Romans 2:15
New International Version
They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them.)

New Living Translation
They demonstrate that God’s law is written in their hearts, for their own conscience and thoughts either accuse them or tell them they are doing right.

English Standard Version
They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them

Berean Study Bible
So they show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts either accusing or defending them

Berean Literal Bible
who show the work of the Law, written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and the thoughts between one another accusing or also defending them

King James Bible
Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

New King James Version
who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)

New American Standard Bible
in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them,

NASB 1995
in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them,

NASB 1977
in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them,

Amplified Bible
They show that the essential requirements of the Law are written in their hearts; and their conscience [their sense of right and wrong, their moral choices] bearing witness and their thoughts alternately accusing or perhaps defending them

Christian Standard Bible
They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts. Their consciences confirm this. Their competing thoughts either accuse or even excuse them

Holman Christian Standard Bible
They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts. Their consciences confirm this. Their competing thoughts will either accuse or excuse them

American Standard Version
in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness therewith, and their thoughts one with another accusing or else excusing them );

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And they show the work of The Written Law written on their heart and their conscience testifies to them, while their reasoning rebukes or defends each one,

Contemporary English Version
This proves that the conscience is like a law written in the human heart. And it will show whether we are forgiven or condemned,

Douay-Rheims Bible
Who shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness to them, and their thoughts between themselves accusing, or also defending one another,

English Revised Version
in that they shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness therewith, and their thoughts one with another accusing or else excusing them;

Good News Translation
Their conduct shows that what the Law commands is written in their hearts. Their consciences also show that this is true, since their thoughts sometimes accuse them and sometimes defend them.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
They show that some requirements found in Moses' Teachings are written in their hearts. Their consciences speak to them. Their thoughts accuse them on one occasion and defend them on another.

International Standard Version
They show that what the Law requires is written in their hearts, a fact to which their own consciences testify, and their thoughts will either accuse or excuse them

Literal Standard Version
who show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience also witnessing with them, and between one another the thoughts accusing or else defending,

NET Bible
They show that the work of the law is written in their hearts, as their conscience bears witness and their conflicting thoughts accuse or else defend them,

New Heart English Bible
since they show the work of the law written on their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts either accusing or defending them,

Weymouth New Testament
since they exhibit proof that a knowledge of the conduct which the Law requires is engraven on their hearts, while their consciences also bear witness to the Law, and their thoughts, as if in mutual discussion, accuse them or perhaps maintain their innocence--

World English Bible
in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them)

Young's Literal Translation
who do shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also witnessing with them, and between one another the thoughts accusing or else defending,

Additional Translations ...
Context
God's Righteous Judgment
14Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. 15So they show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts either accusing or defending them 16on the day when God will judge men’s secrets through Christ Jesus, as proclaimed by my gospel.…

Cross References
Romans 2:14
Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law.

Romans 2:27
The one who is physically uncircumcised yet keeps the law will condemn you who, even though you have the written code and circumcision, are a lawbreaker.


Treasury of Scripture

Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

written.

Romans 1:18,19
For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; …

their conscience, etc.

Romans 9:1
I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,

John 8:9
And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.

Acts 23:1
And Paul, earnestly beholding the council, said, Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day.

the mean while.

Genesis 3:8-11
And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden…

Genesis 20:5
Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and she, even she herself said, He is my brother: in the integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this.

Genesis 42:21,22
And they said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us…









(15) Which.--Rather, Inasmuch as they.

The work of the law.--The practical effect or realisation of the law--written in their hearts as the original Law was written upon the tables of stone, (Comp. Jeremiah 31:33; 2Corinthians 3:3.)

Also bearing witness.--Or, witnessing with them, as margin. There is a double witness; their actions speak for them externally, and conscience speaks for them internally.

The mean while.--Rather, literally, as margin, between themselves--i.e., with mutual interchange, the thoughts of the heart or different motions of conscience sometimes taking the part of advocate, sometimes of accuser.

This seems, on the whole, the best way of taking these two words, though some commentators (among them Meyer) regard this quasi personification of "the thoughts" as too strong a figure of speech, and take "between themselves" as referring to the mutual intercourse of man with man. But in that mutual intercourse it is not the thoughts that accuse or defend, but the tongue. The Apostle is speaking strictly of the private tribunal of conscience.



Parallel Commentaries ...


Greek
[since] they
οἵτινες (hoitines)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's 3748: Whosoever, whichsoever, whatsoever.

show [that]
ἐνδείκνυνται (endeiknyntai)
Verb - Present Indicative Middle - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 1731: To show forth, prove. From en and deiknuo; to indicate.

the
τὸ (to)
Article - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

work
ἔργον (ergon)
Noun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 2041: From a primary ergo; toil; by implication, an act.

of the
τοῦ (tou)
Article - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

Law
νόμου (nomou)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's 3551: From a primary nemo; law, genitive case, specially, (including the volume); also of the Gospel), or figuratively.

is written
γραπτὸν (grapton)
Adjective - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's 1123: Written. From grapho; inscribed.

on
ἐν (en)
Preposition
Strong's 1722: In, on, among. A primary preposition denoting position, and instrumentality, i.e. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc.

their
αὐτῶν (autōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

hearts,
καρδίαις (kardiais)
Noun - Dative Feminine Plural
Strong's 2588: Prolonged from a primary kar; the heart, i.e. the thoughts or feelings; also the middle.

their
αὐτῶν (autōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

consciences
συνειδήσεως (syneidēseōs)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 4893: The conscience, a persisting notion. From a prolonged form of suneido; co-perception, i.e. Moral consciousness.

also
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's 2532: And, even, also, namely.

bearing witness,
συμμαρτυρούσης (symmartyrousēs)
Verb - Present Participle Active - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 4828: To bear witness together with. From sun and martureo; to testify jointly, i.e. Corroborate by evidence.

[and] their
ἀλλήλων (allēlōn)
Personal / Reciprocal Pronoun - Genitive Masculine Plural
Strong's 240: One another, each other. Genitive plural from allos reduplicated; one another.

thoughts
λογισμῶν (logismōn)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Plural
Strong's 3053: Reasoning, thinking; a conception, device. From logizomai; computation, i.e. reasoning.

either
μεταξὺ (metaxy)
Preposition
Strong's 3342: Meanwhile, afterwards, between. From meta and a form of sun; betwixt; as adjective, intervening, or adjoining.

accusing
κατηγορούντων (katēgorountōn)
Verb - Present Participle Active - Genitive Masculine Plural
Strong's 2723: To accuse, charge, prosecute. From kategoros; to be a plaintiff, i.e. To charge with some offence.

or
(ē)
Conjunction
Strong's 2228: Or, than. A primary particle of distinction between two connected terms; disjunctive, or; comparative, than.

defending [them].
ἀπολογουμένων (apologoumenōn)
Verb - Present Participle Middle or Passive - Genitive Masculine Plural
Strong's 626: To give a defense, defend myself (especially in a law court): it can take an object of what is said in defense.


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