Hebrews 1:2
New International Version
but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe.

New Living Translation
And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through his Son. God promised everything to the Son as an inheritance, and through the Son he created the universe.

English Standard Version
but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.

Berean Study Bible
But in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe.

Berean Literal Bible
in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the ages,

New American Standard Bible
in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.

King James Bible
Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Christian Standard Bible
In these last days, he has spoken to us by his Son. God has appointed him heir of all things and made the universe through him.

Contemporary English Version
But now at last, God sent his Son to bring his message to us. God created the universe by his Son, and everything will someday belong to the Son.

Good News Translation
but in these last days he has spoken to us through his Son. He is the one through whom God created the universe, the one whom God has chosen to possess all things at the end.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
In these last days, He has spoken to us by His Son. God has appointed Him heir of all things and made the universe through Him.

International Standard Version
has in these last days spoken to us by a Son whom he appointed to be the heir of everything and through whom he also made the universe.

NET Bible
in these last days he has spoken to us in a son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he created the world.

New Heart English Bible
in these last days has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the ages.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And in these last days he has spoken with us by his Son, whom he ordained The Heir of all things, and by him he made the universe.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
In these last days he has spoken to us through his Son. God made his Son responsible for everything. His Son is the one through whom God made the universe.

New American Standard 1977
in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.

Jubilee Bible 2000
has in these last times spoken unto us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the ages;

King James 2000 Bible
Has in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

American King James Version
Has in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

American Standard Version
hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his'son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds;

Douay-Rheims Bible
In these days hath spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the world.

Darby Bible Translation
at the end of these days has spoken to us in [the person of the] Son, whom he has established heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

English Revised Version
hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds;

Webster's Bible Translation
Hath in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Weymouth New Testament
has at the end of these days spoken to us through a Son, who is the pre-destined Lord of the universe, and through whom He made the Ages.

World English Bible
has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds.

Young's Literal Translation
in these last days did speak to us in a Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did make the ages;
Study Bible
The Supremacy of the Son
1On many past occasions and in many different ways, God spoke to our fathers through the prophets. 2But in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe. 3The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of His nature, upholding all things by His powerful word. After He had provided purification for sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.…
Cross References
Deuteronomy 4:30
When you are in distress and all these things have happened to you, then in later days you will return to the LORD your God and listen to His voice.

Psalm 2:8
Ask Me, and I will make the nations Your inheritance, the ends of the earth Your possession.

Matthew 13:39
and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the harvesters are angels.

Matthew 28:18
Then Jesus came to them and said, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Me.

Mark 12:7
But the tenants said to one another, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.'

John 1:3
Through Him all things were made, and without Him nothing was made that has been made.

John 1:10
He was in the world, and though the world was made through Him, the world did not recognize Him.

John 5:26
For as the Father has life in Himself, so also He has granted the Son to have life in Himself.

John 5:27
And He has given Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man.

John 9:29
We know that God spoke to Moses, but we do not know where this man is from."

1 Corinthians 2:7
No, we speak of the mysterious and hidden wisdom of God, which He destined for our glory before time began.

1 Corinthians 8:6
yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we exist. And there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we exist.

Colossians 1:16
For in Him all things were created, things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities. All things were created through Him and for Him.

Hebrews 2:8
and placed everything under his feet." When God subjected all things to him, He left nothing outside of his control. Yet at present we do not see everything subject to him.

Hebrews 3:6
But Christ is faithful as the Son over God's house. And we are His house, if we hold firmly to our confidence and the hope of which we boast.

Hebrews 4:14
Therefore, since we have such a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to what we profess.

Hebrews 5:8
Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from what He suffered.

Hebrews 7:28
For the Law appoints as high priests men who are weak; but the oath, which came after the Law, appointed the Son, who has been made perfect forever.

Hebrews 9:26
Otherwise, He would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world. But now He has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of Himself.

Hebrews 11:3
By faith we understand that the universe was formed by God's command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible.

Treasury of Scripture

Has in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

these.

Genesis 49:1
And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.

Numbers 24:14
And now, behold, I go unto my people: come therefore, and I will advertise thee what this people shall do to thy people in the latter days.

Deuteronomy 4:30
When thou art in tribulation, and all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter days, if thou turn to the LORD thy God, and shalt be obedient unto his voice;

spoken.

Hebrews 1:5,8
For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son? …

Hebrews 2:3
How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;

Hebrews 5:8
Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;

appointed.

Hebrews 2:8,9
Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him…

Psalm 2:6-9
Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion…

Isaiah 9:6,7
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace…

by whom.

Proverbs 8:22-31
The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old…

Isaiah 44:24
Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;

Isaiah 45:12,18
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded…







Lexicon
But in
ἐπ’ (ep’)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1909: On, to, against, on the basis of, at.

these
τούτων (toutōn)
Demonstrative Pronoun - Genitive Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 3778: This; he, she, it.

last
ἐσχάτου (eschatou)
Adjective - Genitive Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 2078: Last, at the last, finally, till the end. A superlative probably from echo; farthest, final.

days
ἡμερῶν (hēmerōn)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Plural
Strong's Greek 2250: A day, the period from sunrise to sunset.

He has spoken
ἐλάλησεν (elalēsen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 2980: A prolonged form of an otherwise obsolete verb; to talk, i.e. Utter words.

to us
ἡμῖν (hēmin)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Dative 1st Person Plural
Strong's Greek 1473: I, the first-person pronoun. A primary pronoun of the first person I.

by
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

[His] Son,
Υἱῷ (Huiō)
Noun - Dative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 5207: A son, descendent. Apparently a primary word; a 'son', used very widely of immediate, remote or figuratively, kinship.

whom
ὃν (hon)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

He appointed
ἔθηκεν (ethēken)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 5087: To put, place, lay, set, fix, establish. A prolonged form of a primary theo to place.

heir
κληρονόμον (klēronomon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 2818: From kleros and the base of nomos (reflexively) getting by apportionment); a sharer by lot, i.e. Inheritor; by implication, a possessor.

of all things,
πάντων (pantōn)
Adjective - Genitive Neuter Plural
Strong's Greek 3956: All, the whole, every kind of. Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

through
δι’ (di’)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1223: A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through.

whom
οὗ (hou)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

He made
ἐποίησεν (epoiēsen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 4160: (a) I make, manufacture, construct, (b) I do, act, cause. Apparently a prolonged form of an obsolete primary; to make or do.

the
τοὺς (tous)
Article - Accusative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

universe.
αἰῶνας (aiōnas)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 165: From the same as aei; properly, an age; by extension, perpetuity; by implication, the world; specially a Messianic period.
(2) Hath in these last days . . .--Better, at the end of these days spake unto us in a Son. The thought common to the two verses is "God hath spoken to man"; in all other respects the past and the present stand contrasted. The manifold successive partial disclosures of God's will have given place to one revelation, complete and final; for He who spake in the prophets hath now spoken "in a Son." The whole stress lies on these last words. The rendering "a Son" may at first cause surprise, but it is absolutely needed; not, "Who is the Revealer?" but, "What is He?" is the question answered in these words. The writer does not speak of a Son in the sense of one out of many; the very contrast with the prophets (who in the lower sense were amongst God's sons) would be sufficient to prove this, but the words which follow, and the whole contents of this chapter, are designed to show the supreme dignity of Him who is God's latest Representative on earth. The prophet's commission extended no farther than the special message of his words and life; "a Son" spoke with His Father's authority, with complete knowledge of His will and purpose. It is impossible to read these first lines (in which the whole argument of the Epistle is enfolded) without recalling the prologue of the fourth Gospel. The name "Word" is not mentioned here, and the highest level of St. John's teaching is not reached; but the idea which "the Word" expresses, and the thought of the Only Begotten as declaring and interpreting the Father (John 1:18; also John 14:10; John 14:24) are present throughout. There is something unusual in the words, "at the end of these days." St. Peter speaks of the manifestation of Christ "at the end of the times" (1Peter 1:20); and both in the Old Testament and in the New we not unfrequently read "at the end (or, in the last) of the days." (See 2Peter 3:3; Jude 1:18; Numbers 24:14; Daniel 10:14, &c.) The peculiarity of the expression here lies in "these days." The ages preceding and following the appearance of Messiah are in Jewish writers known as "this world" (or, age) and the "coming world" (or, age); the "days of Messiah" seem to have been classed sometimes with the former, sometimes with the latter period; but "the end of these days" would be understood by every Jewish reader to denote the time of His appearing.

Whom he hath appointed.--Better, whom He appointed: in the divine counsels He was constituted "Heir of all things." The clauses which follow describe the successive steps in the accomplishment of this purpose. The words have often been understood as referring to the Son's essential Lordship: as Eternal Son He is and must be Heir of all. But this explanation is less consistent with the word "appointed," with the strict significance of "Heir," and with the development of the thought in the following verses; and it is on all grounds more probable that in these words is expressed the great theme of the Epistle, the consummation of all things in the Christ.

By whom.--Rather, through whom. So in John 1:3 we read that all things came into being through the Word; and in Colossians 1:16, "All things have been created through Him." In this manner Philo repeatedly describes the creative work of the Logos. Here, however, "this mediatorial function has entirely changed its character. To the Alexandrian Jew it was the work of a passive tool or instrument; but to the Christian Apostle it represented a co-operating agent" (Lightfoot on Colossians 1:16).

The worlds.--A word of very common occurrence in the New Testament as a designation of time occurs in two passages of this Epistle (here and in Hebrews 11:3) where the context shows more than "age" to be intended. Under time is included the work that is done in time, so that "the ages" here must be (to quote Delitzsch's words) "the immeasurable content of immeasurable time." "Also" may seem an unnecessary addition, but (almost in the sense accordingly) it points to creation as the first step towards the fulfilment of the design expressed in the preceding clause.

Verse 2. - In these last days. The true reading being ἐπ ἐσχάτον τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων, not ἐπ ἐσχάτων, as in the Textus Receptus, translate, at the end of these days', The Received Text would, indeed, give the same meaning, the position of the article denoting' "the last of these days," not "these last days." The reference appears to be to the common rabbinical division of time into αἰὼν οϋτος, and αἰὼν μέλλων, or ἐρχόμενος: the former denoting the pro-Messianic, the latter the Messianic period. Thus "these days" is equivalent to αἰὼν ου{τος, "the present age," and the whole expression to ἐπὶ συντέλειᾳ τῶν αἰώνων, "at the end of the ages" (infra, Hebrews 9:26); cf. 1 Corinthians 10:11," for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages are come." The term, αἰὼν μέλλων, is also used in this Epistle (Hebrews 6:5); cf. Hebrews 2:5, τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν. For allusions elsewhere to the two periods, cf. Matthew 12:32; Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30; Luke 20:35; Ephesians 1:21; Titus 2:12. Cf. also in Old Testament, Isaiah 9:6, where, for "Everlasting Father," Cod. Alex. has πατὴρ τοῦ μελλόντος αἰῶνος. A subject of discussion has been the point of division between the two ages - whether the commencement of the Christian dispensation, ushered in by the exaltation of Christ, or his second advent. The conception in the Jewish mind, founded on Messianic prophecy, would, of course, be undefined. It would only be that the coming of the Messiah would inaugurate a new order of things. But how did the New Testament writers after Christ's ascension conceive the two ages? Did they regard themselves as living at the end of the former age or at the beginning of the new one? The passage before us does not help to settle the question, nor does Hebrews 9:26; for the reference in both cases is to the historical manifestation of Christ before his ascension. But others of the passages cited above seem certainly to imply that "the coming age" was regarded as still future. It has been said, indeed, with regard to this apparent inference from some of them, that the writers were regarding their own age from the old Jewish standing-point when they spoke of it as future, or only used well-known phrases to denote the two ages, though they were no longer strictly applicable (see Alford's note on Hebrews 2:5). But this explanation cannot well be made to apply to such passages as 1 Corinthians 10:11 and Ephesians 1:21, or to those in the Gospels. It would appear from them that it was not till the παρούσια (or, as it is designated in the pastoral Epistles, the ἐπιφάνεια) of Christ that "the coming age" of prophecy was regarded as destined to begin, ushering in "new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness" (2 Peter 3:13). Still, though "that day" was in the future, the first coming of Christ had been, as it were, its dawn, signifying its approach and preparing believers for meeting it. "The darkness was passing away; the true light was already shining" (1 John 2:8). Hence the apostolic writers sometimes speak as if already in the "coming age;" as being already citizens of heaven (Philippians 3:20); as already "made to sit with Christ in the heavenly places" (Ephesians 2:6); having already "tasted the powers of the age to come" (Hebrews 6:5). In a certain sense they felt themselves in the new order of things, though, strictly speaking, they still regarded their own age as but the end of the old one, irradiated by the light of the new. To understand fully their language on the subject, we should remember that they supposed the second advent to be more imminent than it was. St. Paul, at one time certainly, thought that it might be before his own death (2 Corinthians 5:4; 1 Thessalonians 4:15). Thus they might naturally speak of their own time as the conclusion of the former age, though regarding the second advent as the commencement of the new one. But the prolongation of "the end of these days," unforeseen by them, does not affect the essence of their teaching on the subject. In the Divine counsels "one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day." Hath spoken unto us (more properly, spake to us) in his Son. "His" is here properly supplied to give the meaning of ἐν υἱῷ. The rendering, a SON, which seems to have the advantage of literalism, would be misleading if it suggested the idea of one among many sons, or a son in the same sense in which others are sons. For though the designation, "son of God," is undoubtedly used in subordinate senses - applied e.g. to Adam, to angels, to good men, to Christians - yet what follows in the Epistle fixes its peculiar meaning here. The entire drift of the earlier part of the Epistle is to show that the idea involved in the word "Son," as applied to the Messiah in prophecy, is that of a relation to God far above that of the angels or of Moses, and altogether unique in its character. This idea must have been in the writer's mind when he selected the phrases of his exordium. Nor is the article required for the sense intended. Its omission, in fact, brings it out. Ἐν τῷ υἱῷ would have drawn especial attention to "the personage in whom God spake; ἐν υἱῷ does so rather to the mode of the speaking - it is equivalent to "in one who was SON." Son-revelation (as afterwards explained), is contrasted with previous prophetic revelations (cf. for omission of the article before υἱὸς, Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:28). Whom he appointed (or, constituted) heir of all things; not, as in the A.V., "hath appointed." The verb is in the aorist, and here the indefinite sense of the aorist should be preserved. "Convenienter statim sub Filii nomen memoratur haereditas" (Bengel). Two questions arise.

(1) Was it in respect of his eternal Divinity, or of his manifestation in time, that the Son was appointed "Heir of all things?"

(2) When is God to be conceived as so appointing him? i.e. What is the time, if any, to be assigned to the indefinite aorist? In answer to question

(1) the second alternative is to be preferred. For

(a) his eternal pre-existence has not yet been touched upon: it is introduced, as it were parenthetically, in the next and following clauses.

(b) Though the term Son is legitimately used in theology to denote the eternal relation to the Father expressed by the Λόγος of St. John, yet its application in this Epistle and in the New Testament generally (excepting, perhaps, the μονογενὴς υἱὸς peculiar to St. John, on which see Bull, 'Jud. Eccl. Cath.,' 5:4, etc.), is to the Word made flesh, to the Son as manifested in the Christ. And hence it is to him as such that we may conclude the heirship to be here assigned.

(c) This is the view carried out in the sequel of the Epistle, where the SON is represented as attaining the universal dominion assigned to him after, and in consequence of, his human obedience. The conclusion of the exordium in itself expresses this; for it is not till after he had made purification of sins that he is said to have "sat down," etc.; i.e. entered on his inheritance; having become (γένομενος not ω}ν) "so much better," etc. This is the view of Chrysostom, Theodoret, and the Fathers generally (cf. the cognate passage, Philippians 2:9).

(2) It seems best to refer the aorist ἔθηκε, not to any definite time, as that of the prophetic utterances afterwards cited, or that of the actual exaltation of Christ, but indefinitely to the eternal counsels, which were indeed declared and fulfilled in time, but were themselves ἐνἀρχῇ. A similar use of the aorist, coupled with other aorists pointing to events in time, is found in Romans 8:29, 30. What this heirship of all things implies will appear in the sequel, By whom also he made the worlds. Interposed clause to complete the true conception of the SON; showing who and what he was originally and essentially through whom God "spake" in time, and who, as SON, inherited. Here certainly, and in the expressions which follow, we have the same doctrine as that of the Λόγος of St. John. And the testimony of the New Testament to the pre-existence and deity of Christ is the more striking from our finding the same essential idea under different forms of expression, and in writings differing so much from each other in character and style. He who appeared in the world as Christ is, in the first place, here said (as by St. John 1:3) to have been the Agent of creation; cf. Colossians 1:15-17, where the original creative agency of "the Son of his love" is emphatically set forth, as well as his being "the Head of the body, the Church." This cognate passage is of weight against the view of interpreters who would take the one before us as referring to the initiation of the gospel ages; with respect to which view see also the quotation from Bull given below under ver. 3. Here τοὺς αἰῶνας is equivalent to "the worlds," as in the A.V. For though the primary meaning of αἰών has reference to time - limited in periods, or unlimited in eternity - it is used to denote also the whole system of things called into being by the Creator in time and through which alone we are able to conceive time. "Οἱ αἰῶνες, saecula, pro rerum creatarum universitate est Hebraismus" (Bull); cf. Hebrews 11:3, καταρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῤήματι Θεοῦ: also 1 Corinthians 2:7, πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων: and 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2, πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων.

1:1-3 God spake to his ancient people at sundry times, through successive generations, and in divers manners, as he thought proper; sometimes by personal directions, sometimes by dreams, sometimes by visions, sometimes by Divine influences on the minds of the prophets. The gospel revelation is excellent above the former; in that it is a revelation which God has made by his Son. In beholding the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Lord Jesus Christ, we behold the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Father, Joh 14:7; the fulness of the Godhead dwells, not typically, or in a figure, but really, in him. When, on the fall of man, the world was breaking to pieces under the wrath and curse of God, the Son of God, undertaking the work of redemption, sustained it by his almighty power and goodness. From the glory of the person and office of Christ, we proceed to the glory of his grace. The glory of His person and nature, gave to his sufferings such merit as was a full satisfaction to the honour of God, who suffered an infinite injury and affront by the sins of men. We never can be thankful enough that God has in so many ways, and with such increasing clearness, spoken to us fallen sinners concerning salvation. That he should by himself cleanse us from our sins is a wonder of love beyond our utmost powers of admiration, gratitude, and praise.
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