Wine Press
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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
Wine Press

WINE; WINE PRESS

win, win'-pres:

I. Terms.

1. Wine:

(1) (yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text.

(2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Deuteronomy 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isaiah 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezra 6:9; Ezra 7:22 Daniel 5:1, 2, 4, 23).

(3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Numbers 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isaiah 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Palestine was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Judges 9:13 Hosea 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Deuteronomy 12:17; Deuteronomy 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isaiah 65:8 Hosea 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Micah 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Numbers 18:12 Micah 6:15 (with the same change in Nehemiah 10:37, 39 the Revised Version margin; Isaiah 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout.

(4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isaiah 49:26 Amos 9:13 Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18, "juice"; Songs 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isaiah 1:22; "drink," Hosea 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nahum 1:10).

(5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Psalm 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Proverbs 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isaiah 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Songs 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Songs 8:2 ("spiced wine").

(6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Nehemiah 8:10.

(7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Numbers 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isaiah 5:11, 22, etc.). In certain passages (Leviticus 10:9 Numbers 6:3 1 Samuel 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Songs 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Palestine also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point.

See DRINK, STRONG.

(8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine."

See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY.

2. Wine Press:

(1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was called gath (Judges 6:11, etc.), and the receiving vat ("fat") yeqebh (Numbers 18:27, etc.), but the names were interchangeable to some degree (Isaiah 16:10 Job 24:11; compare Isaiah 5:2, the Revised Version (British and American) text and margin) and either could be used for the whole apparatus (see GATH and compare Judges 7:25 Zechariah 14:10). In Isaiah 63:3 the Hebrew has purah, "wine trough" a word found also in Haggai 2:16 where it seems to be a gloss (so, apparently, the American Standard Revised Version).

(2) In the Apocrypha (Sirach 33:16) and in the New Testament 21:33; Revelation 14:19, 20 (twice); 19:15) "winepress" is lenos; in Mark 12:1 hupolenion, by which only the receiving vat seems to be meant (the Revised Version (British and American) a pit for a winepress").

II. Wine-Making.

1. The Vintage:

For the care of the vine, its distribution, different varieties, etc., see VINE. The ripening of the grapes took place as early as June in the Jordan valley, but on the coast not until August, while in the hills it was delayed until September. In whatever month, however, the coming of the vintage was the signal for the villagers to leave their homes in a body and to encamp in booths erected in the vineyards, so that the work might be carried on without interruption. See TABERNACLES, FEAST OF. It was the great holiday season of the year and the joy of the vintage was proverbial (Isaiah 16:10 Jeremiah 25:30; Jeremiah 48:33; compare Judges 9:27), and fragments of vintage songs seem to be preserved in Isaiah 27:2; Isaiah 65:8. The grapes were gathered usually by cutting off the clusters (see SICKLE), and were carried to the press in baskets.

2. Wine Presses:

Many of the ancient wine presses remain to the present day. Ordinarily they consisted of two rectangular or circular excavations, hewn (Isaiah 5:2) in the solid rock to a depth of 2 or 3 feet. Where possible one was always higher than the other and they were connected by a pipe or channel. Their size, of course, varied greatly, but the upper vat was always wider and shallower than the lower and was the press proper, into which the grapes were thrown, to be crushed by the feet of the treaders (Isaiah 63:1-3, etc.). The juice flowed down through the pipe into the lower vat, from which it was removed into jars (Haggai 2:16) or where it was allowed to remain during the first fermentation.

Many modifications of this form of the press are found. Where there was no rock close to the surface, the vats were dug in the earth and lined with stonework or cement, covered with pitch. Or the pressvat might be built up out of any material (wood was much used in Egypt), and from it the juice could be conducted into a sunken receptacle or into jars. Not infrequently a third (rarely a fourth) vat might be added between the other two, in which a partial settling and straining could take place. Wooden beams are often used either to finish the pressing or to perform the whole operation, and holes into which the ends of these beams fitted can still be seen. A square of wood attached to the beam bore down on the pile of grapes, while the free end of the beam was heavily weighted. In the simpler presses the final result was obtained by piling stones on the mass that remained after the treaders had finished their work.

3. Grading:

It is a general principle of wine-making (compare that "the less the pressure the better the product"; therefore the liquid that flowed at the beginning of the process, especially that produced by the mere weight of the grapes themselves when piled in heaps, was carefully kept separate from that which was obtained only under heavy pressure. A still lower grade was made by adding water to the final refuse the mixture to ferment. Possibly this last concoction is sometimes meant by the word "vinegar" (chomets).

4. Fermentation:

In the climate of Palestine fermentation begins almost immediately, frequently on the same day for juice pressed out in the morning, but never later than the next day. At first a slight foam appears on the surface of the liquid, and from that moment, according to Jewish tradition, it is liable to the wine-tithe (Ma`aseroth 1 7). The action rapidly becomes more violent, and while it is in progress the liquid must be kept in jars or in a vat, for it would burst even the newest and strongest of wine-skins (Job 32:19). Within about a week this violent fermentation subsides, and the wine is transferred to other jars or strong wine-skins (Mark 2:22 and parallel's), in which it undergoes the secondary fermentation. At the bottom of the receptacles collects the heavier matter or "lees" (shemarim, Psalm 75:8 ("dregs"); Jeremiah 48:11; Zechariah 1:12 in Isaiah 25:6 the word is used for the wine as well), from which the "wines on the lees" gather strength and flavor.

At the end of 40 days it was regarded as properly "wine" and could be offered as a drink offering (`Edhuyyoth 6 1). The practice after this point seems to have varied, no doubt depending on the sort of wine that was being made. Certain kinds were left undisturbed to age "on their lees" and were thought to be all the better for so doing, but before they were used it was necessary to strain them very carefully. So Isaiah 25:6, `A feast of wine aged on the lees, thoroughly strained.' But usually leaving the wine in the fermentation vessels interfered with its improvement or caused it to degenerate. So at the end of 40 days it was drawn off into other jars (for storage, 1 Chronicles 27:27, etc.) or wine-skins (for transportation, Joshua 9:4, etc.). So Jeremiah 48:11: `Moab has been undisturbed from his youth, and he has rested on his lees and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel..... Therefore his flavor remains unchanged (or "becomes insipid") and his scent is unimproved (or "lacks freshness")'; compare Zechariah 1:12.

5. Storage:

Jars were tightly sealed with caps covered with pitch. The very close sealing needed to preserve sparkling wines, however, was unknown to the Hebrews, and in consequence (and for other reasons) such wines were not used. Hence, in Psalm 75:8, "The wine foameth," the allusion must be to very new wine whose fermentation had not yet subsided, if indeed, the translation is not wrong (the Revised Version margin "The wine is red"). The superiority of old wine to new was acknowledged by the Hebrews, in common with the rest of the world (Sirach 9:10; Luke 5:39), but in the wines of Palestine acetous fermentation, changing the wine into vinegar, was likely to occur at any time. Three years was about the longest time for which such wines could be kept, and "old wine" meant only wines that had been, stored for a year or more (Bab. Bath. 6 3).

See also CRAFTS, II, 19.

III. Use of Wine.

1. Mixed Wine:

In Old Testament times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought to be ruined (Isaiah 1:22). The "mixed" or "mingled wines" (see I, 1, (5), above) were prepared with aromatic herbs of various sorts and some of these compounds, used throughout the ancient world, were highly intoxicating (Isaiah 5:22). Wine mixed with myrrh was stupefying and an anesthetic (Mark 15:23). At a later period, however, the Greek use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Maccabees speaks (15:39) of undiluted wine as "distasteful" (polemion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mishna can take it for granted and, indeed, R. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Berakhoth 7 5). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Niddah 2 7; Pesachim 108b).

NOTE.

The wine of the Last Supper, accordingly, may be described in modern terms as a sweet, red, fermented wine, rather highly diluted. As it was no doubt the ordinary wine of commerce, there is no reason to suppose that it was particularly "pure."

2. Wine-Drinkinig:

Throughout the Old Testament, wine is regarded as a necessity of life and in no way as a mere luxury. It was a necessary part of even the simplest meal (Genesis 14:18 Judges 19:19 1 Samuel 16:20 Isaiah 55:1, etc.), was an indispensable provision for a fortress (2 Chronicles 11:11), and was drunk by all classes and all ages, even by the very young (Lamentations 2:12 Zechariah 9:17). "Wine" is bracketed with "grain" as a basic staple (Genesis 27:28, etc.), and the failure of the winecrop or its destruction by foreigners was a terrible calamity (Deuteronomy 28:30, 39 Isaiah 62:8; Isaiah 65:21 Micah 6:15 Zephaniah 1:13, etc.). On the other hand, abundance of wine was a special token of God's blessing (Genesis 27:28 Deuteronomy 7:13 Amos 9:14, etc.), and extraordinary abundance would be a token of the Messianic age (Amos 9:13 Joel 3:18 Zechariah 9:17). A moderate "gladdening of the heart" through wine was not looked upon as at all reprehensible (2 Samuel 13:28 Esther 1:10 Psalm 104:15 Ecclesiastes 9:7; Ecclesiastes 10:19 Zechariah 9:15; Zechariah 10:7), and while Judges 9:13 represented a mere verbal remnant of a long-obsolete concept, yet the idea contained in the verse was not thought shocking. "Drink offerings," indeed, were of course a part of the prescribed ritual (Leviticus 23:13, etc.; see SACRIFICE), and a store of wine was kept in the temple (tabernacle) to insure their performance (1 Chronicles 9:29). Even in later and much more moderate times, Sirach writes the laudation of wine in 31:27, and the writer of 2 Maccabees (see above) objects as strongly to pure water as he does to pure wine. Christ adapted Himself to Jewish customs (Matthew 11:19 parallel Luke 7:34 Luke 22:18), and exegetes usually suppose that the celebrated verse 1 Timothy 5:23 is meant as a safeguard against ascetic (Gnostic?) dualism, as well as to give medical advice.

On the temporal conditioning of the Biblical customs, the uncompromising opposition of the Bible to excess, and the non-applicability of the ancient attitude to the totally different modern conditions, see DRUNKENNESS.

The figurative uses of wine are very numerous, but are for the most part fairly obvious. Those offering difficulty have been discussed in the course of the article. For wine in its commercial aspect see TRADE.

Burton Scott Easton

Greek
5276. hupolenion -- a vessel or trough beneath a winepress (to ...
... Word Origin from hupo and lenos Definition a vessel or trough beneath a winepress
(to receive the juice) NASB Word Usage vat under (1), wine press (1). ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5276.htm - 6k

3025b. lenos -- a trough, ie a (wine) vat
... Word Origin a prim. word Definition a trough, ie a (wine) vat NASB Word Usage press
(1), wine press (4), wine* (1). 3025a, 3025b. lenos. 3026 . ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3025b.htm - 5k

Strong's Hebrew
1660. gath -- a wine press
... 1659, 1660. gath. 1661 . a wine press. Transliteration: gath Phonetic
Spelling: (gath) Short Definition: press. Word Origin from ...
/hebrew/1660.htm - 6k

1662. Gath-hachepher -- "wine press of digging," home of Jonah
... "wine press of digging," home of Jonah. Transliteration: Gath-hachepher Phonetic
Spelling: (gath-hah-khay'-fer) Short Definition: Gath-hepher. ...
/hebrew/1662.htm - 6k

1667. Gath-rimmon -- "wine press of a pomegranate," two places in ...
... "wine press of a pomegranate," two places in Palestine. Transliteration: Gath-rimmon
Phonetic Spelling: (gath-rim-mone') Short Definition: Gath-rimmon. ...
/hebrew/1667.htm - 6k

6333b. purah -- wine press
... 6333a, 6333b. purah. 6334 . wine press. Transliteration: purah Short
Definition: measures. Word Origin from an unused word Definition ...
/hebrew/6333b.htm - 5k

1661. Gath -- "wine press," a Philistine city
... 1660, 1661. Gath. 1662 . "wine press," a Philistine city. Transliteration:
Gath Phonetic Spelling: (gath) Short Definition: Gath. ...
/hebrew/1661.htm - 6k

3342. yeqeb -- wine vat
... Word Origin from an unused word Definition wine vat NASB Word Usage presses
(1), vats (3), wine press (3), wine presses (3), wine vat (6). ...
/hebrew/3342.htm - 6k

1664. Gittayim -- a city in Benjamin
... Gittaim. Dual of gath; double wine-press; Gittajim, a place in Palestine -- Gittaim.
see HEBREW gath. 1663, 1664. Gittayim. 1665 . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/1664.htm - 6k

6333. puwrah -- boughs
... winepress From puwr; a wine-press (as crushing the grapes) -- winepress. see
HEBREW puwr. 6332, 6333. puwrah. 6333a . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/6333.htm - 5k

Library

The Gospel Further Relates that the Soldiers Parted the Garments ...
... Wherefore are thy garments red, and thy raiment as though thou hadst trodden in
the wine-press?" To which Himself replies, "I have trodden the wine-press alone ...
/.../25 the gospel further relates.htm

From the Fourteenth Chapter.
... 19, 20. "And the angel thrust in the sickle, and reaped the vine of the
earth, and cast it into the wine-press of the wrath of God. ...
/.../from the fourteenth chapter.htm

The Reaping of the vine.
... And the angel cast in his sickle into the earth, and cut off the vine of the earth,
and cast it into the great wine-press of the wrath of God. ...
/.../bliss/a brief commentary on the apocalypse/the reaping of the vine.htm

The King and his Armies.
... his mouth goeth forth a sharp sword, that he may smite the nations with it: and
he will rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the wine-press of the ...
/.../bliss/a brief commentary on the apocalypse/the king and his armies.htm

Dishonest Tenants
... in the description of the preparation of the vineyard, but it would probably be
going too far to press special meanings on the wall, the wine-press, and the ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture d/dishonest tenants.htm

Christ's Kingly Office
... And the angel gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great wine-press
of the wrath of God, and the wine-press was trodden, and blood came out of ...
//christianbookshelf.org/watson/a body of divinity/5 christs kingly office.htm

July 18, 1890
... Since Our Beloved has "trodden the wine-press alone," [205] the wine-press from
which He gives us to drink"on our side let us not refuse to be clothed in ...
//christianbookshelf.org/therese/story of a soul/viii july 18 1890.htm

None Greater than John the Baptist, Yet. . .
... He is threshing wheat by the wine-press, to hide it from the hosts of
Midian, which devoured the produce of the entire country. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/meyer/john the baptist/xii none greater than john.htm

The Husbandmen
... A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a pit for the
wine-press, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another ...
/.../chadwick/the gospel of st mark/chapter 11 1-12 the husbandmen.htm

No Salvation to the Jews Except through Christ.
... Why are Thy garments red, and Thine apparel as from the trodden wine-press?
Thou art full of the trodden grape. I have trodden the ...
/.../chapter xxvi no salvation to the.htm

Subtopics

Alcohol

Alcoholism

Wine

Wine in Bottles

Wine in Excess: Forbidden

Wine in Excess: Impairs the Health

Wine in Excess: Impairs the Judgment and Memory

Wine in Excess: Inflames the Passions

Wine in Excess: Infuriates the Temper

Wine in Excess: Leads to Remorse

Wine in Excess: Leads to Sorrow and Contention

Wine in Skins (Rv)

Wine in Times of Scarcity, Was Mixed With Water

Wine of Abominations

Wine of Staggering (Rv)

Wine of the Abominations of the Apostasy

Wine of the Blessing of the Gospel

Wine of the Blood of Christ

Wine of the Divine Judgments

Wine of the Joy of Wisdom

Wine of the Joys of Spiritual Matters

Wine of the Wrath and Judgments of God

Wine of Violence and Rapine

Wine Press

Wine Press in Vineyards

Wine Press of the Judgments of God

Wine Press: General Scriptures Concerning

Wine Press: Treading The, of the Sufferings of Christ

Wine Press: Trodden With Joy and Shouting

Wine used at Meals

Wine was Kept in Bottles

Wine was Made of The Juice of the Grape

Wine was Made of The Juice of the Pomegranate

Wine was Stored in Cellars

Wine was Used for Drink offerings in Idolatrous Worship

Wine was Used for Drink offerings in the Worship of God

Wine was Used: As a Beverage from the Earliest Age

Wine was Used: As a Medicine

Wine was Used: At all Feasts and Entertainments

Wine with Corn and Oil, Denoted all Temporal Blessings

Wine: Abstinence from of Daniel

Wine: Abstinence from of the Courtiers of Ahasuerus

Wine: Abstinence from of Timothy

Wine: Admonitions Against the Use of

Wine: An Article of Extensive Commerce

Wine: Banquets of

Wine: Cellars For

Wine: Cheap Wine (Like Vinegar) Given to Jesus at the Crucifixion

Wine: Cheering God and Man

Wine: Commerce In

Wine: Consequence of Putting (When New), Into Old Bottles

Wine: Custom of Giving to Persons in Pain or Suffering, Mixed With

Wine: Custom of Presenting to Travellers

Wine: Denied to the Israelites in the Wilderness, So That They Could Know That the Lord Was Their God

Wine: Fermented

Wine: First Fruits of, to be offered to God

Wine: First Mention of

Wine: First Mode of Making, Notice

Wine: Forbidden to Kings

Wine: Forbidden to Nazarites

Wine: Forbidden to Nazarites During Their Separation

Wine: Forbidden to Priests While on Duty

Wine: Forbidden to the Priests While Engaged in the Tabernacle

Wine: from Pomegranates

Wine: Generally Made by Treading the Grapes in a Press

Wine: Given by Melchizedek to Abraham

Wine: Given in Abundance to the Jews when Obedient

Wine: Gladdening the Heart

Wine: Improved by Age

Wine: Inflames the Eyes

Wine: Intoxication from the Use of

Wine: Intoxication From: Ahasuerus

Wine: Intoxication From: Amnon

Wine: Intoxication From: Falsely Charged Against the Disciples

Wine: Intoxication From: Joseph and his Brothers

Wine: Intoxication From: Kings of Israel

Wine: Intoxication From: Lot

Wine: Intoxication From: Nabal

Wine: Intoxication From: Noah

Wine: Kept in Jars

Wine: Made by Jesus at the Marriage Feast in Cana

Wine: Made from Grapes

Wine: Making Mirthful

Wine: Many Kinds of

Wine: Medicinal Use of

Wine: New

Wine: Offered With Sacrifices

Wine: Often Spiced to Increase Its Strength

Wine: Old

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Assyria

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Canaan in General

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Helbon

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Lebanon

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Moab

Wine: Places Celebrated For: Possessions of Judah

Wine: Recommended by Paul to Timothy

Wine: Red, Most Esteemed

Wine: Refined

Wine: Refining of, Alluded To

Wine: Sacramental Use of

Wine: Samson's Mother Forbidden to Drink

Wine: Sometimes Mixed With Milk As a Beverage

Wine: Strengthening

Wine: Sweet, Esteemed for Flavour and Strength

Wine: Symbolical of the Blood of Jesus

Wine: The Jews Frequently Deprived of, As a Punishment

Wine: The Jews Frequently Drank, to Excess

Wine: The Love of Christ to be Preferred To

Wine: The Rechabites Never Drank

Wine: Unclassified Scriptures Relating To

Wine: Water Miraculously Turned Into

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