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Smith's Bible Dictionary

The Hebrew word translated "vinegar" was applied to a beverage consisting generally of wine or strong drink turned sour, but sometimes artificially made by an admixture of barley and wine, and thus liable to fermentation. It was acid even to a proverb, (Proverbs 10:26) and by itself formed an unpleasant draught, (Psalms 49:21) but was used by laborers. (Ruth 2:14) Similar was the acetum of the Romans --a thin, sour wine, consumed by soldiers. This was the beverage of which the Saviour partook in his dying moments. (Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29,30)

ATS Bible Dictionary

Poor or sour wine, the produce of the second or acetous fermentation of vinous liquors. The term sometimes designates a thin, sour wine, much used by laborers and by the Roman soldiers, Numbers 6:3 Ruth 2:14 2 Chronicles 2:10 John 19:29. See GALL. In other places it denotes the common sharp vinegar, which furnished the wise man with two significant illustrations, Proverbs 10:26 25:20.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Hebrews hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psalm 69:21, a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matthew 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Proverbs 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) A sour liquid used as a condiment, or as a preservative, and obtained by the spontaneous (acetous) fermentation, or by the artificial oxidation, of wine, cider, beer, or the like.

2. (a.) Hence, anything sour; -- used also metaphorically.

3. (v. t.) To convert into vinegar; to make like vinegar; to render sour or sharp.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

vin'-e-ger (chomets; oxos): Vinegar, whose use as a condiment (Ruth 2:14) needs no comment, is formed when a saccharine fluid passes through a fermentation that produces acetic acid. In the ancient world vinegar was usually made of wine, although any fruit juice can be utilized in its manufacture, and "vinegar of strong drink" (palm juice?) is mentioned in Numbers 6:3. Undiluted vinegar is of course undrinkable, and to offer it to a thirsty man is mockery (Psalm 69:21), but a mixture of water and vinegar makes a beverage that was very popular among the poor (Greek oxos, oxukraton, Latin posca-names applied also to diluted sour wine). It is mentioned in Numbers 6:3 (forbidden to the Nazirite) and again in the Gospels in the account of the Crucifixion. The executioners had brought it in a vessel (John 19:29) for their own use and at first "offered" it to Christ, while keeping it out of reach (Luke 23:36). But at the end the drink was given Him on a sponge (Mark 15:36 Matthew 27:48 John 19:29, 30). In addition, the King James Version, following Textus Receptus of the New Testament, has "vinegar.... mingled with gall" in Matthew 27:34, but this rests on a false reading, probably due to Psalm 69:21, and the Revised Version (British and American) rightly has "wine." Vinegar, like all acids, is injurious to the teeth (Proverbs 10:26); and when it is combined with niter an effervescence is produced (Proverbs 25:20). The appropriateness of the last figure, however, is obscure, and Septuagint reads "as vinegar on a wound," causing pain.

Burton Scott Easton

3690. oxos -- sour wine
... sour wine. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: oxos Phonetic Spelling:
(oz-os) Short Definition: vinegar, sour wine Definition: vinegar, sour wine ...
// - 7k
Strong's Hebrew
2558. chomets -- vinegar
... 2557, 2558. chomets. 2559 . vinegar. Transliteration: chomets Phonetic
Spelling: (kho'-mets) Short Definition: vinegar. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/2558.htm - 6k

It is Related Also that vinegar was Given Him to Drink, or Wine ...
... 26. It is related also that vinegar was given Him to drink, or wine mingled
with myrrh which is bitterer than gall. Hear what the ...
/.../26 it is related also.htm

Of the Harmony of the Four Evangelists in their Notices of the ...
... Prologue. Chapter XVII."Of the Harmony of the Four Evangelists in Their
Notices of the Draught of Vinegar. 54. Matthew proceeds ...
/.../augustine/the harmony of the gospels/chapter xvii of the harmony of.htm

The Crucifixion.
... knowing that all things are now finished, that the scripture might be accomplished,
saith, I thirst.29 There was set there a vessel full of vinegar: ^a 48 And ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/cxxxiii the crucifixion 3.htm

Faustus Rejects the Old Testament Because it Leaves no Room for ...
... If it contains wine, it should be filled up with wine, honey with honey,
vinegar with vinegar. For to pour gall on honey, or water ...
/.../faustus rejects the old testament.htm

Whether Wine of the Grape is the Proper Matter of this Sacrament?
... Objection 2: Further, vinegar is a kind of wine drawn from the grape, as Isidore
says (Etym. xx). But this sacrament cannot be celebrated with vinegar. ...
// theologica/whether wine of the grape.htm

John Chapter xix. 24-30.
... Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with
vinegar, and fixed it upon hyssop, and put it to His mouth. ...
/.../augustine/homilies on the gospel of john/tractate cxix john chapter xix.htm

An Eye-Witness's Account of the Crucifixion
... Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with
vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to His mouth. ...
/.../an eye-witnesss account of the.htm

The Burning ??sculapius; Tricks with Fire.
... the magician) lays his hand upon the cauldron of pitch, [250] which is in, as it
were, a boiling state; and throwing in (at the same time) vinegar and nitre ...
/.../chapter xxxiii the burning aesculapius tricks.htm

And There is no Truth in the Statement of Celsus...
... and degrading things were which Christ suffered, in these words: "For what better
was it for God to eat the flesh of sheep, or to drink vinegar and gall, than ...
/.../origen/origen against celsus/chapter xiii and there is.htm

Expository Treatise against the Jews.
... Many a time dost thou boast thyself, in that thou didst condemn Jesus of Nazareth
to death, and didst give Him vinegar and gall to drink; and thou dost vaunt ...
/.../expository treatise against the jews.htm

Vinegar (11 Occurrences)
... vin aigre; ie, "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psalm 69:21,
a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matthew 27:34). ...
/v/vinegar.htm - 13k

Hyssop (12 Occurrences)
... suits the conditions of John 19:29, it being maintained that a stem of caper would
make a good object on which to raise the "sponge full of vinegar" to the ...
/h/hyssop.htm - 14k

Nitre (2 Occurrences)
... because, rising from the bottom of the Lake Natron in Egypt, it becomes dry and
hard in the sun, and is the soda which effervesces when vinegar is poured on it ...
/n/nitre.htm - 9k

Sour (15 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (superl.) Having an acid or sharp, biting taste,
like vinegar, and the juices of most unripe fruits; acid; tart. ...
/s/sour.htm - 12k

Spunge (3 Occurrences)
... Matthew 27:48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it
with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. (KJV WBS YLT). ...
/s/spunge.htm - 7k

Sponge (3 Occurrences)
... Sponge (3 Occurrences). Matthew 27:48 Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge,
and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink. ...
/s/sponge.htm - 10k

Gall (17 Occurrences)
... The drink offered to our Lord was vinegar (made of light wine rendered acid, the
common drink of Roman soldiers) "mingled with gall," or, according to Mark (15 ...
/g/gall.htm - 17k

Filled (336 Occurrences)
... Matthew 27:48 Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled
it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink. ...
/f/filled.htm - 35k

Reed (41 Occurrences)
... The "reed" on which they put the sponge filled with vinegar (Matthew 27:48) was,
according to John (19:29), a hyssop stalk, which must have been of some length ...
/r/reed.htm - 29k

Offered (320 Occurrences)
... (WEB WEY ASV DBY RSV NIV). Mark 15:36 One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar,
put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Let him be. ...
/o/offered.htm - 37k

Why did Jesus say, “I thirst,” from the cross? |

How many prophecies did Jesus fulfill? |

What were the seven last words of Jesus Christ on the cross and what do they mean? |

Vinegar: Dictionary and Thesaurus |

Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus
Vinegar (11 Occurrences)

Matthew 27:34
They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink.

Matthew 27:48
Immediately one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him a drink.

Mark 15:36
One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, "Let him be. Let's see whether Elijah comes to take him down."

Luke 23:36
The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar,

John 19:29
Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and held it at his mouth.

John 19:30
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished." He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.

Numbers 6:3
he shall separate himself from wine and strong drink. He shall drink no vinegar of wine, or vinegar of fermented drink, neither shall he drink any juice of grapes, nor eat fresh grapes or dried.

Ruth 2:14
At meal time Boaz said to her, "Come here, and eat of the bread, and dip your morsel in the vinegar." She sat beside the reapers, and they reached her parched grain, and she ate, and was satisfied, and left some of it.

Psalms 69:21
They also gave me gall for my food. In my thirst, they gave me vinegar to drink.

Proverbs 10:26
As vinegar to the teeth, and as smoke to the eyes, so is the sluggard to those who send him.

Proverbs 25:20
As one who takes away a garment in cold weather, or vinegar on soda, so is one who sings songs to a heavy heart.



Vinegar used With Food

Vinegar: Forbidden to Nazarites

Vinegar: Offered to Christ While on the Cross

Related Terms

Hyssop (12 Occurrences)

Nitre (2 Occurrences)

Sour (15 Occurrences)

Spunge (3 Occurrences)

Sponge (3 Occurrences)

Gall (17 Occurrences)

Filled (336 Occurrences)

Reed (41 Occurrences)

Offered (320 Occurrences)

Juice (8 Occurrences)

Liquor (5 Occurrences)

Grapes (74 Occurrences)

Grape (20 Occurrences)

Fixed (284 Occurrences)

Fermented (23 Occurrences)

Running (135 Occurrences)

Raisins (9 Occurrences)

Ran (100 Occurrences)

Dried (66 Occurrences)

Mother (2641 Occurrences)

Moist (5 Occurrences)

Plant (92 Occurrences)

Placed (297 Occurrences)

Branch (60 Occurrences)

Crucifixion (4 Occurrences)

Abstain (13 Occurrences)

Soaked (7 Occurrences)

Stick (47 Occurrences)

Lips (199 Occurrences)

Vessel (118 Occurrences)

Fresh (41 Occurrences)

Bowl (44 Occurrences)

Putting (278 Occurrences)

Giving (611 Occurrences)

Drink (414 Occurrences)

Vine-dressers (18 Occurrences)

Run (147 Occurrences)

Held (223 Occurrences)

Stood (491 Occurrences)

Press (57 Occurrences)

Wine (282 Occurrences)

Vine-garden (43 Occurrences)

Offering (850 Occurrences)

Let's (74 Occurrences)

Leaven (24 Occurrences)

Leaveth (25 Occurrences)

Game (11 Occurrences)

Weather (5 Occurrences)

Whether (239 Occurrences)

Immediately (141 Occurrences)

Fill (126 Occurrences)

Finished (157 Occurrences)

Filling (29 Occurrences)

Tanner (3 Occurrences)

Thereof (845 Occurrences)

Reapers (15 Occurrences)

Reserved (28 Occurrences)


Reacheth (23 Occurrences)

Roasted (13 Occurrences)

Elias (30 Occurrences)

Eli'jah (93 Occurrences)

Expired (29 Occurrences)

Dipped (17 Occurrences)

Mocked (40 Occurrences)

Morsel (14 Occurrences)

Make (12882 Occurrences)

Mingled (62 Occurrences)

Mocking (25 Occurrences)

Medicine (4 Occurrences)

Bowed (150 Occurrences)

Bo'az (24 Occurrences)

Food (2953 Occurrences)

Sluggard (14 Occurrences)

Soldiers (83 Occurrences)

Someone (153 Occurrences)

Sufficed (4 Occurrences)

Singer (5 Occurrences)

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