. lebenah -- brick, tile
... altar of brick, tile. From laban; a brick (from the whiteness of the clay) -- (altar
of) brick, tile. see HEBREW laban. 3842, 3843. lebenah. 3844 . ...
/hebrew/3843.htm - 6k

6999. qatar -- to make sacrifices smoke
... 5), surely burn (1). burn incense, sacrifice upon, altar for incense, kindle,
offer incense, a sacrifice. A primitive root (identical ...
/hebrew/6999.htm - 6k

Library

The Altar of Incense
... THE BOOK OF EXODUS THE ALTAR OF INCENSE. 'Thou shalt make an altar to burn incense
upon.' "Exodus 30:1. Ceremonies are embodied thoughts. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture k/the altar of incense.htm

Altar and Temple
... EZRA ALTAR AND TEMPLE. 'And when the seventh month was come, and the children
of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered themselves ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture g/altar and temple.htm

A Coal From The Altar, To Kindle The Holy Fire of Zeale
A Coal From The Altar, To Kindle The Holy Fire of Zeale. ...
/.../ward/a coal from the altar to kindle the holy fire of zeale/

Bound to the Altar
... IX Bound to the Altar. 'Bind the sacrifice with cords, even unto the horns
of the altar.' (Psalm 118:27.). Periodically in our Halls ...
/.../howard/standards of life and service/ix bound to the altar.htm

The Altar on Mount Ebal.
... THE ALTAR ON MOUNT EBAL. ... Joshua built the altar as directed, on which he offered
sacrifices to God, and wrote a copy of the law upon it. ...
/.../anonymous/mother stories from the old testament/the altar on mount ebal.htm

The Story of the Angel by the Altar
... THE STORY OF THE ANGEL BY THE ALTAR. ... Suddenly, Zacharias saw an angel from the
Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. ...
/.../marshall/the wonder book of bible stories/the story of the angel.htm

Gideon's Altar
... THE BOOK OF JUDGES GIDEON'S ALTAR. 'Then Gideon built an altar there unto the Lord,
and called it Jehovah- shalom [God is peace].'"Judges 6:24. ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture f/gideons altar.htm

The Family Altar.
... ORIGINAL HYMNS HYMN CCVI. The Family Altar. 8.6.8.6 James Montgomery. The
Family Altar. Food, raiment, dwelling, health and friends,. ...
/.../montgomery/sacred poems and hymns/hymn ccvi the family altar.htm

The Family Altar.
... SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC WORSHIP. 929. " The Family Altar. 929. CM Taylor's
Coll. The Family Altar. 1 Great God! where'er we pitch ...
/.../adams/hymns for christian devotion/929 the family altar.htm

The Altar. The Rings. The Laver.
... A Chorographical Century Chapters 31-40 Chapter 34 The Altar. The Rings.
The Laver. The altar was, on every side, two-and-thirty ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 34 the altar the.htm

Thesaurus
Altar (343 Occurrences)
... It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of Athens.".
The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah (Genesis 8:20). ...
/a/altar.htm - 78k

Incense-altar (2 Occurrences)
Incense-altar. Incense, Incense-altar. Incense-altars . Multi-Version
Concordance Incense-altar (2 Occurrences). Exodus ...
/i/incense-altar.htm - 7k

Perfume-altar (1 Occurrence)
Perfume-altar. Perfume, Perfume-altar. Perfume-boxes . Multi-Version
Concordance Perfume-altar (1 Occurrence). Exodus ...
/p/perfume-altar.htm - 6k

Altar-hearths (2 Occurrences)
Altar-hearths. Altar, Altar-hearths. Altars . Multi-Version
Concordance Altar-hearths (2 Occurrences). 2 Samuel 23:20 ...
/a/altar-hearths.htm - 7k

Soothing (40 Occurrences)
... (See NAS). Exodus 29:18 You shall burn the whole ram on the altar: it is a burnt
offering to Yahweh; it is a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh. ...
/s/soothing.htm - 18k

Censer (10 Occurrences)
... The vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before the Lord
in the temple (Exodus 30:1-9). The priest filled the censer with live coal from ...
/c/censer.htm - 14k

Ba'al (55 Occurrences)
... Judges 6:25 That night the LORD said to him, "Take your father's bull, the second
bull seven years old, and pull down the altar of Ba'al which your father has ...
/b/ba'al.htm - 22k

Sprinkleth (11 Occurrences)
... Leviticus 8:11 and he sprinkleth of it on the altar seven times, and anointeth the
altar, and all its vessels, and the laver, and its base, to sanctify them ...
/s/sprinkleth.htm - 10k

Sanctifieth (21 Occurrences)
... (KJV WBS). Matthew 23:19 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the
gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? (KJV ASV WBS). ...
/s/sanctifieth.htm - 12k

Pleasant (119 Occurrences)
... Exodus 29:18 You shall burn the whole ram on the altar: it is a burnt offering to
Yahweh; it is a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh. (WEB). ...
/p/pleasant.htm - 37k

Concordance
Altar (343 Occurrences)

Matthew 5:23
"If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 5:24
leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 23:18
'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is obligated?'
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 23:19
You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 23:20
He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Matthew 23:35
that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom you killed between the sanctuary and the altar.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 1:11
An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Luke 11:51
from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 17:23
For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription:'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 9:13
Don't you know that those who serve around sacred things eat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar have their portion with the altar?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 10:18
Consider Israel according to the flesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices participate in the altar?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 7:13
For he of whom these things are said belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 9:4
having a golden altar of incense, and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which was a golden pot holding the manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant;
(WEB ASV NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 10:1
For the law, being only a poor copy of the future good things, and not the true image of those things, is never able to make the people who come to the altar every year with the same offerings completely clean.
(BBE)

Hebrews 10:11
And every priest takes his place at the altar day by day, doing what is necessary, and making again and again the same offerings which are never able to take away sins.
(BBE)

Hebrews 13:10
We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Hebrews 13:15
Through Him, then, let us continually lay on the altar a sacrifice of praise to God, namely, the utterance of lips that give thanks to His Name.
(WEY)

James 2:21
Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar?
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 6:9
When he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been killed for the Word of God, and for the testimony of the Lamb which they had.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 8:3
Another angel came and stood over the altar, having a golden censer. Much incense was given to him, that he should add it to the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar which was before the throne.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 8:5
The angel took the censer, and he filled it with the fire of the altar, and threw it on the earth. There followed thunders, sounds, lightnings, and an earthquake.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 9:13
The sixth angel sounded. I heard a voice from the horns of the golden altar which is before God,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 11:1
A reed like a rod was given to me. Someone said, "Rise, and measure God's temple, and the altar, and those who worship in it.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 14:18
Another angel came out from the altar, he who has power over fire, and he called with a great voice to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, "Send forth your sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for the earth's grapes are fully ripe!"
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Revelation 16:7
I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments."
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 8:20
Noah built an altar to Yahweh, and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 12:7
Yahweh appeared to Abram and said, "I will give this land to your seed." He built an altar there to Yahweh, who appeared to him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 12:8
He left from there to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Ai on the east. There he built an altar to Yahweh and called on the name of Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 13:4
to the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first. There Abram called on the name of Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 13:18
Abram moved his tent, and came and lived by the oaks of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and built an altar there to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 22:9
They came to the place which God had told him of. Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, on the wood.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 26:25
He built an altar there, and called on the name of Yahweh, and pitched his tent there. There Isaac's servants dug a well.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 33:20
He erected an altar there, and called it El Elohe Israel.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 35:1
God said to Jacob, "Arise, go up to Bethel, and live there. Make there an altar to God, who appeared to you when you fled from the face of Esau your brother."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 35:3
Let us arise, and go up to Bethel. I will make there an altar to God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the way which I went."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Genesis 35:7
He built an altar there, and called the place El Beth El; because there God was revealed to him, when he fled from the face of his brother.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 17:15
Moses built an altar, and called its name Yahweh our Banner.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 20:24
You shall make an altar of earth for me, and shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your cattle. In every place where I record my name I will come to you and I will bless you.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 20:25
If you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of cut stones; for if you lift up your tool on it, you have polluted it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 20:26
Neither shall you go up by steps to my altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed to it.'
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 21:14
If a man schemes and comes presumptuously on his neighbor to kill him, you shall take him from my altar, that he may die.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 24:4
Moses wrote all the words of Yahweh, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar under the mountain, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 24:6
Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 27:1
"You shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be foursquare: and its height shall be three cubits.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 27:2
And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it; and thou shalt overlay it with brass.
(See NIV)

Exodus 27:5
You shall put it under the ledge around the altar beneath, that the net may reach halfway up the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 27:6
You shall make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with brass.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 27:7
Its poles shall be put into the rings, and the poles shall be on the two sides of the altar, when carrying it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 27:8
The altar is to be hollow, boarded in with wood; make it from the design which you saw on the mountain.
(BBE NIV)

Exodus 28:43
They shall be on Aaron, and on his sons, when they go in to the Tent of Meeting, or when they come near to the altar to minister in the holy place; that they don't bear iniquity, and die: it shall be a statute forever to him and to his descendants after him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:12
You shall take of the blood of the bull, and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger; and you shall pour out all the blood at the base of the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:13
You shall take all the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and burn them on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:16
You shall kill the ram, and you shall take its blood, and sprinkle it around on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:18
You shall burn the whole ram on the altar: it is a burnt offering to Yahweh; it is a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:20
Then you shall kill the ram, and take some of its blood, and put it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and on the tip of the right ear of his sons, and on the thumb of their right hand, and on the big toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood around on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:21
You shall take of the blood that is on the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron, and on his garments, and on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be made holy, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:25
You shall take them from their hands, and burn them on the altar on the burnt offering, for a pleasant aroma before Yahweh: it is an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:36
Every day you shall offer the bull of sin offering for atonement: and you shall cleanse the altar, when you make atonement for it; and you shall anoint it, to sanctify it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:37
Seven days you shall make atonement for the altar, and sanctify it: and the altar shall be most holy; whatever touches the altar shall be holy.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:38
"Now this is that which you shall offer on the altar: two lambs a year old day by day continually.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 29:44
I will sanctify the Tent of Meeting and the altar: Aaron also and his sons I will sanctify, to minister to me in the priest's office.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 30:1
"You shall make an altar to burn incense on. You shall make it of acacia wood.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 30:2
The altar is to be square, a cubit long and a cubit wide, and two cubits high, and its horns are to be made of the same.
(BBE)

Exodus 30:4
And two golden rings shalt thou make for it under the crown thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make them; and they shall be for places for staves wherewith to bear it.
(See NIV)

Exodus 30:6
And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the ark-cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.
(See NAS NIV)

Exodus 30:7
And on this altar sweet spices are to be burned by Aaron every morning when he sees to the lights.
(BBE NIV)

Exodus 30:9
You shall offer no strange incense on it, nor burnt offering, nor meal offering; and you shall pour no drink offering on it.
(See NAS NIV)

Exodus 30:18
"You shall also make a basin of brass, and its base of brass, in which to wash. You shall put it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and you shall put water in it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 30:20
When they go into the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water, that they not die; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 30:27
the table and all its articles, the lampstand and its accessories, the altar of incense,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 30:28
the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the basin with its base.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 31:8
the table and its vessels, the pure lampstand with all its vessels, the altar of incense,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 31:9
the altar of burnt offering with all its vessels, the basin and its base,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 32:5
When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made a proclamation, and said, "Tomorrow shall be a feast to Yahweh."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 35:15
and the altar of incense with its poles, the anointing oil, the sweet incense, the screen for the door, at the door of the tabernacle;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 35:16
the altar of burnt offering, with its grating of brass, it poles, and all its vessels, the basin and its base;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 37:25
He made the altar of incense of acacia wood. It was square: its length was a cubit, and its breadth a cubit. Its height was two cubits. Its horns were of one piece with it.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 38:1
He made the altar of burnt offering of acacia wood. It was square. Its length was five cubits, its breadth was five cubits, and its height was three cubits.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 38:2
He made its horns on its four corners. Its horns were of one piece with it, and he overlaid it with brass.
(See NIV)

Exodus 38:3
He made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, the shovels, the basins, the forks, and the fire pans. He made all its vessels of brass.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)

Exodus 38:4
He made for the altar a grating of a network of brass, under the ledge around it beneath, reaching halfway up.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 38:7
He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar, with which to carry it. He made it hollow with planks.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 38:30
With this he made the sockets to the door of the Tent of Meeting, the bronze altar, the bronze grating for it, all the vessels of the altar,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 39:38
the golden altar, the anointing oil, the sweet incense, the screen for the door of the Tent,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 39:39
the bronze altar, its grating of brass, its poles, all of its vessels, the basin and its base,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:5
You shall set the golden altar for incense before the ark of the testimony, and put the screen of the door to the tabernacle.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:6
"You shall set the altar of burnt offering before the door of the tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:7
You shall set the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and shall put water therein.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:10
You shall anoint the altar of burnt offering, with all its vessels, and sanctify the altar: and the altar will be most holy.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:26
He put the golden altar in the Tent of Meeting before the veil;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:29
He set the altar of burnt offering at the door of the tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:30
He set the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and put water therein, with which to wash.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:32
When they went into the Tent of Meeting, and when they came near to the altar, they washed, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Exodus 40:33
He raised up the court around the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the screen of the gate of the court. So Moses finished the work.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:5
He shall kill the bull before Yahweh. Aaron's sons, the priests, shall present the blood and sprinkle the blood around on the altar that is at the door of the Tent of Meeting.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:7
The sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar, and lay wood in order on the fire;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:8
and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall lay the pieces, the head, and the fat in order on the wood that is on the fire which is on the altar;
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:9
but its innards and its legs he shall wash with water. The priest shall burn the whole on the altar, for a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, of a pleasant aroma to Yahweh.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:11
He shall kill it on the north side of the altar before Yahweh. Aaron's sons, the priests, shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Leviticus 1:12
He shall cut it into its pieces, with its head and its fat. The priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is on the altar,
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Subtopics

Altar

Altar in Solomon's Temple in Second Temple

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Cleansed by Hezekiah

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Description of

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Ezekiel's Vision of

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Furniture of, Taken to Babylon

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Removed by Ahaz, and One of Idolatrous Fashion Substituted

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Renewed by Asa

Altar in Solomon's Temple: Repaired by Manasseh

Altar in the Tabernacle: A Place of Refuge

Altar in the Tabernacle: Constructed by Bezaleel

Altar in the Tabernacle: Furniture of

Altar in the Tabernacle: Horns of

Altar in the Tabernacle: How Sanctified

Altar in the Tabernacle: Location of

Altar in the Tabernacle: Pattern of

Altar in the Tabernacle: Sanctified Everything That Touched It

Altar in the Tabernacle: See

Altar in the Tabernacle: Uses of the Horns

Altar of Burnt offerings: Called Altar of God

Altar of Burnt offerings: Called Altar of the Lord

Altar of Burnt offerings: Called Brazen Altar

Altar of Incense in Solomon's Temple

Altar of Incense: A Cover Made For, of the Censers of Korah

Altar of Incense: A Type of Christ

Altar of Incense: Altar Before the Lord

Altar of Incense: Altar of Sweet Incense

Altar of Incense: Anointed With Holy Oil

Altar of Incense: Atonement Made For, by the High Priest Once Every Year

Altar of Incense: Called the Golden Altar

Altar of Incense: Carried by Kohathites

Altar of Incense: Constructed

Altar of Incense: Covered by the Priest Before Removal from the Sanctuary

Altar of Incense: Covered With Gold

Altar of Incense: Dimensions of

Altar of Incense: had Four Rings of Gold Under the Crown for the Staves

Altar of Incense: How Prepared for Carrying

Altar of Incense: Location of

Altar of Incense: No Strange Incense Nor Any Sacrifice to be offered On

Altar of Incense: Pattern of

Altar of Incense: Placed Before the Vail in the Outer Sanctuary

Altar of Incense: Punishment For: Offering Strange Fire On

Altar of Incense: Punishment For: Unauthorised offering On

Altar of Incense: Said to be Before the Lord

Altar of Incense: Seen in John's Vision

Altar of Incense: Staves of, Covered With Gold

Altar of Incense: The Blood of all Sin offerings Put on the Horns of

Altar of Incense: The Priest Burned Incense on Every Morning and Evening

Altar of Incense: Top of, Surrounded With a Crown of Gold

Altar of Incense: Uses of

Altar used in Idolatrous Worship

Altar: Built by Abraham

Altar: Built by Balaam

Altar: Built by David

Altar: Built by Elijah

Altar: Built by Gideon

Altar: Built by Isaac

Altar: Built by Jacob

Altar: Built by Joshua

Altar: Built by Moses

Altar: Built by Noah

Altar: Built by Samuel

Altar: Built by Saul

Altar: Built by the Reubenites and Gadites

Altar: Mosaic Commandments Prescribing the Construction of

Altar: See

The Altar of Burnt-Offering was Most Holy

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: A Net-Working Grate of Brass Placed In

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: A Type of Christ

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Ahaz Removed and Profaned

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: All Gifts to be Presented At

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: All Its Vessels of Brass

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: All Sacrifices to be offered On

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Anointed and Sanctified With Holy Oil

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Called: The Altar of God

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Called: The Altar of the Lord

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Called: The Brazen Altar

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Cleansed and Purified With Blood

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Covered With Brass

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Dimensions of

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Furnished With Rings and Staves

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Horns on the Corners of

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Made After a Divine Pattern

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Nothing Polluted or Defective to be offered On

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Offering at the Dedication of

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Placed in the Court Before the Door of the Tabernacle

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Sacrifices Bound to the Horns of

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Sanctified by God

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: Sanctified Whatever Touched It

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Blood of Sacrifices Put on the Horns and Poured at The

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Fire Upon was Continually Burning

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Fire Upon: Came from Before the Lord

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Fire Upon: Consumed the Sacrifices

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Jews Condemned for Swearing Lightly By

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Priests: Alone to Serve

The Altar of Burnt-Offering: The Priests: Derived Support From

Related Terms

Incense-altar (2 Occurrences)

Perfume-altar (1 Occurrence)

Altar-hearths (2 Occurrences)

Soothing (40 Occurrences)

Censer (10 Occurrences)

Ba'al (55 Occurrences)

Sprinkleth (11 Occurrences)

Sanctifieth (21 Occurrences)

Pleasant (119 Occurrences)

Ashe'rah (18 Occurrences)

Aroma (50 Occurrences)

Bottom (33 Occurrences)

Horn (108 Occurrences)

Burnt-sacrifice (13 Occurrences)

Arranged (32 Occurrences)

Slaughtereth (13 Occurrences)

Savour (52 Occurrences)

Staffs (47 Occurrences)

Sanctify (91 Occurrences)

Sprinkled (55 Occurrences)

Aaron's (53 Occurrences)

Acacia-wood (27 Occurrences)

Staves (50 Occurrences)

Pour (137 Occurrences)

Shrine (34 Occurrences)

Pole (21 Occurrences)

Buildeth (73 Occurrences)

Slew (206 Occurrences)

Sides (170 Occurrences)

Builded (65 Occurrences)

Burnt-offering (205 Occurrences)

Acacia (28 Occurrences)

Meat-offerings (10 Occurrences)

Memorial-part (7 Occurrences)

Baal's (6 Occurrences)

Copy (18 Occurrences)

Slaughtered (72 Occurrences)

Screen (26 Occurrences)

Strange (234 Occurrences)

Araunah (14 Occurrences)

Savor (51 Occurrences)

Smell (77 Occurrences)

Ashes (44 Occurrences)

Brazen (42 Occurrences)

Shewbread (16 Occurrences)

Sprinkle (37 Occurrences)

Smoke (98 Occurrences)

Sweet (147 Occurrences)

Attend (71 Occurrences)

Basins (33 Occurrences)

Plates (19 Occurrences)

Pertaineth (18 Occurrences)

Bull's (8 Occurrences)

Chalkstone

Contain (19 Occurrences)

Arrange (19 Occurrences)

Shelf (5 Occurrences)

Spice-perfume (5 Occurrences)

Swears (16 Occurrences)

Copper (55 Occurrences)

Poles (58 Occurrences)

Shittim (34 Occurrences)

Beth-el (65 Occurrences)

Anointed (132 Occurrences)

Putteth (182 Occurrences)

Perfumes (69 Occurrences)

Manoah (14 Occurrences)

Peace-offering (46 Occurrences)

Purify (39 Occurrences)

Bullocks (50 Occurrences)

Pulled (84 Occurrences)

Asylum

Courtyard (59 Occurrences)

Anointing (39 Occurrences)

Vessels (210 Occurrences)

Ablution

Memorial (54 Occurrences)

Built (299 Occurrences)

Perfume (202 Occurrences)

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