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Smith's Bible DictionaryCross
As the emblem of a slave's death and a murderer's punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer. Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription was generally placed above the criminal's head, briefly expressing his guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white gypsum, and the letter were black.
ATS Bible DictionaryCross
A kind of gibbet made of pieces of wood placed transversely, whether crossing at right angles, one at the top of the other, T, or below the top, t, or diagonally, X. Death by the cross was a punishment of the meanest slaves, and was a mark of infamy, De 21:23 Galatians 3:13. This punishment was so common among the Romans, that pains, afflictions, troubles, etc., were called "crosses." Our Savior says that his disciples must take up the cross and follow Him. Though the cross is the sign of ignominy and sufferings, yet it is the badge and glory of the Christian.
The common way of crucifying was by fastening the criminal with nails, one through each hand, and one through both his feet, or through each foot. Sometimes they were bound with cords, which, though it seems gentler, because it occasions less pain, was really more cruel, because the sufferer was hereby made to languish longer. Sometimes they used both nails and cords for fastenings; and when this was the case, there was no difficulty in lifting up the person, together with his cross, he being sufficiently supported by the cords; near the middle of the cross also there was a wooden projection, which partially supported the body of the sufferer. Before they nailed him to the cross, they generally scourged him with whips or leathern thongs, which was thought more severe and more infamous than scourging with cords. Slaves who had been guilty of great crimes were fastened to a gibbet or cross, and were thus led about the city, and beaten. Our Savior was loaded with his cross, and as he sunk under the burden, Simon the Cyrenian was constrained to bear it after him and with him, Mark 15:21.
After the person had been nailed to the cross, a stupefying draught was sometimes administered, in order to render him less sensible to pain, an alleviation which our Savior did not accept, Matthew 27:34 Mark 15:23; though he seems afterwards to have taken a little of the common beverage of the soldiers. Sent by the Father to bear the heavy load of penal suffering for a lost race, he felt that he had no right to the palliatives resorted to in ordinary cases, and perfectly lawful except in his own. "The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it-" John 18:11. He drank it, and to the very dregs. The cross being erected under the burning sun, the wounds made by the scourge and the nails soon occasioned a general fever and an intolerable thirst. The blood, interrupted in its regular flow, accumulated in various parts of the body, and caused painful congestions. Every slight writhing of the sufferer increased his anguish, which found no relief but in final mortification and death. Those who were fastened upon the cross lived in that condition several days, and sometimes a week or more. Hence Pilate was amazed at our Savior's dying so soon, because naturally he must have lived longer, Mark 15:44. The legs of the two thieves were broken, to hasten their death, but their bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath say, De 21:23 Joshua 8:29; but the crucified were usually left hanging, under the eye of guards, till their bodies fell to the ground, or were devoured by birds and beasts of prey.
Easton's Bible DictionaryIn the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Ephesians 2:16; Hebrews 12:2; 1 Corinthians 1:17, 18; Galatians 5:11; 6:12, 14; Philippians 3:18). The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam, was placed the "title." (see CRUCIFIXION.)
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega. (See A.)
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary1. (n.) A gibbet, consisting of two pieces of timber placed transversely upon one another, in various forms, as a T, or +, with the horizontal piece below the upper end of the upright, or as an X. It was anciently used in the execution of criminals.
2. (n.) The sign or mark of the cross, made with the finger, or in ink, etc., or actually represented in some material; the symbol of Christ's death; the ensign and chosen symbol of Christianity, of a Christian people, and of Christendom.
3. (n.) Affliction regarded as a test of patience or virtue; trial; disappointment; opposition; misfortune.
4. (n.) A piece of money stamped with the figure of a cross, also, that side of such a piece on which the cross is stamped; hence, money in general.
5. (n.) An appendage or ornament or anything in the form of a cross; a badge or ornamental device of the general shape of a cross; hence, such an ornament, even when varying considerably from that form; thus, the Cross of the British Order of St. George and St. Michael consists of a central medallion with seven arms radiating from it.
6. (n.) A monument in the form of a cross, or surmounted by a cross, set up in a public place; as, a market cross; a boundary cross; Charing Cross in London.
7. (n.) A common heraldic bearing, of which there are many varieties.
8. (n.) The cross like mark or symbol used instead of a signature by those unable to write.
9. (n.) Church lands.
10. (n.) A line drawn across or through another line.
11. (n.) A mixing of breeds or stock, especially in cattle breeding; or the product of such intermixture; a hybrid of any kind.
12. (n.) An instrument for laying of offsets perpendicular to the main course.
13. (n.) A pipe-fitting with four branches the axes of which usually form's right angle.
14. (a.) Not parallel; lying or falling athwart; transverse; oblique; intersecting.
15. (a.) Not accordant with what is wished or expected; interrupting; adverse; contrary; thwarting; perverse.
16. (a.) Characterized by, or in a state of, peevishness, fretfulness, or ill humor; as, a cross man or woman.
17. (a.) Made in an opposite direction, or an inverse relation; mutually inverse; interchanged; as, cross interrogatories; cross marriages, as when a brother and sister marry persons standing in the same relation to each other.
18. (prep.) Athwart; across.
19. (v. t.) To put across or athwart; to cause to intersect; as, to cross the arms.
20. (v. t.) To lay or draw something, as a line, across; as, to cross the letter t.
21. (v. t.) To pass from one side to the other of; to pass or move over; to traverse; as, to cross a stream.
22. (v. t.) To pass, as objects going in an opposite direction at the same time.
23. (v. t.) To run counter to; to thwart; to obstruct; to hinder; to clash or interfere with.
24. (v. t.) To interfere and cut off; to debar.
25. (v. t.) To make the sign of the cross upon; -- followed by the reflexive pronoun; as, he crossed himself.
26. (v. t.) To cancel by marking crosses on or over, or drawing a line across; to erase; -- usually with out, off, or over; as, to cross out a name.
27. (v. t.) To cause to interbreed; -- said of different stocks or races; to mix the breed of.
28. (v. i.) To lie or be athwart.
29. (v. i.) To move or pass from one side to the other, or from place to place; to make a transit; as, to cross from New York to Liverpool.
30. (v. i.) To be inconsistent.
International Standard Bible EncyclopediaCROSS
(stauros, "a cross," "the crucifixion"; skolops, "a stake," "a pole"): The name is not found in the Old Testament. It is derived from the Latin word crux. In the Greek language it is stauros, but sometimes we find the word skolops used as its Greek equivalent. The historical writers, who transferred the events of Roman history into the Greek language, make use of these two words. No word in human language has become more universally known than this word, and that because all of the history of the world since the death of Christ has been measured by the distance which separates events from it. The symbol and principal content of the Christian religion and of Christian civilization is found in this one word.
Greek4716. stauros -- an upright stake, hence a cross (the Rom. ...
... 4715, 4716. stauros. 4717 . an upright stake, hence a cross (the Rom.
instrument of crucifixion). Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4716.htm - 8k
1276. diaperao -- to cross over
4362. prospegnumi -- to fasten to (spec. to a cross)
3586. xulon -- wood
1224. diabaino -- to step across
4717. stauroo -- to fence with stakes, to crucify
4008. peran -- on the other side
5051. teleiotes -- a completer, finisher
3846. paraballo -- to throw beside
953. bebeloo -- to profane
Strong's Hebrew5674a. abar -- to pass over, through, or by, pass on
... 2), circulating (1), come (2), come around (1), come over (3), comes (3), continue
(2), continued (13), continued through (1), contrary (2), cross (29), cross ...
/hebrew/5674a.htm - 7k
5674. abar -- to pass over, through, or by, pass on
The Wondrous Cross.
The Finding of the Cross.
The Joy of the Cross
The Cross and Crown.
Words from the Cross
The Title on the Cross
The Glory of the Cross
When on the Cruel Cross
Parables of the Cross
ThesaurusCross (157 Occurrences)
... The forms in which the cross is represented are these: 1. The crux simplex
(I), a "single piece without transom.". ... Andrew's cross. ...
/c/cross.htm - 50k
Cross-mark (1 Occurrence)
Cross-ways (1 Occurrence)
Cross-paths (1 Occurrence)
Cross-roads (2 Occurrences)
Cross-way (1 Occurrence)
Cross-beams (1 Occurrence)
Cross-examined (1 Occurrence)
Nailed (9 Occurrences)
Crucifixion (4 Occurrences)
Bible ConcordanceCross (157 Occurrences)
Matthew 8:18 Seeing great crowds about Him Jesus had given directions to cross to the other side of the Lake,
Matthew 10:38 He who doesn't take his cross and follow after me, isn't worthy of me.
Matthew 14:22 Immediately afterwards He made the disciples go on board the boat and cross to the opposite shore, leaving Him to dismiss the people.
Matthew 16:24 Then Jesus said to his disciples, "If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
Matthew 20:19 And will give him up to the Gentiles to be made sport of and to be whipped and to be put to death on the cross: and the third day he will come back again from the dead.
Matthew 23:34 For this reason, I send you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: some of them you will put to death and put on the cross, and to some of them you will give blows in your Synagogues, driving them from town to town;
Matthew 26:2 After two days is the Passover, and the Son of man will be given up to the death of the cross.
Matthew 27:22 Pilate says to them, What, then, am I to do with Jesus, who is named Christ? They all say, Let him be put to death on the cross.
Matthew 27:23 And he said, Why, what evil has he done? But they gave loud cries, saying, To the cross with him!
Matthew 27:26 Then he let Barabbas go free: but after having Jesus whipped, he gave him up to be put to death on the cross.
Matthew 27:31 And when they had made sport of him, they took the robe off him, and put his clothing on him, and took him away to put him on the cross.
Matthew 27:32 As they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name, and they compelled him to go with them, that he might carry his cross.
Matthew 27:35 And when they had put him on the cross, they made division of his clothing among them by the decision of chance.
Matthew 27:40 and saying, "You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross!"
Matthew 27:42 "He saved others, but he can't save himself. If he is the King of Israel, let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him.
Matthew 28:5 And the angel said to the women, Have no fear: for I see that you are searching for Jesus, who was put to death on the cross.
Mark 4:35 The same day, in the evening, He said to them, "Let us cross to the other side."
Mark 6:45 Immediately afterwards He made His disciples go on board the boat and cross over to Bethsaida, leaving Him behind to dismiss the crowd.
Mark 8:34 He called the multitude to himself with his disciples, and said to them, "Whoever wants to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
Mark 10:21 Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross."
Mark 15:13 And they said again loudly, To the cross with him!
Mark 15:14 And Pilate said to them, Why, what evil has he done? But their cry was the louder, To the cross!
Mark 15:15 And Pilate, desiring to do what was pleasing to the people, let Barabbas go free, and gave up Jesus, when he had been whipped, to be put to death on the cross.
Mark 15:20 And when they had made sport of him, they took the purple robe off him and put his clothing on him. And they took him out to put him to death on the cross.
Mark 15:21 They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross.
Mark 15:24 And he was nailed to the cross; and they made a division of his clothing among them, putting to the decision of chance what everyone was to take.
Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour when they put him on the cross.
Mark 15:26 And the statement of his crime was put in writing on the cross, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
Mark 15:30 save yourself, and come down from the cross!"
Mark 15:32 Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him. " Those who were crucified with him insulted him.
Mark 15:39 And when the Centurion who stood in front of the cross saw that He was dead, he exclaimed, "This man was indeed God's Son."
Mark 16:6 And he said to them, Do not be troubled: you are looking for Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been put to death on the cross; he has come back from the dead; he is not here: see, the place where they put him!
Luke 8:22 One day He went on board a boat--both He and his disciples; and He said to them, "Let us cross over to the other side of the Lake." So they set sail.
Luke 9:23 He said to all, "If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me.
Luke 14:27 Whoever doesn't bear his own cross, and come after me, can't be my disciple.
Luke 16:26 Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that those who want to pass from here to you are not able, and that none may cross over from there to us.'
Luke 23:21 But crying out they said, To the cross with him!
Luke 23:23 But they went on crying out loudly, Let him be put to death on the cross. And they had their way.
Luke 23:26 When they led him away, they grabbed one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it after Jesus.
Luke 23:33 When they reached the place called 'The Skull,' there they nailed Him to the cross, and the criminals also, one at His right hand and one at His left.
Luke 23:39 And one of the evil-doers on the cross, with bitter feeling, said to him, Are you not the Christ? Get yourself and us out of this.
Luke 24:7 The Son of man will be given up into the hands of evil-doers, and be put to death on the cross, and on the third day he will come back to life.
Luke 24:20 And how the chief priests and our rulers gave him up to be put to death on the cross.
John 6:17 There they got on board a boat, and pushed off to cross the Lake to Capernaum. By this time it had become dark, and Jesus had not yet joined them.
John 19:6 As soon then as the High Priests and the officers saw Him, they shouted "To the cross! To the cross!" "Take him yourselves and crucify him," said Pilate; "for I, at any rate, find no crime in him."
John 19:10 Then Pilate said to him, You say nothing to me? is it not clear to you that I have power to let you go free and power to put you to death on the cross?
John 19:15 Then they gave a loud cry, Away with him! away with him! to the cross! Pilate said to them, Am I to put your King to death on the cross? The chief priests said in answer, We have no king but Caesar.
John 19:16 So then he gave him up to them to be put to death on the cross. And they took Jesus away;
John 19:17 He went out, bearing his cross, to the place called "The Place of a Skull," which is called in Hebrew, "Golgotha,"
John 19:18 where they nailed Him to a cross, and two others at the same time, one on each side and Jesus in the middle.
John 19:19 Pilate wrote a title also, and put it on the cross. There was written, "JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS."
John 19:20 The writing was seen by a number of the Jews, for the place where Jesus was put to death on the cross was near the town; and the writing was in Hebrew and Latin and Greek.
John 19:23 And when Jesus was nailed to the cross, the men of the army took his clothing, and made a division of it into four parts, to every man a part, and they took his coat: now the coat was without a join, made out of one bit of cloth.
John 19:25 But there were standing by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.
John 19:31 Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies wouldn't remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
John 19:32 So the men of the army came, and the legs of the first were broken and then of the other who was put to death on the cross with Jesus:
John 19:41 Now there was a garden near the cross, and in the garden a new place for the dead in which no man had ever been put.
Acts 2:23 delivered up through God's settled purpose and foreknowledge--you by the hands of Gentiles have nailed to a cross and have put to death.
Acts 2:36 For this reason, let all Israel be certain that this Jesus, whom you put to death on the cross, God has made Lord and Christ.
Acts 4:10 Take note, all of you, and all the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you put to death on the cross, whom God gave back from the dead, even through him is this man now before you completely well.
Acts 5:30 The God of our fathers has raised up Jesus, whom ye have slain, having hanged on a cross.
Acts 10:39 We also are witnesses of all things which he did both in the country of the Jews and in Jerusalem; whom they also slew, having hanged him on a cross.
Acts 13:29 and when they had carried out everything which had been written about Him, they took Him down from the cross and laid Him in a tomb.
Acts 18:27 Then, as he had made up his mind to cross over into Greece, the brethren wrote to the disciples in Corinth begging them to give him a kindly welcome. Upon his arrival he rendered valuable help to those who through grace had believed;
Romans 6:6 This we know--that our old self was nailed to the cross with Him, in order that our sinful nature might be deprived of its power, so that we should no longer be the slaves of sin;
1 Corinthians 1:13 Is there a division in Christ? was Paul nailed to the cross for you? or were you given baptism in the name of Paul?
1 Corinthians 1:17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the Good News-not in wisdom of words, so that the cross of Christ wouldn't be made void.
1 Corinthians 1:18 For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is the power of God.
1 Corinthians 1:23 But we give the good news of Christ on the cross, a hard thing to the Jews, and a foolish thing to the Gentiles;
1 Corinthians 2:2 For I had made the decision to have knowledge of nothing among you but only of Jesus Christ on the cross.
1 Corinthians 2:8 Of which not one of the rulers of this world had knowledge: for if they had, they would not have put the Lord of glory on the cross:
2 Corinthians 13:4 For he was feeble in that he was put to death on the cross, but he is living by the power of God. And we are feeble in him, but we will be living with him through the power of God in relation to you.
Galatians 2:20 I have been put to death on the cross with Christ; still I am living; no longer I, but Christ is living in me; and that life which I now am living in the flesh I am living by faith, the faith of the Son of God, who in love for me, gave himself up for me.
Galatians 3:1 You foolish Galatians! Whose sophistry has bewitched you--you to whom Jesus Christ has been vividly portrayed as on the Cross?
Galatians 5:11 But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? Then the stumbling block of the cross has been removed.
Galatians 5:24 And those who are Christ's have put to death on the cross the flesh with its passions and its evil desires.
Galatians 6:12 As many as desire to look good in the flesh, they compel you to be circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted for the cross of Christ.
Galatians 6:14 But far be it from me to boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.
Ephesians 2:16 and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby.
Philippians 2:8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. Paul's First Letter to the Thessalonians
Philippians 3:18 For many walk, of whom I told you often, and now tell you even weeping, as the enemies of the cross of Christ,
Colossians 1:20 and through him to reconcile all things to himself, by him, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens, having made peace through the blood of his cross.
Colossians 2:14 wiping out the handwriting in ordinances which was against us; and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross;
Colossians 2:15 And the hostile princes and rulers He shook off from Himself, and boldly displayed them as His conquests, when by the Cross He triumphed over them.
Hebrews 6:6 And then let themselves be turned away, it is not possible for their hearts to be made new a second time; because they themselves put the Son of God on the cross again, openly shaming him.
Hebrews 12:2 looking to Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising its shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
1 Peter 2:18 The domestics! be subjecting yourselves in all fear to the masters, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the cross;
1 Peter 2:24 The burden of our sins He Himself carried in His own body to the Cross and bore it there, so that we, having died so far as our sins are concerned, may live righteous lives. By His wounds yours have been healed.
Revelation 11:8 And their dead bodies will be in the open street of the great town, which in the spirit is named Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was put to death on the cross.
Numbers 32:5 They said, "If we have found favor in your sight, let this land be given to your servants for a possession; don't bring us over the Jordan."
Numbers 32:21 Every armed man of you going across Jordan before the Lord till he has overcome and sent in flight all who are against him,
Numbers 32:27 but your servants will pass over, every man who is armed for war, before Yahweh to battle, as my lord says."
Numbers 32:29 Moses said to them, "If the children of Gad and the children of Reuben will pass with you over the Jordan, every man who is armed to battle, before Yahweh, and the land shall be subdued before you; then you shall give them the land of Gilead for a possession:
Numbers 32:30 but if they will not pass over with you armed, they shall have possessions among you in the land of Canaan."
Numbers 32:32 We will pass over armed before Yahweh into the land of Canaan, and the possession of our inheritance shall remain with us beyond the Jordan."
Numbers 33:51 Speak to the children of Israel, and tell them, "When you pass over the Jordan into the land of Canaan,
Numbers 35:10 "Speak to the children of Israel, and tell them,'When you pass over the Jordan into the land of Canaan,
Deuteronomy 2:13 "Now rise up, and cross over the brook Zered." We went over the brook Zered.
Deuteronomy 2:18 "You are this day to pass over Ar, the border of Moab:
Deuteronomy 2:29 as the children of Esau who dwell in Seir, and the Moabites who dwell in Ar, did to me; until I shall pass over the Jordan into the land which Yahweh our God gives us."
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