Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.Hebrews 10:1. Σκιὰν, shadow) The antithesis is εἰκόνα, image.—αὐτὴν την εἰκόα, the very image) the archetype, the original and solid image, ch. Hebrews 9:24, note. The shadow, although it was the prelude of future events, did not however precede, as in a picture, but followed a little after. See by all means ch. Hebrews 8:5.—κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν, yearly) This refers to the whole sentence to the end of the verse.—ταῖς αὐταῖς, with the same) the same, not in the number, but in the kind of sacrifices.—ἃς προσφέρουσιν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς, which they offer continually) offer, viz. those who offer, who draw near and perform the service. They offer for ever; that is, they do not cease to offer, nor will they cease, unless they be compelled.—οὐδέποτε δύναται, never can) So. Hebrews 10:11.
 Used here of the first outline or sketch drawn, preparatory to a painting.—ED.
For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins.Hebrews 10:2. Ἐπεὶ) So, altogether, ἐπεὶ, with an interrogation, in ch. Hebrews 9:17, note.
But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year.Hebrews 10:3. Ἐν αὐταῖς, in those) sacrifices.—ἀνάμνησις, a remembrance) public; comp. Hebrews 10:17.—ἁμαρτιῶν, of sins) viz. those of the last year, and of all years. The day of expiation was not on that day on which Christ was crucified, but on the tenth day of Tisri, of which see Ord. Temp., p. 22. The forgetting [the “remembering no more”] of sins is opposed to this admonitory remembrance: Hebrews 10:17.—κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν, yearly) An Epanalepsis; comp. Hebrews 10:1. He is speaking chiefly of the solemn yearly sacrifices.
 See Append. The same word in beginning of the preceding and in the end of the following member: or antecedent repeated after a parenthesis.—ED.
For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.Hebrews 10:4. Ἀφαιρεῖν, to take away) περιελεῖν, to remove entirely; Hebrews 10:11. In the writings of Moses, great effects are ascribed to these elementary ordinances of worship, in order that it might appear that it is not in themselves that these have so great efficacy.
 Περιαιρεῖν is to remove on every side (περί) and in every respect: prorsus tollere. Ἀφαιρεῖν, to take off or away.—ED.
Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me:Hebrews 10:5. Εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον, when He comes into the world) In the 40th Psalm, the entrance of the Messiah into the world is set before us. The tabernacle itself was part of the world, ch. Hebrews 9:1; and it is here called the world, because the sacrifice of the Messiah extends much more widely than the Levitical sacrifices, reaching, as through all times, so through all the world, which is claimed for Him as His, Psalm 40:10, because He is its heir. The word, εἰσερχόμενος, entering, is elicited from ἥκω, I am come, and is represented by it, Hebrews 10:7.—θυσίαν—οὐκ εὐδόκησας.—τοῦ ποιῆσαι, ὁ Θεὸς, τὸ θέλημά σου) LXX., in the psalm now quoted, θυσίαν—οὐκ ἐζήτησας—τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ Θεός μου, ἠβουλήθην, καὶ τὸν νόμον σου ἐν μέσῳ τῆς κοιλίας μου. The apostle joins those words, τοῦ ποιῆσαι, ὁ Θεὸς, τὸ θέτημά σου, which had been separated from those following, with those going before, which relate to the same thing, as the words, “forty years, in the wilderness,” ch. Hebrews 3:9.—σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι) Heb., thou hast bored my ears (comp. Exodus 21:6), namely, that I may subserve Thy will with perfect love; comp. Isaiah 1:5. The slave, whose ears were bored, was claimed by the master whom he loved with his whole body as his property. Sam. Petitus, in var. lect. c. 28, ascribes the Greek translation of the Prophets and Psalms to the Essenes, and he ascribes to the Essenes this phrase, Thou hast fitted or prepared for me a body; for he says, that among the Essenes there was no slave, but that they had bodies or colleges, whose members served and obeyed one another. The favourers of liberty, however strong in that cause, might still retain the reading, ears; but the apostle maintains the proper (strict) acceptation of the term, body. The ears are a part: the body, as a whole, follows the example of their obedience. Thou hast prepared for me a body, viz. for the offering; Hebrews 10:10. The mentioning of the whole here is very suitable. There is an expression of Paul, concerning the body of Christ, very similar to this, Romans 7:4.
In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure.
Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God.Hebrews 10:7. Τότε, then) We shall speak of this particle at Hebrews 10:8. The parallels are, then; I am come; in the book: and corresponding, I said; of Me; it has been written.—ἥκω, I am here at hand, I am come) It corresponds to the Hebrew preterite, באתי. The verb, ἥκω, is treated of at Revelation 2:25.—ἘΝ ΚΕΦΑΛΊΔΙ ΒΙΒΛΊΟΥ ΓΈΓΡΑΠΤΑΙ ΠΕΡῚ ἘΜΟῦ, in the volume of the book it is written of Me) מגלת ספר, LXX., ΚΕΦΑΛῚς ΒΙΒΛΊΟΥ here, and Ezekiel 2:9. מגלה is rendered by the same translators ΚΕΦΑΛῚς, Ezekiel 3:1-2, Ezra 6:2. This phrase (nomenclature) cannot be understood of any particular part of the Pentateuch (for, except it, no other prophetical writings, to which the psalm might seem to refer, existed in the time of David), for many, nay, all the parts, treat of Christ; nor can it be understood of the whole Pentateuch, for although the whole volume of the law is often quoted, yet it never receives this appellation. Moreover, the sacrifices in this passage are called ΤῸ ΠΡΏΤΟΝ, the first, Hebrews 10:9 : wherefore the volume of the book does not denote the book which contained the very account also of the sacrifices heretofore offered. Also, the Divine rejection of sacrifices (Thou wouldest not), and the Messiah’s exhibition of Himself to do the will of GOD, came after the perpetual offering of them, and not previously. What, then, is the volume of the book? We do not require to go far to learn; it is the very page on which this very psalm was written. There are these two parallels: I have said, lo! I come; and, in the volume of the book it is written עלי, concerning Me, of Me: by this very writing I undertake to do Thy will. The Messiah places Himself as surety by both expressions; and hence the presence, in the highest degree, of the Spirit of prophecy is perceived. David had before his eyes, and in his hand, the book in which the psalm was written, and shows this very book as the written contract of the Messiah; comp. Nehemiah 10:1. From that very day when this psalm was written, it became incumbent on Christ, by some new way, to do the will of GOD. It is consistent with all this, that it is not said, in Thy book, or in the book of the Lord, as in Psalm 139:16, and Isaiah 34:16, but simply, in the book. Comp. note on the following verse. Augustine understands “the volume of the book,” here, of the beginning of the book of Psalms; but at that time the Psalms had not yet been collected into one volume. Others have understood it of the whole Scripture; but even the writings of the Old Testament which then existed, had not been so collected into one, as to be called one book.—τὸ θέλημά σου, Thy will) That GOD wills and has pleasure in something different from the legal sacrifices, was evident from this very fact, that the flesh of oxen and the blood of goats did not afford Him satisfaction; but what His will is, we deduce from the very preparing of the Messiah’s body, by which, when it was offered, we were to be sanctified; Hebrews 10:10. Christ, in the Psalms, acknowledges and embraces this as the will of GOD.
 I come, or rather, I have come, was the creed (symbolum), as it were, of the Lord Jesus. I am come, says He, to fulfil the law, Matthew 5:17 : to preach, Mark 1:38 : to call sinner’s to repentance, Luke 5:32 : to send a sword, and to set men at variance, Matthew 10:34-35 : I have come down from heaven to do the will of Him that sent Me, John 6:38-39. These are the very words of the fortieth Psalm. I am sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 15:24 : I am come into this world for judgment, John 9:39 : I have come that they may have life, and may have it more abundantly, John 10:10 : to save what had been lost, Matthew 18:11 : to save men’s lives, Luke 9:56 : to send fire on the earth, Luke 12:49 : to minister, Matthew 20:28 : to seek and to save that which was lost, Luke 19:10, comp. with 1 Timothy 1:15 : I am come into the world the Light, John 12:46, etc.: to bear witness to the truth, ch. John 18:37. See, Reader, that thy Saviour obtain what He aimed at in thy case. But do thou, for thy part, say why thou art come here. Dost thou, then, also do the will of God? from what time? and in what way?—V. g.
Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law;Hebrews 10:8-9. Ἀνώτερον λέγων—τότε εἴρηκεν, Above, when He said—then said He) Paul urges the order of the words of the psalm which depends on the particle, אז, τότε, then, showing that it falls on that very time when the prophet sang the psalm in the character of Christ, and on that very point of time when, immediately after the words, θυσίαν, κ.τ.λ., sacrifice, etc., placed ἀνώτερον, above, in the psalm, there sprang up the words, ἰδοὺ, ἥκω, lo! I come. Therefore אז is altogether demonstrative of the present (comp. אז, τότε, then, Psalm 69:5), with an antithesis between the things concerned, from which the wisdom of the apostle infers the first and second, אז, (Hebrews 10:9); comp.μετὰ, after, ch. Hebrews 7:28, note. Let this אז be the terminus (the point of boundary between the Old and New Testament). Paul also puts, in the first place, the general word of the LXX., εἶπον, then one more significant, εἴρηκεν; whence it is evident, that λέγων, saying, is of the imperfect tense [when He said, or was saying]. But observe how great authority the Psalms possess. The oath of Jehovah was given at the very time when Psalms 110 was written. The solemn invitation was issued to the people when Psalms 95 was written; ch. Hebrews 4:7; Hebrews 7:28, note. The declaration of the Son was made when Psalms 2 was written; Acts 13:33, note. So, the Messiah promised to GOD that He would do His will, at the time when Psalms 40 was written. This handwriting, which David executed, is opposed to the law written by Moses; Hebrews 10:8, at the end. Wherefore Christ always appealed with the greatest force to the Scriptures, and especially at the beginning of His passion.—κατὰ τὸν νόμον, according to the law) The strong argument by which that very point which is asserted in Hebrews 10:1 is proved from the psalm.
Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second.Hebrews 10:9. Ἵνα) A powerful particle; that He may forthwith and in consequence establish the second.—στήσῃ, may establish) with the highest authority, as it were, by His own hand-writing. From ἵστημι comes στάσις, ch. Hebrews 9:8, with the same idea.
By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.Hebrews 10:10. Ἐν ᾧ θελήματι) in or by which will of GOD, which has been accomplished and fully satisfied by Christ and His sacrifice. Does not this well deserve to be called a satisfaction or atonement?—ἡγιασμένοι, sanctified) The same word occurs, Hebrews 10:14; Hebrews 10:29, ch. Hebrews 13:12, Hebrews 2:11.—σώματος, of the body) Hebrews 10:5.
And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins:
But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;Hebrews 10:12.  ΟὝΤΟς) So ch. Hebrews 3:3. Others read ΑὐΤῸς by an easy alliteration.—ΜΊΑΝ, one) The antithesis is, the same sacrifices often, Hebrews 10:11.—εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς, continually) The offering of Christ, once for all made, will continue the one and only oblation for ever: no other will supersede it.—ἐκάθισεν, sat down) The antithesis is ἕστηκε, is wont to stand or standeth, Hebrews 10:11. The sacrifice of the mass is inconsistent with sitting at the right hand of GOD: for the sacrifice of Christ is neither continued nor repeated in the mass. The apostle not only urges the identity, but also the word ἅπαξ, once, once for all, concerning the sacrifice of Christ, in antithesis to the Levitical sacrifices, often offered, although they were the same. A sacrifice which is often repeated, although it be the same, does not satisfy or make atonement to GOD. Not only is the body of Christ one, but also His offering is one, and that too inseparable from His passion: ch. Hebrews 9:26. Every later oblation shows that the former is of no value; every former one proves that the later one is superfluous: ch. Hebrews 10:2; Hebrews 10:18.
 Hebrews 10:11. πᾶς ἱερεὺς, every priest) especially every high priest.—V. g.
 The older Ed. had preferred αὐτὸς, but the margin of the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Vers. agree with the Gnomon.—E. B.
ACD(Δ) corrected f Vulg. read οὗτος: and so Lachm. Tisch., with no good authority, reads αὐτὸς, as Rec. Text.—ED.
From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool.Hebrews 10:13. Ἐκδεχόμενος, expecting) By this word the knowledge of our exalted Lord is not denied, Revelation 1:1 : comp. Mark 13:32 : but His subjection to the Father is intimated; Acts 3:20. Sitting and at rest, He expects.—οἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτοῦ, His enemies) whose strength consists in sin.
For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.Hebrews 10:14. Μιᾷ γὰρ προσφορᾷ, for by one offering) Or should we rather read μία γὰρ προσφορὰ, for one offering? For the language is framed (moves on) in the abstract also in Hebrews 10:11; and with the same verb ΤΕΛΕΙΟῦΝ, to perfect, which here sustains the Apodosis, it was similarly framed, ch. Hebrews 7:19, Hebrews 9:9, Hebrews 10:1.—γὰρ, for) The assigning of a reason (Ætiology, Append.) is to be referred to (has reference to) Hebrews 10:12.—τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους, those who were sanctified) A participle of the imperfect tense. For this sanctification was accomplished in the very act of offering the sacrifice, Hebrews 10:10.
 The Germ. Vers., following the reasons assigned by the Gnomon, prefers this reading, which was considered of equal authority by the margin of both Ed.—E. B.
Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before,Hebrews 10:15. Καὶ) also. There is added, not a testimony to the arguments; for the testimonies even preceded the latter; but μαρτυρῶν to μαρτυροῦντας [the Holy Ghost witnessing in addition to those who bear witness]. Paul had given the testimony of the Father to the priesthood of Christ, ch. Hebrews 5:10, and of the Son, ch. Hebrews 10:5; now also that of the Holy Spirit: the testimony of each everywhere carrying with it the same conclusion; Hebrews 10:18. Look back to the General View (Synopsis) of the epistle. And he presently afterwards repeats in his admonition this reference to the Holy Trinity, Hebrews 10:29, note.—μετὰ, after) The verb φησὶν, says He, is swallowed up in the clause, λέγει Κύριος, saith the Lord, in the following verse. But this μετὰ, after, shows that the forgiveness of sins belongs to the New Testament. Therefore the intermediate words of Jeremiah are not repeated here. The passage in Jer. is quoted Hebrews 8, on account of the word καινὴν, and ch. 10 on account of ἄφεσιν. The appellation of the Spirit of grace is consonant with this: Hebrews 10:29.
This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;Hebrews 10:16. Αὕτη, this) See ch. Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 8:12.
And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.
Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.Hebrews 10:18. Ἄφεσις, forgiveness) This is evident from Hebrews 10:17.
Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,Hebrews 10:19. Ἔχοντες, having) The exhortation is derived from those things which have been treated of from ch. Hebrews 5:4, beginning at the recapitulation.—εἴσοδον—ἱερέα μέγαν, entrance—High Priest) Hebrews 10:21. The apostle treated of the High Priest from ch. Hebrews 5:4-5; of the entrance from ch. Hebrews 9:1; Hebrews 9:12. Now he makes mention (in reverse order), by Chiasmus, of the entrance in this verse, and of the High Priest, Hebrews 10:21, at the commencement of his exhortation. There is the same, both sentiment and figure, at ch. Hebrews 6:20 : comp. the following chapters.
By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;Hebrews 10:20. Ἣν) namely, εἴσοδον, for there follows ὁδὸν, which is as it were synonymous. They are not, however, simply synonymous, but in as far as ἡ ὁδὸς, the way, extends to (reaches) the goal, THROUGH the veil.—ἐνεκαίνισεν, hath consecrated) The same verb occurs, ch. Hebrews 9:18. It is intimated by this verb, that it is our duty to follow in that way by which Christ has gone.—πρόσφατον) The LXX, often use this word. Πρόσφατον is properly applied to an animal recently killed as a victim.—πρόσφατον καὶ ζῶσαν, new and living) The way, as being secured by the shed blood and death of Christ, is a new, and it is a living way. It is opposed to a thing old and lifeless. Life is ascribed to the way by personification, from the very life of Christ, who is the way. It denotes the vigour of the New Testament as a living hope. It stands in opposition to dead works. It is as it were an Oxymoron, because πρόσφατος (recently killed) and living are conjoined. As soon as Christ had passed the point of death, unmixed power and life were at hand.—τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ, His flesh) which was likewise rent like the veil.
And having an high priest over the house of God;Hebrews 10:21. Ἱερέα μέγαν, the High Priest) ch. 7.—ἐτὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ, over the house of God) ch. Hebrews 3:6.
Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.Hebrews 10:22. Προσερχώμεθα, let us draw near) by that way.—ἀληθινῆς) which (heart) has thoroughly imbibed the truth, Hebrews 10:26.—πίστεως, of faith) Hope and love are added, Hebrews 10:23-24. These three remain. Faith and hope often stand on the same footing (have the same aspect or relation): wherefore they are here also closely united, and coalesce in the following passages: ch. Hebrews 11:1 [Hebrews 12:18, Hebrews 13:1], etc.—ἐῤῥαντισμένοι, being sprinkled) So ch. Hebrews 12:24, Hebrews 9:13; Hebrews 9:19; Hebrews 9:21; 1 Peter 1:2.—τὰς καρδίας, hearts) Both the hearts and the body, Hebrews 10:23, are cleansed. It is not necessary to supply κατὰ; for as it is said, διδάσκω τὸν υἱὸν, I teach my son, so, διδάσκομαι τὸν υἱὸν, I take care that my son should be taught, and so ῥαντίζομαι τὴν καρδίαν, λούομαι τὸ σῶμα, I take care that my heart be sprinkled and my body washed.—ἀπὸ, from) An abbreviated expression, to which the necessary word is easily supplied, sprinkled and (supply) delivered from an evil conscience.—συνειδήσεως, conscience) ch. Hebrews 9:9, note.
Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;)Hebrews 10:23. Καὶ λελουμένοι, and being washed) Single verbs and single participles cohere in Hebrews 10:22-24, and the particle καὶ, and, divides the members of the sentence. But the order is, verb, participle; participle, verb; verb, participle, by Chiasmus.—τὸ σῶμα, the body) The allusion is to the Levitical washings; and yet he does not say the flesh, but the body, by which the whole substance of the man is denoted by Synecdoche. The body also had been formerly polluted by sin, but it is washed, that it may be fitted, after the example of the holy body of Christ, Hebrews 10:10, for an oblation: Romans 12:1; 1 Corinthians 6:13; 1 Corinthians 6:20.—ὕδατι καθαρῷ, with pure water) Ezekiel 36:25; John 19:34; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Titus 3:5; 1 John 5:6.— τὴν ὁμολογίαν, confession) Confession was taken up at baptism, and ought to be retained [held fast].
 Beng. thus makes καὶ, in Hebrews 10:23, join προσερχώμεθα and κατέχωμεν, not ἐῤῥαντισμένοι and λελουμένοι.—ED.
 Καθαρῷ—τῆς ἐλπίδος, with clean—of hope) In like manner cleansing is joined with hope, 1 John 3:3.—V. g.
And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works:Hebrews 10:24. Κατανοῶμεν, let us consider) So ἐπισκοποῦντες, looking diligently, ch. Hebrews 12:15.—εἰς) to.—παροξυσμὸν ἀγάπης, to provoke unto love) to which the contrary is, to provoke to hatred.
Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.Hebrews 10:25. Τὴν ἐπισυναγωγὴν ἑαυτῶν, the assembling of ourselves together) The modern Greek version interprets ἐπισυναγωγὴν, συχνοσὑναξιν; but the apostle alludes to the Jewish synagogue, while the preposition, ἐπὶ, somewhat changes the signification of the word. The meaning is: you ought not only to frequent the synagogue (synagogam) as Jews, which you willingly do, but also the additional assembly (episynagogam) as Christians: and yet we are not to understand this expression as if it exclusively applied to assembling in one place, or to associating for promoting one faith; but it should be taken in a middle sense, as the mutual meeting together in love, and as the public and private interchange of Christian duties, in which brother does not withdraw himself from brother, but one stimulates the other, and is stimulated by the other. For even spiritual warmth and ardour separate things that are heterogeneous, and bring together those that are homogeneous. This interpretation affords all that seems necessary for the order of the discourse, in which, next to faith towards GOD, love to the saints is commended; and all that is necessary for explaining the verbal substantive ἐπισυναγωνὴν, and the fact that it is in the singular number; and for explaining the pronoun, which is ἑαυτῶν, of ourselves, not our; and for explaining the complaint, as the manner of some is; and for explaining the antithesis, exhorting.—τισὶν, some) who were perhaps afraid of the Jews.—παρακαλοῦντες, exhorting) The power of exhorting, which is required, includes the peculiar ardour of every individual.—καὶ τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον, and so much the more) This refers to the whole exhortation from Hebrews 10:22 : comp. Hebrews 10:37.—βλέπετε, ye see) from the signs of the times, and from the very sacrifice for sin having been perfected: Hebrews 10:13.—τὴν ἡμέραν, the day) the day of Christ. After Christ had come in the flesh, who was the object of expectation during so many ages of the world, His glorious coming is thought to be now immediately at hand; comp. Hebrews 10:27; Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 10:35, etc.
For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,Hebrews 10:26. Ἑκουσίως, wilfully) For after the truth has been acknowledged, the excuse of ignorance is taken away.—ἁμαρτανόντων, if we sin) To sin here means entire revolt or apostasy from GOD, Hebrews 10:29, ch. Hebrews 3:12, 2 Kings 21:16; and the violation, not of the law, Hebrews 10:28, but of the whole economy of the New Testament, Hebrews 10:29. Comp. ἀθετήσας, rejected, despised, Hebrews 10:28, note.—μετὰ τὸ λαβεῖν, after we have received) This does not so much refer to individuals as to the state of believers of the New Testament: whence, however, the conclusion holds good to individuals, Hebrews 10:29.—τῆς ἀληθείας, of the truth) The truth, here, and grace, Hebrews 10:29, are expressions applied to the New Testament. The Spirit of grace, ibid., is called the Spirit of truth in John 14:17.—οὐκέτι, no more) The fruit of the sacrifice of Christ is always evident to them who do not reject it, but those who reject it have nothing else.—περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν, for sins) refers to ἁμαρτανόντων, if we sin.
But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries.Hebrews 10:27. Φοβερὰ, fearful) A very bad hope.—ἐκδοχὴ, looking for) quite different from what is described, Hebrews 10:13.—πυρὸς—τοὺς ὑπεναντίους) Isaiah 64:1 (rather 2), LXX., κατακαύσει πὺρ ὑπεναντίους, fire will consume the adversaries. We must not seek any particular meaning in ὑπὸ, under, [as if the meaning were, underhand enemies]: in Exodus 15:7, ὑπεναντίοι is applied to the most open enemies.—πυρὸς, of fire) Deuteronomy 32:22; comp. Psalm 106:18.—ζῆλος, zeal) indignation, Deuteronomy 29:20.—ἐσθίειν, to devour) ch. Hebrews 12:29; Isaiah 26:11.
He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:Hebrews 10:28. Ἀθετήσας, he that despised) not by any slight error, but by an enormous violation, in opposition to the whole law—a delinquency to be punished with death. Few so violated the law, as to be capitally punished.—χωρὶς οἰκτιρμῶν, without mercy) without any mitigation or delay of the prescribed punishment.
Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?Hebrews 10:29. Χείρονος) which is worse and more horrible than any punishment of the body.—ὁ) i.e. he who most atrociously sins against GOD, whose Son is the Priest, ch. Hebrews 5:5, and against the Son, whose own blood is the blood of the New Testament, and against the Holy Spirit, who is the Spirit of grace. A man of this sort retracts the whole form and confession of his baptism, and rejects the whole economy of the New Testament; comp. Hebrews 6:6, note.—καταπατήσας, who has trodden) whereas he ought to adore. But he who sins spontaneously, treads under foot, as it is described at Hebrews 10:26.—τῆς διαθήκης) of the testament, that is, the better testament or covenant which GOD has made.—κοινὸν, common) as if it were the blood of a mere man, common or even guilty. The antithesis is, he was sanctified.—ἡγησάμενος, and has counted) without discernment; comp. 1 Corinthians 11:29.—ἐν ᾧ ἡγιάσθη, by which he was sanctified) Therefore Christ died even for such a man as this. The same word is used concerning the redeemed, Hebrews 10:10; Hebrews 10:14, ch. Hebrews 2:11 (where they are distinguished from the Redeemer, who sanctifies); ch. Hebrews 13:12, where mention is likewise made of the blood.—τῆς χάριτος, of grace) See note on Hebrews 10:26.—ἐνυβρίσας, and has treated insultingly, [and hath done despite to]) by repelling Him. Insult or despite is done by deeds; blasphemy is vented by words: comp. 1 Timothy 1:13, note. Where blasphemy is added, the guilt is in the very worst degree aggravated; Mark 3:29.
For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people.Hebrews 10:30. Τὸν εἰπόντα, Him, who hath said) GOD, who does not threaten in vain.—ἐμοὶ, to me) See Romans 12:19, note, from Deuteronomy 32:35.—πάλιν, again) after a few words intervening in the same song of Moses.—Κύριος κρινεῖ τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ, the Lord will judge His people) Deuteronomy 32:36, LXX., κρινεῖ Κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ. This epistle has very often a reference to the song of Moses and to Deuteronomy, a book which is well explained by it. He will judge, in grace and in anger, according as He shall find each individual.
It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.Hebrews 10:31. Τὸ ἐμπεσεῖν, to fall) It is a good thing to fall into God’s hands with faith, 2 Samuel 24:14 : it is a terrible thing to fall rashly into His hands, Hebrews 10:27; comp. Sir 8:1.
But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions;Hebrews 10:32. Ἀναμιμνήσκεσθε, remember) The Imperative. He subjoins consolation.—φωτισθέντες, being enlightened) i.e. immediately after φωτισμὸν, i.e. Christian baptism, ch. Hebrews 6:4. In baptism, Christ is put on: Christ is the light; therefore the light is put on in baptism. Enlightening denotes that further accession to the force and power of the Spirit, pre-existing for us from the Old Testament, which is gained from the vigour of the New, in the case of those who were baptized. This was the first entrance into Christianity: baptism was the means of salvation in the case of those who were properly fitted for it. I am of opinion, that these divine ordinances, even in theory, are not so highly esteemed as they ought to be. In the very baptism of Christ, His holy human nature was magnificently enlightened. He was previously the Son of God; and yet the power of the Divine testimony to His Sonship, at His baptism, long affected Him in a lively manner. But, as man consists of body and soul, so divine ordinances have this double relation. We must, therefore, make no separation [between the ordinances and the grace], nor [on the other hand] is the glass to be taken for the liquor which it contains, nor should the sheath be grasped instead of the sword.
Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used.Hebrews 10:33. Τοῦτο· τοῦτο) A pronoun with an adverbial meaning. Two heads are set before us, which are explained in inverse order by Chiasmus, Hebrews 10:34.
For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance.Hebrews 10:34. Δεσμίοις, those in bonds) The persons in bonds are mentioned at ch. Hebrews 13:3 : and Timothy had been also among them, ibid. Hebrews 10:23 : wherefore Paul is speaking not of himself, or at least not of himself alone; comp. ch. Hebrews 6:10. Some, however, have δεσμοῖς, and moreover δεσμοῖς μου, a reading that arose from the rhythm ὀνειδισμοῖς (Hebrews 10:33), or from the frequent mention of Paul’s bonds in other places.—ὑπαρχόντων, of goods) The word ὑπαρξιν, substance, among the Greeks, is the conjugate word.—προσεδέξασθε, ye welcomed, ye took) An elegant Oxymoron, as is seen by comparing the word spoiling or plunder with it.—γινώσκοντες, knowing) determining with confidence.—ἔχειν ἑαυτοῖς, that ye have to (for) yourselves) The Dative signifying property, as ch. Hebrews 5:4, to take to himself. So the Latins say, tibi habe. The goods peculiarly our property are described, Luke 16:12 (Luke 12:33).—κρείττονα, a better) viz. heavenly; comp. ch. Hebrews 11:16.—καὶ μένουσαν) exposed to no spoiling.
 But the margin of the 2d Ed. has raised the reading δεσμιοῖς, formerly on an equal footing with the other, to the mark β, and hence the Germ. Vers. interprets it, mit den Gebundenen.—E. B.
 D reads ἑαυτοῖς; and so Tisch. A reads ἑαυτοὺς: similarly f and Vulg., ‘vos:’ and Origen ὅτι ἔχετε. Rec. Text, without good authority, has ἐν ἑαυτοῖς.—ED.
AD(Δ) corrected Vulg. Memph. and both Syr. Versions read δεσμίοις. Orig. 1, 303b reads δεσμοῖς. Rec. Text adds μου. f adds ‘eorum.’—ED.
Cast not away therefore your confidence, which hath great recompence of reward.Hebrews 10:35. Μὴ ἀποβάλητε, cast not away) Liberty of speech, boldness, confidence, where once it finds a place, only withdraws, when it is driven out; but it is driven out and cast away, as if it were something vile, by those who do not persevere.—ἔχει, has) The 37th verse is to be referred [has reference] to this present.—μισθαποδοσίαν, a recompence of reward) So ch. Hebrews 2:2, Hebrews 11:26; and μισθαποδότης, he who bestows the reward, ibid. Hebrews 10:6.
For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive the promise.Hebrews 10:36. Ὑπομονῆς) The apostle, from this to Hebrews 10:38, gradually brings in the prophet, Habakkuk 2:3-4, where the LXX. have Ἐὰν (ὂρασις) ὑστερήσῃ ὙΠΟΜΕΙΝΟΝ αὐτὸν, “if (the vision) tarry, WAIT for it,” ὅτι ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ μή χρονίσῃ. ἐὰν ὑποστείληται, οὐκ εὐδοκεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ· ὁ δὲ δίκαιός μου ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.—τὸ θέλημα, the will) ch. Hebrews 13:21.—ποιήσαντες) that whereas you have done the will of God hitherto, Hebrews 10:32-33, you now also may show patience, and therefore obtain the promised reward of obedience. Comp. ch. Hebrews 6:10-12. We must both do and suffer, 1 Peter 4:19. The apostle evidently takes his arguments from the past, and recounts the proofs of their having done the will on God, Hebrews 10:32-33. Nevertheless, doing the will of God for the present and future is not excluded. This doing of the will of God is taken for granted in all the virtues of believers, which are reckoned up in the 11th chapter: otherwise the things which there receive praise, for example, Hebrews 10:33, would have been vain; comp. Matthew 7:21, etc.—κομίσησθε, ye may carry off, obtain, receive) the promise, i.e. life eternal, which believers of the Old and New Testament will conjointly receive at the coming of Christ. See the following verse. The promise, life eternal, is found at ch. Hebrews 4:1, Hebrews 9:15, Hebrews 11:13, Hebrews 12:26. Individual blessedness is judicially refused to none, but the great consummation, as yet future, is difficult. There will be a great βελτίωσις, amelioration, in the future day, which ought to be esteemed much more highly than it is. Even the present flourishing condition of faith, which many so largely experience, cannot be compared with it.—τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, the promise) חזון, Hab., quoted above.
For yet a little while, and he that shall come will come, and will not tarry.Hebrews 10:37. Μικρὸν ὅσον ὅσον) yet a little while. So LXX., Isaiah 26:20. The word μικρὸν, with the addition of ὄσον ὄσον, takes the diminutive, but at the same time the indefinite form, and therefore accords very well with this passage: see Genesis 27:30 : אך, ἐγένετο ὅσον ἐξῆλθεν, was only just gone out.—ὁ ἐρχόμενος, He that cometh) The apostle, by the addition of the article, elegantly turns the words of the prophet to Christ.—ἥξει) will come.
Now the just shall live by faith: but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.Hebrews 10:38. Ὁ δὲ) The apostle transposes the halves of the verse, and so, by adding the following verse, makes a very suitable Chiasmus. For the things opposed to each other are repeated: faith unto life, drawing back: drawing back, faith unto life, Hebrews 10:38-39. The particle δὲ, but, forms an antithesis to the slothful.—δίκαιος, just) See Romans 1:17, note.—ἐκ πίστεως, by faith) LXX., ἐκ πίστεως μου, or in the same sense, μου ἐκ πίστεως, by my faith. Comp. the pronoun in like manner prefixed, 1 Corinthians 11:24; John 6:54; John 9:10; Heb. in the faith of Him, namely, who was Seen, i.e. of Christ, who will not fail (disappoint): an elegant antithesis. I refer the text of the New Testament to the Heb. as far as it can be done.—καὶ) and; for but. Elegantly: for both halves of the verse flow from the same holy affection (feeling).—ἐὰν ὑποστείληται) The Heb., I think, may be thus interpreted: Lo, if a soul draw itself back, the soul of that man (of him, namely, who draws himself back) is not right (nor pleasing) with regard to Him (namely, who was seen [the subject of the prophet’s vision] or promised); but the just, in the faith of that (viz. promise), shall live. Comp. Mark 16:16. The word עפלה is a metaphor, taken from those who hide themselves in dark caves. See Sam. Petiti var. lect., c. 13.
 Referring to the Ἐὰν ὑστερήσῃ, said of the vision in Habakkuk 2:3-4.—ED.
But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul.Hebrews 10:39. Οὐκ ἐσμὲν, we are not) A polite expression, according to the style of Paul, Romans 8:12, note.—ὑποστολῆς) corresponds to ὑποστείληται, Hebrews 10:38.—εἰς ἀπώλειαν, unto destruction) They perish, who do not approve their souls unto GOD.—εἰς περιποίησιν ψυχῆς, unto the saving of the soul) It corresponds to, shall live, Hebrews 10:38.