Mark 12:1
New International Version
Jesus then began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the winepress and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and moved to another place.

New Living Translation
Then Jesus began teaching them with stories: “A man planted a vineyard. He built a wall around it, dug a pit for pressing out the grape juice, and built a lookout tower. Then he leased the vineyard to tenant farmers and moved to another country.

English Standard Version
And he began to speak to them in parables. “A man planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a pit for the winepress and built a tower, and leased it to tenants and went into another country.

Berean Study Bible
Then Jesus began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a wine vat, and built a watchtower. Then he rented it out to some tenants and went away on a journey.

Berean Literal Bible
And He began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard, and placed around it a fence, and dug a wine vat, and built a tower, and rented it out to farmers, and traveled abroad.

King James Bible
And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.

New King James Version
Then He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard and set a hedge around it, dug a place for the wine vat and built a tower. And he leased it to vinedressers and went into a far country.

New American Standard Bible
And He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard and put a fence around it, and dug a vat under the wine press and built a tower, and leased it to vine-growers and went on a journey.

NASB 1995
And He began to speak to them in parables: "A man PLANTED A VINEYARD AND PUT A WALL AROUND IT, AND DUG A VAT UNDER THE WINE PRESS AND BUILT A TOWER, and rented it out to vine-growers and went on a journey.

NASB 1977
And He began to speak to them in parables: “A man PLANTED A VINEYARD, AND PUT A WALL AROUND IT, AND DUG A VAT UNDER THE WINE PRESS, AND BUILT A TOWER, and rented it out to vine-growers and went on a journey.

Amplified Bible
Jesus began to speak to them [the chief priests, scribes and elders who were questioning Him] in parables: “A man PLANTED A VINEYARD AND PUT A WALL AROUND IT, AND DUG A PIT FOR THE WINE PRESS AND BUILT A TOWER; and he rented it out to tenant farmers and left the country.

Christian Standard Bible
He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard, put a fence around it, dug out a pit for a winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to tenant farmers and went away.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Then He began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard, put a fence around it, dug out a pit for a winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to tenant farmers and went away.

American Standard Version
And he began to speak unto them in parables. A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a pit for the winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And he began to speak with them in a parable: “A certain man planted a vineyard and enclosed it with a hedge and dug a wine press in it and built a tower into it and gave its care to laborers, and he went abroad.”

Contemporary English Version
Jesus then told them this story: A farmer once planted a vineyard. He built a wall around it and dug a pit to crush the grapes in. He also built a lookout tower. Then he rented out his vineyard and left the country.

Douay-Rheims Bible
AND he began to speak to them in parables: A certain man planted a vineyard and made a hedge about it, and dug a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it to husbandmen; and went into a far country.

English Revised Version
And he began to speak unto them in parables. A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a pit for the winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country.

Good News Translation
Then Jesus spoke to them in parables: "Once there was a man who planted a vineyard, put a fence around it, dug a hole for the wine press, and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to tenants and left home on a trip.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Then, using this illustration, Jesus spoke to them. He said, "A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, made a vat for the winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to vineyard workers and went on a trip.

International Standard Version
Then Jesus began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the wine press, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to tenant farmers and went abroad.

Literal Standard Version
And He began to speak to them in allegories: “A man planted a vineyard, and put a hedge around, and dug a wine vat, and built a tower, and gave it out to farmers, and went abroad;

NET Bible
Then he began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard. He put a fence around it, dug a pit for its winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to tenant farmers and went on a journey.

New Heart English Bible
He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went on a journey.

Weymouth New Testament
Then He began to speak to them in figurative language. "There was once a man," He said, "who planted a vineyard, fenced it round, dug a pit for the wine-tank, and built a strong lodge. Then he let the place to vine-dressers and went abroad.

World English Bible
He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country.

Young's Literal Translation
And he began to speak to them in similes: 'A man planted a vineyard, and put a hedge around, and digged an under-wine-vat, and built a tower, and gave it out to husbandmen, and went abroad;

Additional Translations ...
Context
The Parable of the Wicked Tenants
1Then Jesus began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a wine vat, and built a watchtower. Then he rented it out to some tenants and went away on a journey. 2At harvest time, he sent a servant to the tenants to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard.…

Cross References
Isaiah 5:1
I will sing for my beloved a song of his vineyard: My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill.

Isaiah 5:2
He dug it up and cleared the stones and planted the finest vines. He built a watchtower in the middle and dug out a winepress as well. He waited for the vineyard to yield good grapes, but the fruit it produced was sour!

Matthew 13:3
And He told them many things in parables, saying, "A farmer went out to sow his seed.

Matthew 21:33
Listen to another parable: There was a landowner who planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a winepress in it, and built a tower. Then he rented it out to some tenants and went away on a journey.

Matthew 21:34
When the harvest time drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants to collect his share of the fruit.

Mark 3:23
So Jesus called them together and began to speak to them in parables: "How can Satan drive out Satan?

Mark 4:2
And He taught them many things in parables, and in His teaching He said,

Mark 11:33
So they answered, "We do not know." And Jesus replied, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things."

Mark 12:2
At harvest time, he sent a servant to the tenants to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard.

Luke 20:9
Then He proceeded to tell the people this parable: "A man planted a vineyard, rented it out to some tenants, and went away for a long time.


Treasury of Scripture

And he began to speak to them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and dig a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to farmers, and went into a far country.

he began.

Mark 4:2,11-13,33,34
And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine, …

Ezekiel 20:49
Then said I, Ah Lord GOD! they say of me, Doth he not speak parables?

Matthew 13:10-15,34,35
And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables? …

A certain.

Matthew 21:33-40
Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country: …

Luke 20:9-15
Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time…

planted.

Psalm 80:8-16
Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it…

Isaiah 5:1-4
Now will I sing to my wellbeloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My wellbeloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill: …

Jeremiah 2:21
Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, wholly a right seed: how then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto me?

and set.

Nehemiah 9:13,14
Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from heaven, and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and commandments: …

Psalm 78:68,69
But chose the tribe of Judah, the mount Zion which he loved…

Psalm 147:19,20
He sheweth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his judgments unto Israel…

and let.

Song of Solomon 8:11,12
Solomon had a vineyard at Baalhamon; he let out the vineyard unto keepers; every one for the fruit thereof was to bring a thousand pieces of silver…

Isaiah 7:23
And it shall come to pass in that day, that every place shall be, where there were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings, it shall even be for briers and thorns.

and went.

Mark 13:34
For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.









XII.

(1-12) And he began to speak unto them by parables.--See Notes on Matthew 21:33-36. The parable which, like that of the Sower, and like that only, is related in all the first three Gospels, was one which had obviously impressed itself strongly, as that had done, on the minds of those who heard it, and was reproduced by independent reporters with an almost textual exactness.

A place for the winefat.--Better, simply, a vine vat.

Verse 1. - And he began to speak unto them in parables. This particular parable which follows was specially directed against the scribes and Pharisees; but it was uttered in the presence of a multitude of the people. "He began to speak... in parables." He had not used this form of instruction till now in Jerusalem. A man planted a vineyard. The imagery of the parable would be familiar to them from Isaiah (Isaiah 5:1). But Palestine was eminently a land of "vineyards," as well as of "oil olives." The man who planted the vineyard is no other than God himself. "Thou hast brought a vine" out of Egypt; thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it." The imagery is specially appropriate. No property was considered to yield so rich a return as the vineyard, and none required such unceasing care and attention. The vine represents the kingdom of God in its idea and conception; not the Jewish Church in particular. The owner of this vineyard had himself made it. (He had "planted it." This planting took place in the establishment of the Jewish polity in the land of Canaan, when the heathen were cast out. He set a hedge about it. This and the following descriptions are not mere ornaments of the parable. The "hedge" was an important protection to the vineyard. It might be a wall or a "quick hedge," a living fence. The vineyards in the East may now be seen often with a strong hedge planted round them. Such hedges, made of the prickly cactus, are to be seen at this day in the neighborhood of Joppa. Figuratively, this hedge would represent the middle wall of partition which then existed between the Jew and the Gentile; and in this, their separation from the idolatrous nations around them, lay the security of the Jews that they should enjoy the continued protection of God. It is well remarked by Archbishop Trench that the geographical position of Judaea was figurative of this, the spiritual separation of the people - guarded as Judaea was eastward by the river Jordan and its chain of lakes, northward by Antilibanus, southward by the desert and Idumaea, and westward by the Mediterranean Sea. Digged a place for the winepress (ληνός torcular); the words are literally, digged a pit for the winepress (ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον); the digging could only apply to the pit, a place hollowed out and then fitted with masonry. Sometimes these pits were formed out of the solid rock. Examples of these are frequent in Palestine. There were usually two pits hollowed out of the rock, one sloping to the other, and with openings between them. The grapes were placed in the upper pit; and the juice, crushed out by the feet of men, flowed into the lower pit, from whence it was taken out and put into wine-skins. "I have trodden the winepress alone." And built a tower. The tower (πύργον) was probably the watch-tower, where a watchman was placed to guard the vineyard from plunderers. Particular directions are given in the rabbinical writings (see Lightfoot) for the dimensions both of the winepress and of the tower. The tower was to be ten cubits high and four cubits square. It is described as "a high place, where the vine-dresser stands to overlook the vineyard." Such towers are still to be seen in Palestine, especially in the neighborhood of Bethlehem, of Hebron, and in the vine-growing districts of Lebanon. And let it out to husbandmen. The husbandmen would be the ordinary stated teachers of the people, though not excluding the people themselves. The Jewish nation in fact, both the teachers and the taught, represented the husbandmen, each member of the Church, then as now, being required to seek the welfare of the whole, body. And went into a far country (καὶ ἀπεδήμηδε); literally, and went into another country. St. Luke (Luke 20:9) adds (χρόνους ἱκανούς), "for a long time."

Parallel Commentaries ...


Greek
Then
Καὶ (Kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

[Jesus] began
ἤρξατο (ērxato)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Middle - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 756: To begin. Middle voice of archo; to commence.

to speak
λαλεῖν (lalein)
Verb - Present Infinitive Active
Strong's 2980: A prolonged form of an otherwise obsolete verb; to talk, i.e. Utter words.

to them
αὐτοῖς (autois)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Dative Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

in
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

parables:
παραβολαῖς (parabolais)
Noun - Dative Feminine Plural
Strong's 3850: From paraballo; a similitude, i.e. fictitious narrative, apothegm or adage.

“A man
ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos)
Noun - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's 444: A man, one of the human race. From aner and ops; man-faced, i.e. A human being.

planted
ἐφύτευσεν (ephyteusen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 5452: To plant, set. From a derivative of phuo; to set out in the earth, i.e. Implant; figuratively, to instil doctrine.

a vineyard.
Ἀμπελῶνα (Ampelōna)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 290: A vineyard. From ampelos; a vineyard.

He put
περιέθηκεν (periethēken)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 4060: To place or put around, clothe; fig: I bestow, confer. From peri and tithemi; to place around; by implication, to present.

a wall {around it},
φραγμὸν (phragmon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 5418: A hedge, fence, partition. From phrasso; a fence, or inclosing barrier.

dug
ὤρυξεν (ōryxen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 3736: To dig, dig out, excavate. Apparently a primary verb; to 'burrow' in the ground, i.e. Dig.

a wine vat,
ὑπολήνιον (hypolēnion)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 5276: Neuter of a presumed compound of hupo and lenos; vessel or receptacle under the press, i.e. Lower wine-vat.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

built
ᾠκοδόμησεν (ōkodomēsen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 3618: From the same as oikodome; to be a house-builder, i.e. Construct or confirm.

a watchtower.
πύργον (pyrgon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's 4444: A tower, fortified structure. Apparently a primary word; a tower or castle.

Then
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

he rented it out
ἐξέδετο (exedeto)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Middle - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 1554: To give out, let; middle: I let out for my own advantage. From ek and didomi; to give forth, i.e. to lease.

to [some] tenants
γεωργοῖς (geōrgois)
Noun - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's 1092: From ge and the base of ergon; a land-worker, i.e. Farmer.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

went away on a journey.
ἀπεδήμησεν (apedēmēsen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 589: To be away from home, go into another country, be away, be abroad. From apodemos; to go abroad, i.e. Visit a foreign land.


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