Hebrews 9
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary.
Hebrews 9:1. Ἡ πρώτη, the first) Supply διαθήκη, testament or covenant; not σκηνή, tabernacle. For the tabernacle itself was the worldly sanctuary, which we shall presently see. By a very elegant ellipsis, the word διαθήκη is left out, because it is rather appropriate to the New Testament; whence also, Hebrews 9:15, it is called διαθήκης καινῆς, the substantive being put before the adjective. [We have here an admirable description of Christ’s entrance into the true sanctuary, as far as to ch. Hebrews 10:18.—V. g.]—δικαιώματα, regular duties, or ordinances) those by which the duties of the sacred office were fulfilled [Hebrews 9:6]. The same word occurs, Hebrews 9:10.—λατρείας, of worship) external.—ἅγιον κοσμικὸν, the worldly (mundiale) sanctuary) An Oxymoron. That sanctuary was worldly (which word [mundiale] of Sidonius is well fitted to express the idea ‘material’), or mundane [mundanum] (as Paul speaks of the elements of the world, Galatians 4:3), and carnal, ch. Hebrews 7:16. It consisted of precious materials, but still it was material. This verse may be thus divided: first, the duties are set before us (as the Proposition), then the sanctuary; there follows the discussion, first, concerning the sanctuary, Hebrews 9:2-5, next concerning the duties, Hebrews 9:6, etc. (Paul has a very similar Chiasmus, 1 Corinthians 9:1, note): the antithesis to both is in Hebrews 9:11-12.

For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary.
Hebrews 9:2. Ἡ πρώτη, the first) the anterior tabernacle.—ἥ τε λυχνία καὶ ἡ τράπεζα, the candlestick and the table) A type of light and life.—ἡ πρόθεσις τῶν ἄρτων, the setting forth of bread) A Metonymy of the abstract for the concrete, i.e. the loaves which were set forth.—ἄγια) The accent is on the first syllable;[47] and the feminine ἥτις, is no objection to this construction, for we have a similar phrase presently, ἡ λεγομένη ἅγια ἁγίων. Τὰ ἅγια often in this epistle signifies the holy of holies; but here ἅγια without the article denotes the holy place or sanctuary, in antithesis to ἅγια ἁγίων, the holy of holies. Some have ἁγία in this place.[48]

[47] That is, in other words, the last syllable is short, and it is therefore the neuter plural: not long, which would make it feminine singular.—ED.

[48] Lachm. reads ἅγια ἁγίων, with AD(Δ) corrected f. B reads τὰ ἅγια; Vulg. ‘sancta;’ Tisch. and Elzev. Rec. Text, ἅγια: but Stephens’ Rec. Text ἁγία.—ED.

And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all;
Hebrews 9:3. Ἡ λεγομένη, which is called) So Hebrews 9:2, λέγεται, is called. The opposite is τῶν ἁληθινῶν, of the true, Hebrews 9:24.

Which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant;
Hebrews 9:4. Χρυσοῦν, golden) The apostle uses such words as signify something precious and glorious, as δόξης, of glory, Hebrews 9:5.—θυμιατήριον) censer. So the LXX. express מקטרת, a censer for frankincense; not the ALTAR of incense, which had no more need to be mentioned than the altar of whole burnt-offering, which is not mentioned. But the censer alone, along with the ark of the covenant, is named in this verse, because it was the principal part of the furniture which the high priest used on the day of expiation; and although it was on that day alone that he both carried in and again carried out the censer, yet the participle ἔχουσα, having, is consonant with the fact.[49] Further, this is put first, because a description of the ark follows at greater length.—ἐν ᾗ, in which) namely, κιβωτῷ, the ark; for to it also is to be referred αὐτῆς, over it, Hebrews 9:5.—στάμνος χρυσῆ ἔχουσα τὸ μάννα, the golden pot that had manna) μάννα, manna, has the article, not στάμνος, the pot; for the thing contained was of more importance than the golden vessel which contained it. Exodus 16:33, צנצנת אחת; LXX. ΣΤΆΜΝΟΝ ΧΡΥΣΟῦΝ ἝΝΑ. Some suspect that this pot and rod of Aaron, two most remarkable memorials, which were furnished with a perpetual miracle, had been taken out of the ark before the building of the temple; others, that they were put in not until afterwards, because in 1 Kings 8:9 mention is only made of the tables laid up in the ark. But in the same passage it is distinctly affirmed, that Solomon acted according to the example of Moses; and the apostle refers to the times of Moses, Hebrews 9:6, at the beginning; ch. Hebrews 8:5 : comp. ch. Hebrews 13:11, where there is no mention made of the city, as here none of the temple. What then shall we say? The tables were alone in the ark itself, but the pot and the rod לפני העדות, before the testimony, and therefore before the ark, Exodus 16:34; Num. 17:25, in the Hebr., very near the ark, as appendages to it; in the same way that the book of the law and the deposits of the Philistines [the five golden emerods and mice] were put on the side of the ark: Deuteronomy 31:26; 1 Samuel 6:8. Therefore ἐν in this passage is used with some latitude, as Luke 9:31, etc.—τὸ μάννα, the manna) A memorial of God’s providential care of Israel.—Ἡ ῬΆΒΔΟς, the rod) A memorial of a lawful priesthood, Num. 17:16, etc., in the Hebr.—αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης, the tables of the covenant) Deuteronomy 9:9. These are put in the last place by gradation.

[49] The Holy of Holies continually had the censer; though it was only on the day of atonement that the high priest used it.—ED.

And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly.
Hebrews 9:5. Χερουβὶμ, the Cherubim) Exodus 25:20; Exodus 37:9.—δόξης, of glory) They were formed of the most precious materials, and represented the Glory of GOD riding upon the Cherubim; Ezekiel 10:4.—κατασκιάζοντα) LXX., συσκιάζοντες, in the passages quoted above.—περὶ ἇν concerning which) The pronoun relates to the whole enumeration, from Hebrews 9:2.—οὐκ ἔστι νῦν λέγειν, we cannot now speak) The apostle had determined to treat, not so much of the sanctuary and its furniture, as of the sacrifices; and he does not say, we cannot afterwards, but we cannot now, implying, that each of these things also might be profitably discussed.

Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God.
Hebrews 9:6. Εἰσίασιν) enter, in the present. So Hebrews 9:7; Hebrews 9:13; Hebrews 9:22; Hebrews 9:25, ch. Hebrews 10:1.

But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people:
Hebrews 9:7. Ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ) So LXX., Leviticus 16:34, once every year; on one day of the year, and on that same day but once. See A. A. Hochstetteri Ex. de Ingressu Summi Pontificis in Sanctum Sanctorum, pp. 19–24.—ὑπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ) for himself. The Vulgate has Proverbs sua, for his own, viz. error of ignorance; I do not think, however, that ὑπὲρ τῶν ἑαυτοῦ was in the Greek copy from which it was translated. Although the priest was exempt from the errors or ignorance of the people, yet he was not without sin, and therefore stood in need of sacrifices, ch. Hebrews 7:27.—ἀγνοημάτων, ignorance, errors) This term has a very extensive meaning, as; on the contrary, ἐπίγνωσις, knowledge. See Numbers 15:22-31.

The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:
Hebrews 9:8. Δηλοῦντος, signifying) as it were a thing which would have otherwise remained concealed from us; so δηλοῖ, showeth or signifieth, ch. Hebrews 12:27.—πεφανερῶσθαι, was made manifest) The same word occurs, Hebrews 9:26.—τῶν ἁγίων, the holy place or sanctuary) [viz. the heavenly sanctuary]. The plural in the Greek corresponds to the singular in the Hebrew. As the holy place was to the holy of holies, so the whole Levitical tabernacle was to the heavenly sanctuary; then, as the holy place prevented the people from having access to the holy of holies, so the whole tabernacle prevented an entrance into the heavenly sanctuary. Therefore πρώτης, first, which immediately follows, has a parabolic amphibology: if we understand it of place, it denotes the anterior part of the tabernacle, as opposed to the holy of holies; but if of time, it denotes the whole Levitical tabernacle, as opposed to heaven.—ὁδὸν, the way) much less εἴσοδον, entrance; comp. ch. Hebrews 10:19-20.—ἐχούσης στάσιν, having as yet a standing) A suitable phrase.מעמד, LXX., στάσις. When Paul was writing, the temple, or first tabernacle, was not yet destroyed; but still it had no standing (or status) any longer, from the time that the veil had been rent; and when its standing was broken up, the tabernacle itself soon after was utterly destroyed.

Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;
Hebrews 9:9. Ἥτις παραβολὴ, which is a figure) ἥτις for , before the feminine, παραβολὴ. This relative has regard to the three preceding verses.—ἐνεστηκότα) present, in respect of that standing. The standing, emphatically as such, now no longer existed, although ἡ σκηνὴ, the tabernacle, was not yet broken up, was not yet destroyed, was not yet razed to the foundation. The antithesis is, μελλόντων, of things to come, Hebrews 9:11.—δῶρά τε καὶ θυσίαι μὴ δυναμεναι, κ.τ.λ., gifts and sacrifices not able, etc.) The victims (sacrifices) might seem to be more efficacious than the other gifts: therefore with great elegance the efficacy is more expressly withheld from the sacrifices [by δυνάμεναι being made agree with θυσίαι, not δῶρα].—συνείδησιν, conscience) The same word occurs, ch. Hebrews 10:2; Hebrews 10:22. The antithesis is σαρκὸς, of the flesh, Hebrews 9:10, as Hebrews 9:13-14 [1 Peter 3:21].—τὸν λατρεύοντα, him that did the service) the priest, who offered for himself; or the Israelite, for whom the priest offered.

Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.
Hebrews 9:10. Μόνον, only) The commandments concerning meats are as it were an appendage to the commandments concerning sacrifices; and this particle lessens the weight of that appendage. Sacrifices do not purge the conscience; meats have respect to the flesh. Concerning both, comp. ch. Hebrews 13:9, etc. Paul often puts μόνον, only, absolutely; 1 Corinthians 7:39; Galatians 2:10; Galatians 5:13; Php 1:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:7.—ἐπὶ, on) ἐπὶ, with the Dative, implies something concurrent, as we have already remarked regarding the appendage; comp. Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 9:17; Hebrews 9:26. Sacrifices concur in public worship, and meats also in daily life; while the same ceremonial law treats of both, and is wholly occupied with these and similar matters.—βρώμασι, in meats) of which some have never been allowed to any, others not to all, and not always, nor everywhere.—πώμασι, in drinks) Leviticus 11:34; Numbers 6:3.—διαφόροις βαπτισμοῖς, in different washings) These were manifold, of the priests, of the Levites, of other men.—δικαιώματα) The apposition of the nominative and an oblique case, as Luke 22:20, where see the note.—διορθώσεως, of reformation) היטיב, LXX., διορθοῦν, Jeremiah 7:3; Jeremiah 7:5; therefore the verbal διόρθωσις, reformation, corresponds to the adjective κρείττων, better, Hebrews 9:23.—ἐπικείμενα, imposed, lying upon) as a burden, without intermission.

But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
Hebrews 9:11. Χριστὸςἀρχιερεὺς, Christ—High Priest) So Leviticus 4:5, ὁ ἱερεὺς ὁ χριστός, the priest that is anointed. Paul also here has respect to Christ as the Priest, but with Moses χριστὸς, anointed, is an epithet.—παραγενόμενος, being made present, being come) He then said suddenly, Withdraw, ye sons of Levi, ch. Hebrews 10:5; Hebrews 10:7.—τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν, of good things to come) So ch. Hebrews 10:1. Those good things are described at the end of Hebrews 9:15.—διὰ, by) Construed with εἰσῆλθεν, entered, Hebrews 9:12.—μείζονος) which was greater and more noble. So, πλείονα, a more excellent, ch. Hebrews 11:4.—σκηνῆς, tabernacle) That was His own Body, ch. Hebrews 10:5; Hebrews 10:20; comp. John 2:21. His body is opposed to the tabernacle, as His blood to the blood of goats, etc., Hebrews 9:12. Schomerus says correctly, in exig. on this passage, p. 33, the tabernacle is here taken for the way to the inner sanctuary. For the subsequent appellation, κτίσεως, of this institution or building, proves an abstract notion of that sort; so that, not the Tabernacle itself is denoted, but the building or institution, die Anstalt (establishment or arrangement). Therefore the Body, or Flesh (for flesh is inseparable from the body), is the veil, and the sanctuary is Heaven. Thus, as I hope, the matter is distinctly explained.—οὐ χειροποιήτου, not made with hands) Therefore this was greater, Hebrews 9:24. So, Paul, Colossians 2:11.—οὐ ταύτης, not of that) The Tabernacle, through which Christ entered, was not of that workmanship or structure.

Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.
Hebrews 9:12. Τράγων καὶ μόσχων, of goats and calves) One goat and one bullock was sacrificed at one time, Leviticus 16:9; Leviticus 16:3 : but that particular animal was not by itself better than all the animals of the same species; therefore it is here put in the plural number An additional reason besides, for the plural, was the annual repetition of the sacrifices. פר, LXX., μόσχος, Leviticus 16:9; Leviticus 16:3, and elsewhere.—εἰς τὰ ἅγια, into the holy place) into heaven, Hebrews 9:24. αἰωνίαν, eternal) not merely for a day or a year.—εὑράμενος, having found or obtained) So, I have found a ransom, Job 33:24. The zeal of Him who has found or obtained, as also His fidelity and wisdom, are denoted: the newness and joyousness of the finding or thing found, ch. Hebrews 10:20. The access of Christ to the Father was arduous; ch. Hebrews 5:7. No one previously had trodden the way of life; Acts 2:28; John 3:13. Christ could not but find: but yet to seek was a matter of labour and difficulty.

For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:
Hebrews 9:13. Γὰρ, for) He confirms the fact, that the power of the one sacrifice of Christ is as great as he intimated at Hebrews 9:12.—ταύρων καὶ τράγων) of bulls and goats, which are mere brutes. Extenuation.[50]—δαμάλεως, of a heifer) which was to be red, Numbers 19. Andr. Christ. Zellerus has enlarged the treatise of Maimonides on this subject, and compares with it this passage of the apostle, p. 504. It is a tradition among the Jews, that nine heifers of that sort were sacrificed from the time of Moses to the destruction of the second temple; see ibid., pp. 416, 417.—τοὺς κεκοινωμένους, those defiled or made unclean) A participle [defiled on some particular occasion]: less strong than κοινοὺς, [habitually] common or defiled. Construe with ἁγιάζει, sanctifies; compare what follows.—καθαρότητα, cleanness or purifying) Purifying was performed by sprinkling, not by washing; but washing followed by inseparable connection: Numbers 19:19. This fact is exceedingly useful for making a distinction between justification and renewing.

[50] See App. The same as Litotes. The blood of bulls, etc., a less forcible expression than is the meaning, viz. sacrifices.—ED.

How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
Hebrews 9:14. Τὸ αἷμα) The blood, and death: see the following verses.—διὰ Πνεύματος αἰωνίου, by the eternal Spirit) See Luke 4:18 : and comp. Romans 1:4; Romans 15:16. The Spirit is opposed to the condition of irrational animals, Hebrews 9:13. The epithet eternal is understood from Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:15, ch. Hebrews 7:16, and is opposed to the heifer reduced to ashes [ashes of a heifer].—ἄμωμον, without spot) Superior as contrasted with every Levitical victim.—καθαριεῖ, shall purge) It corresponds to καθαρότητα, purifying, Hebrews 9:13. So Hebrews 9:22-23, ch. Hebrews 10:23, Hebrews 1:3. It is put in the future as an antithesis to the present, ἁγιάζει, sanctifies, Levitically, Hebrews 9:13.—ἀπὸ) ἀπὸ, εἰς, from, to, denote things contrary.—νεκρῶν ἔργων, from dead works) Things dead most of all defile. The antithesis is ζῶντι, living. The power of sin and death was abolished by the blood of Christ.—εἰς τὸ λατρεύειν, to serve) for ever, in a manner most blessed and truly sacerdotal, [Hebrews 9:12; Revelation 22:3.—V. g.]

And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.
Hebrews 9:15. Διαθήκης καινῆς, of the new testament) Here the testament is rather urged, than the newness of the testament: comp. Hebrews 9:16.—θανάτου γενομένου, by means of death that took place) that is, at the time when the death had taken place. The moment of this (His) death properly divides the Old Testament from the New.—εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήχῃ παραβάσεων, for the redemption of the transgressions, that were under the first testament) There is a passage of Paul very like this in Romans 3:24-25. The preposition ἐπὶ, under, not merely denotes the time, but intimates that the first testament had no power of redemption, and that the people of old were more on account of it transgressors. Ἀπολύτρωσις, the compound, occurs here: λύτρωσις, the simple word, occurs, Hebrews 9:12.—ἐπαγγελίαν, the promise) given to Abraham.—λάβωσιν, might receive) for formerly they could not.—οἱ κεκλημένοι) those called, named heirs (ch. Hebrews 3:1).—κληρονομίας, of the inheritance) An apposite appellation; for there is an allegory: testament, death, inheritance.

For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.
Hebrews 9:16. Διαθήκη) testament. This is the peculiar force of the Greek word, as compared with (above, præ) the Hebrew ברית. The article omitted agrees with the general sentiment expressed, as in Galatians 3:15.—φέρεσθαι) be shown, or made good, fulfilled (præstari). The Greek words, φέρεσθαι, προσφέρεσθαι, Hebrews 9:14, allude to each other.—τοῦ διαθεμένου, of the testator) Christ is the testator in respect of us. This agrees with the words of the Lord before His death; Luke 22:29.

For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.
Hebrews 9:17. Ἐπὶ νεκροῖς, over [super] the dead) briefly expressed, instead of this expression, over or upon the death of the testators. So LXX. Leviticus 21:5, ἐπὶ νεκρῷ, over the dead [upon the death of a relative].—μήποτε) This particle plainly implies an interrogation;[51] moreover, ἐπεὶ, with an interrogation, has great force, Romans 3:6; 1 Corinthians 14:16; 1 Corinthians 15:29. See Not. ad Chrys. de Sacerd., p. 424.

[51] So Lachm. rightly has an interrogation marked at ὁ διαθέμενος;—ED.

Whereupon neither the first testament was dedicated without blood.
Hebrews 9:18. Ὅθεν, whence) The two words ברית and διαθήκη differ; but yet they signify the same thing, in so far as both denote an agreement or an arrangement of that sort, which is ratified by blood. Where the agreement is ratified by the blood of another, viz. of animals, which cannot make a covenant, much less testify or make a testament, it is not properly διαθήκη, a testament; but yet ברית, a covenant, is not very much different from the character (nature) of a testament, on account of the victims slain. Where the arrangement is ratified by the blood of him that makes the arrangement, i.e. by his death, it is properly διαθήκη, testament, which is also expressed by the Hebrew word ברית, having (taken in) a wider signification. The particle ὅθεν, whence, ought not to be pressed too far, as if the Old Testament were also consecrated by the blood or death of the testator: but still it has its own proper force, in so far as it is intimated, that the New Testament, and therefore also the Old, needed to be dedicated with blood.—ἐγκεκαίνισται, was dedicated or initiated) So the LXX. express the Hebrew word חנך. On the very day of initiation or dedication, the Old Testament most properly began, and it continued till the night and day when the Lord was betrayed and died.

For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people,
Hebrews 9:19. Λαληθείσης, having been recited or spoken) Exodus 24:16, etc.—πάσης ἐντολῆς κατὰ νόμον, every precept according to the law) Moses had recited or read those commandments which occur in Exodus 20, and perhaps also those which occur in the following chapters. And the brief indication of the written book was tantamount to a recapitulation of all that was recited.—τῶν μόσχων καὶ τράγων, of calves and goats) In Exodus 24:5 they are expressly called μοσχάρια, little calves: the word ὁλοκαυτώματα, in that passage implies the τράγους, spoken of here.—μετὰ ὕδατος καὶ ἐρίου κοκκίνου καὶ ὑσσώπου, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop) These are not found in the passage quoted, but are taken for granted as already well known from other passages in the writings of Moses, Leviticus 14:5-6. The scarlet wool corresponds to the Hebrew שני החולעת. The LXX. translate תילעת κόκκινον, שני κλωστὸν διπλοῦν, double spun (twined), from its form: the apostle terms it from its material (wool); scarlet colour, viz. as being like blood.—βιβλίον) Many, and the Latins too from the Vulgate, construe this word with ἐῤῥάντισε, he sprinkled; but it should evidently be construed with λαβὼν, having taken, as Exodus 24:7, καὶ λαβὼν τὸ βιβλίον τῆς διαθήκης, and having taken the book of the covenant. There is an elegance in the conjunction; τὸ αἷμα αὐτό τε τὸ βιβλίον, as appears by comparing those words, τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης; that in this ceremony the blood may be shown by itself; the testament, by the showing of the book; and that ἑγκαινισμὸς, the dedication, may be perfected by that double exhibition (showing): αὐτὸ, itself, is added, because the testament described in the book, was of more importance than that blood. Τε does not always refer to the following καὶ, Hebrews 9:1; John 2:15, where the τε connects the discourse rather with what goes before, than with what follows: also the sheep and the oxen: comp. moreover Acts 26:11; wherefore it is not necessary here to construe αὐτό τε τὸ βιβλίον καὶ πάντα τὸν λαὸν ἐῤῥάντισε. The other things which are here mentioned by the apostle, and yet are not found in the 24th chap. of Exod., may be derived from other passages; but respecting the sprinkling of the book, which notwithstanding, if true, would constitute a very large portion of that ceremony, we find nothing in all the books of Moses. Furthermore, if the book had been sprinkled, and if the apostle had spoken of that sprinkling, he would have joined it, not with the sprinkling of the people, but with the sprinkling of the tabernacle and the vessels, and therefore of the altar; comp. Van Hoeke, p. 190. See, however, Jun. I. 1209, l. 54. But indeed it was not befitting that the book itself should be even sprinkled, for the book, containing the word of GOD, represented there GOD Himself, as Flacius in Gloss. says; where, however, he is of opinion that the book was also sprinkled. No doubt the tabernacle along; with the vessels [the tabernacle being at that very time adapted to the altar, Exodus 24:6-8; Exodus 25:8.—V. g.] needed purification, Hebrews 9:21; Leviticus 16:16; Leviticus 16:19-20; Leviticus 16:33; 2 Chronicles 29:21; but the book, or the word of GOD, did not need it. And since these things are so, yet καὶ before πάντα is not only no disadvantage, but has much elegance. For the sentence is copulative: ΚΑΙ πάντα τὸν λαὸν ἐῤῥάντισε, “Moses sprinkled all the people,” on the one side; ΚΑΙ τὴν σκηνὴν δὲἐῤῥἁντισεν (Hebrews 9:21), “and the tabernacle indeed—he the same sprinkled,” on the other. The Latins say, et, et vero, both, and indeed, or, non modo, verum etiam, not only, but also. So οὔτεκαὶ οὐ, Revelation 9:20-21.—πάντα τὸν λαὸν ἐῤῥάντισε) LXX., κατεσκέδασε τοῦ λαοῦ, in the place quoted above. But elsewhere they often put ῥαίνω, ῥαντίζω, κ.τ.λ.

Saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you.
Hebrews 9:20. Τοῦτο τὸ αἶμα τῆς διαθήκης, ἧς ἐνετείλατο πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὁ Θεὸς) LXX., ἰδοὺ τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης, ἧς διέθετο Κύριος πρὸς ὑμᾶς περὶ πάντων τῶν λόγων τούτων.—ἐνετείλατο πρὸς ὑμᾶς) commanded me to bring to you.

Moreover he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry.
Hebrews 9:21. Τὰ σκεύη, the vessels) also the garments.—ἐῤῥάντισε) LXX., τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ αἵματος προσέχεε πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον.

And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission.
Hebrews 9:22. Σχεδὸν, almost) [with blood for the most part]. The force of this restrictive particle does not fall upon πάντα, all things; for it admits of no exception: but upon the next word, with blood; because other material things besides the blood were also used, Hebrews 9:19.—χωρὶς αἱματεκχυσίας, οὐ γίνεται ἄφεσις, there is no remission, without shedding of blood) This axiom is found in so many words in Tr. Talmudico Joma. See especially Leviticus 17:11.—ἄφεσις, remission) Levitical.

It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
Hebrews 9:23. Οὖν, therefore) The particle intimates that the execution of those things which were mentioned at Hebrews 9:18 is comprehended in this Passage.—κρείττοσι θυσίαις, with better victims or sacrifices) The plural, corresponding to the Levitical plural, is used for the singular, on account of the excellence of the one sacrifice of Christ, which was perfect in all its parts. If a Jew asks, What are your sacrifices? We answer: Our sacrifices consist in the one matchless sacrifice of Him who was crucified. In this Apodosis, the word καθαρίζεσθαι, to be purified, which is to be supplied, makes a Hypallage;[52] for the heavenly things are pure in themselves, but we needed to be purified in order that we might enjoy them, Hebrews 9:14. So ἁγιάζεται, is sanctified, 1 Timothy 4:5; 1 Timothy 4:4, i.e. the use is rendered holy in respect of us. Comp. Leviticus 16:16; Leviticus 16:19; Numbers 18:1.

[52] See Append. A change, whereby a thing is attributed to one subject which ought to be attributed to another. Here purification is attributed to the heavenly things, which really applies to ourselves.—ED.

For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:
Hebrews 9:24. Οὐ, not) Jesus never went into the inmost recesses of the temple at Jerusalem; never caused a sacrifice to be offered for Himself, during the whole period that elapsed between His baptism and the offering up of Himself.—ἀντίτυπα τῶν ἀληθιονῶν, the figures of the true) The true were the more ancient: those made with hands were imitations of them; Hebrews 8:5.—εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανὸν, into heaven itself) and there is nothing beyond it.—νῦν, now) So Hebrews 9:26.—ἐμφανισθῆναι, to present Himself, to appear) An appropriate word in respect to GOD: in respect to us, πεφανέρωαται, He hath been manifested, Hebrews 9:26, and ὀφθήσεται, He shall be seen, Hebrews 9:28 [The Engl. Vers. loses the distinction, translating all alike, appear].—τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ, before the face [in the presence] of God) More than Aaron in the tabernacle before the ark.

Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others;
Hebrews 9:25. Οὐδʼ ἵνα) He did not enter for this purpose, viz. that.

For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
Hebrews 9:26. Ἐπεὶ ἔδει, for then it would have been necessary) Here it is taken for granted that Christ suffered for the sins committed from the beginning of the world: Hebrews 9:15. Christ in the beginning already was He who is according to the divine nature.[53] Philo shows that the high priest of the Hebrews offered sacrifices for the whole human race, de mon., p. 637.—παθεῖν, that He should often have suffered) Therefore the offering is not (there can be no oblation) without suffering.—ἅπαξ, once) This once is absolute, being shadowed forth in the once, relative, which was Levitical: Hebrews 9:7.—ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ, at the consummation) when sin had reached its height; comp. note to John 1:10.—τῶν αἰώνων, of ages) The beginning of these ages is not to be computed from the time of Moses, but from the foundation of the world: comp. ch. Hebrews 1:2, note: and therefore the consummation here is not the end of the Old Testament, but of the world. Ἡ συντέλεια τοῦ αἰῶνος, is the very consummation of the world or age (seculi), a phrase which we often find in Matthew: ἡ συντέλεια τῶν αἰώνων in this passage includes times nearer our own, as being in the plural number. The sacrifice of Christ divides the age of the world into two portions, of which the first is certainly not shorter than the second.—ἉΜΑΡΤΊΑς, of sin) The singular, with great force.[54]—πεφανέρωται, has been manifested) in the world.

[53] Beng. seems to mean, that Christ from the very beginning sustained His character as the Word of God, John 1:1—a title implying His divine nature, at the same time implying also His coming into the world, as seat by the Father, to be its Saviour.—ED.

[54] All the sins of all men of every age are regarded as one mass laid on Christ. Sin is here put in the abstract, to express that He destroyed sin itself, as well as atoned for actual sins.—ED.

And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
Hebrews 9:27. Καθʼ ὅσον, inasmuch as) This expression has the force of comparison; and of giving intensity to the Apodosis.—ἀπόκειται, it is appointed, it is reserved) by Divine sanction,—ἅπαξ, once) The once in the following verse is to be referred to this.—ἀποθανεῖν, to die) The verb for the noun; death and its condition.—μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο, and after this) Death and judgment are immediately conjoined, because the intermediate state of man is uniform.[55]—κρίσις, judgment) at the time when Christ shall be seen (appear); and comp. with this the same ver. (28), and also Matthew 7:22, note.

[55] Beng. probably does not mean to deny a difference in the intermediate state of bad and good: see Gnomon on Luke 16:23 : but only that the term ᾅδης is applied to all alike in that state. The definite separation to heaven and hell (Gehenna) is not till after the judgment.—ED.

So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.
Hebrews 9:28. Οὕτω, so) i.e. Christ hath delivered us from death and judgment, notwithstanding that, as death, so also judgment remains, as far as the name is concerned.—προσενεχθεὶς εἰς τὸ ἀνενεγκεῖν, having been offered to bear) There is a difference between the words; comp. 1 Peter 2:24, τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀνήνεγκεν, He bore our sins: Our sins were laid on Him by the Father: while therefore He was lifted np on the cross, He bore (took) up our sins along with Him. The LXX. use the same expression, Numbers 14:33, ἀνοίσουσι τὴν πορνείαν ὑμῶν, they shall bear your whoredoms. In other places they are put indiscriminately: ch. Hebrews 7:27.—πολλῶν, of many) A pleasant antithesis: once; of many, who lived during so many ages. Isaiah 53:12, in the LXX. version, καὶ αὐτὸς ἁμαρτίας πολλῶν ἀνήνεγκε, and He bore the sins (sin, Heb.) of many. Thus the absolute power of the one sacrifice of Christ is very clearly evinced. The word again, John 14:3, accords with a second time, here. Both places treat of His coming, regarded as to itself (secundum se). But His coming, for the first time in the flesh, was in the strange form of a servant: His second coming is in His own glory. In the eyes of all, who had not formerly seen, [not only so] but had not either acknowledged Him, He is at that time Coming (ὁ ἐρχόμενος, The Comer). Let us suppose the arrival of a guest, the intimate friend of the father of the family, but unknown to the family. The father of the family will think, A brother RETURNS; whereas in the family it will be said, A guest IS COMING.—ὀφθήσεται, He will be seen) in His glory.—ἀπεκδεχομένοις, to them that look for Him) The dative of advantage. The unrighteous also will see Him, but not for salvation. To them that look for Him, He will be the Saviour, Php 3:20.—εἰς σωτηρίαν, unto salvation) and therefore to set us free from condemnation.


Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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