International Standard Bible EncyclopediaTRADE
2. Position of Palestine
3. Trade Products of Palestine
4. Palestinian Traders
1. To David
3. Maritime Trade
4. To the Exile
5. The Exile and After
I. General. 1. Terms:
For a full list of the commercial terms used in the Old Testament, reference must be made to EB, IV, cols. 5193-99. Only the more important can be given here.
For "merchant" the Hebrew uses almost always one of the two participial forms cocher, or rokhel, both of which mean simply "one who travels." There is no difference in their meaning, but when the two are used together (Ezekiel 27:13) the Revised Version (British and American) distinguishes by using "trafficker" for rokhel. The verb cachar, from which cocher is derived, is translated "to trade" in Genesis 34:10, 21 and "to traffic" in Genesis 49:34, with numerous noun formations from the same stem. The verb rakhal from which rokhel is derived does not occur, but the noun formation rekhullah in Ezekiel 26:12 (the Revised Version (British and American) "merchandise"); 28:5, 16, 18 (the Revised Version (British and American) "traffic") may be noted. In Ezekiel 27:24 the Revised Version (British and American) has "merchandise" for markoleth, but the word means "place of merchandise," "market." The participle tarim, from tur, "seek out," in combination with 'aneshe, "men," in 1 Kings 10:15, is translated "merchant men" by the King James Version, "chapmen" by the English Revised Version and "traders" by the American Standard Revised Version; in 2 Chronicles 9:14, the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "chapmen" and the American Standard Revised Version "traders." The text of these verses is suspected. In Ezekiel 27 (only) "merchandise" represents ma`arabh, from `arabh, "to exchange," translated "to deal," margin "exchange," in 27:9 the American Standard Revised Version, with "dealers," margin "exchangers," in 27:27 (the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "occupy," "occupiers"). kena`an, and kena`ani "Canaanite," are sometimes used in the sense of "merchant," but it is often difficult to determine whether the literal or the transferred force is intended. Hence, all the confusion in English Versions of the Bible; in the Revised Version (British and American) note "merchant," Job 41:6; "merchant," margin "Canaanite," Proverbs 31:24; "trafficker," Isaiah 23:8; "trafficker," margin "Canaanite," Hosea 12:7; "Canaan," margin "merchant people," Isaiah 23:11; Zechariah 1:11, and compare "land of traffic," margin "land of Canaan," Ezekiel 17:4.
See CHAPMAN; OCCUPY.
In Apocrypha and New Testament "merchant" is for emporos (Sirach 26:29, etc.; Matthew 13:45 Revelation 18:3, 11, 15, 23). So "merchandise" is emporion, in John 2:16 and emporia, in Matthew 22:5, while emporeuomai, is translated "make merchandise of" in 2 Peter 2:3 and "trade" in James 4:13 (the King James Version "buy and sell"). But "to trade" in Matthew 25:16 is for ergazomai (compare Revelation 18:17), and Luke 19:13 for pragmateuomai, the King James Version "occupy"; while "merchandise" in Revelation 18:11, 12 is for gomos, "cargo" (so the Revised Version margin; compare Acts 21:3). Worthy of note, moreover, is metabolia, "exchange" (Sirach 37:11).
2. Position of Palestine:
Any road map of the ancient world shows that Palestine, despite its lack of harbors, occupied an extremely important position as regards the trade-routes. There was no exit to the West from the great caravan center Damascus, there was virtually no exit landward from the great maritime centers Tyre and Sidon, and there was no exit to the North and Northeast from Egypt without crossing Palestine. In particular, the only good road connecting Tyre (and Sidon) with Damascus lay directly across Northern Palestine, skirting the Sea of Galilee. In consequence, foreign merchants must at all tames have been familiar figures in Palestine (Genesis 37:25, 28 1 Kings 10:15 Nehemiah 13:16 Isaiah 2:6 Zephaniah 1:11, etc.). As a corollary, tolls laid on these merchants would always have been a fruitful source of income (1 Kings 10:15 Ezekiel 26:2 Ezra 4:20), and naturally Palestine enjoyed particular advantages for the distribution of her own products through the presence of these traders.
3. Trade Products of Palestine:
Of these products the three great staples were grain, oil and wine (Hosea 2:8 Deuteronomy 7:13, etc.). The wine of Palestine, however, gained little reputation in the ancient world, and its export is mentioned only in 2 Chronicles 2:10, 15 Ezra 3:7, while Ezekiel 27:18 says expressly that for good wine Tyre sent to Damascus. Grain would not be needed by Egypt, but it found a ready market in Phoenicia, both for consumption in the great cities of Tyre and Sidon and for export (1 Kings 5:11 Ezra 3:7 Ezekiel 27:17, etc.). A reverse dependence of Palestine on Tyre for food (Isaiah 23:18; compare Genesis 41:57) could have occurred only under exceptional circumstances. Oil was needed by Egypt as well as by Phoenicia (Hosea 12:1 Isaiah 57:9), but from Northern Israel was probably shipped into Egypt by way of Phoenicia. Hosea 2:5, 9 mentions wool and flax as products of Israel, but neither could have been important. Flax was a specialty of Egypt (Isaiah 19:9) and is hardly mentioned in the Old Testament, while for wool Israel had to depend largely on Moab (2 Kings 3:4 Isaiah 16:1). Minor products that were exported were "balm.... honey, spicery and myrrh, pistachio-nuts and almonds" (Genesis 43:11 margin; see the separate articles, and compare "pannag and.... balm" in Ezekiel 27:17). These were products of Gilead (Genesis 37:25). "Oaks of Bashan" had commercial value, but only for use for oars (Ezekiel 27:5), and so in small logs. Palestine had to import all heavy timbers (1 Kings 5:6, etc.). Despite Deuteronomy 8:9, Palestine is deficient in mineral wealth. The value of Pal's manufactured products would depend on the skill of the inhabitants, but for the arts the Hebrews seem to have had no particular aptitude (1 Kings 5:6; compare 1 Samuel 13:19;).
4. Palestinian Traders:
In comparison with the great volume of international trade that was constantly passing across Palestine, the above products could have had no very great value and the great merchants would normally have been foreigners. A wide activity as "middlemen" and agents was, however, open to the inhabitants of Palestine, if they cared to use it. Such a profession would demand close contact with the surrounding nations and freedom from religious scruples. The Canaanites evidently excelled in commercial pursuits of this time, so much so that "Canaanite" and "merchant" were convertible terms.
1. To David:
The Israelites entered Canaan as a nomadic people who had even agriculture yet to learn, and with a religious self-consciousness that restrained them from too close relations with their neighbors. Hence, they were debarred from much participation in trade. The legislation of the Pentateuch (in sharp distinction from that of Code of Hammurabi) shows this non-commercial spirit very clearly, as there are no provisions that relate to merchants beyond such elementary matters as the prohibition of false weights, etc. (Deuteronomy 25:13 Leviticus 19:36; Covenant Code has not even these rules). In particular, the prohibition of interest (Exodus 22:25 Deuteronomy 23:19, etc.) shows that no native commercial life was contemplated, for, without a credit-system, trade on any extensive scale was impossible. All this was to be left to foreigners (Deuteronomy 23:20; compare 15:6; 28:12, 44). The Jewish ideal, indeed, was that each household should form a self-sufficient producing unit (Proverbs 31:10-27), with local or national exchange of those commodities (such as tools and salt) that could not be produced at home. And this ideal seems to have been maintained tolerably well. The most northerly tribes, through their proximity to the Phoenicians, were those first affected by the commercial spirit, and in particular the isolated half-tribe of Dan. In Judges 5:17 we find them "remaining in ships" at the time of Barak's victory. As their territory had no seacoast, this must mean that they were gaining funds by serving in the ships of Tyre and Sidon. Zebulun and Issachar, likewise, appear in Deuteronomy 33:19 as the merchants of Israel, apparently selling their wares chiefly at the time of the great religious assemblages. But the disorders at the time of the Judges were an effectual bar against much commerce. Saul at length succeeded in producing some kind of order, and we hear that he had brought in a prosperity that showed itself in richer garments and golden ornaments for the women (2 Samuel 1:24; see MONEY). David's own establishment of an official shekel (2 Samuel 14:26) is proof that trade was becoming a matter of importance.
Under Solomon, however, Israel's real trade began. The writer of Ki lays special stress on his imports. From Tyre came timber (1 Kings 5:6, etc.) and gold (1 Kings 9:11). From Sheba came gold and spices (1 Kings 10:10, "gave" here, like "presents" elsewhere, is a euphemism). From Ophir and elsewhere came gold, silver, precious stones, almug trees, ivory, apes and peacocks (1 Kings 10:11, 22, 25). According to Massoretic Text 1 Kings 10:28, horses and chariots were brought from Egypt and re-sold to the North.
But the text here is suspected. Egypt had no reputation as a horse-mart in comparison with Northern Syria and Western Armenia (see TOGARMAH). So many scholars prefer to read "Musri" (in Northwestern Arabia) for "Egypt" (mtsr for mtsrym-see the comms., especially EB, III, cols. 3162-63). Yet the change does not clear up all the difficulties, and Egypt was certainly famous for her chariots. And compare Deuteronomy 17:16.
In exchange Solomon exported to Tyre wheat and oil (1 Kings 5:11 2 Chronicles 2:10, 15 adds "barley.... and wine"). What he sent to the other countries is not specified, and, in particular, there is no mention of what he exchanged for gold. 1 Kings 5:11; 1 Kings 9:11, however, indicate that Hiram was the intermediary for most of this gold traffic, so that at the final settlement of accounts Solomon must have been heavily in Hiram's debt. 1 Kings 9:11 proves this. Solomon had undertaken a larger task than the resources of Palestine could meet, and in payment was obliged to cede Northern Galilee to Hiram. (The writer of 1 Kings explains that `the cities were worthless,' while Chronicles passes over the unedifying incident altogether, if 2 Chronicles 8:2 is not a reversal of the case.)
3. Maritime Trade:
Among Solomon's other activities sea-commerce was not forgotten. David's victory over Edom gave access to the Red Sea at Eziongeber, and this port was utilized by Hiram and Solomon in partnership (1 Kings 9:26), Hiram, apparently, supplying the ships and the sailors (1 Kings 10:11). After Solomon's death, Edom revolted and the way to the sea was closed (1 Kings 11:14). It was not recovered until the time of Jehoshaphat, and he could do nothing with it, "for the ships were broken at Eziongeber" (1 Kings 22:48), i.e. in the home harbor. Either they were badly built or incompetently manned. The Hebrews had no skill as sailors.
See SHIPS AND BOATS.
4. To the Exile:
After the time of Solomon the commerce established by him of course continued, with fluctuations. Samaria became so important a city from the trade standpoint that Ben-hadad I forced Baasha to assign a street there to the merchants of Damascus, while Ahab succeeded in extracting the reverse privilege from Ben-hadad II (1 Kings 20:34). The long and prosperous contemporary reigns of Jeroboam II and Uzziah evidently had great importance for the growth of commerce, and it was the growing luxury of the land under these reigns that called forth the denunciations of Amos, Hosea and Isaiah. Amos complains of the importation of expensive foreign luxuries by the rich (compare Isaiah 3:18-23), who wasted the natural products of Palestine (Isaiah 6:3-6; Isaiah 3:12, 15). Grain, the chief article of value, was extorted from the poor (Isaiah 5:11), and the grain-dealers were notoriously dishonest (Isaiah 8:4-6); Isaiah 8:6 c in English Versions of the Bible suggests the sale of adulterated grain. The meaning of the Hebrew, however, is obscure, but of course adulteration must have existed, and it is doubtless not without significance that the labels on the recently discovered Samaritan jar-fragments emphasize the purity of the contents (Harvard Theological Review, 1911, 138-39). The extent of commercialism so overwhelms Hosea that he exclaims `Ephraim is become a Canaanite!' (12:7 margin). The most unscrupulous dealing is justified by the plea, "Surely I am become rich" (12:8). Isaiah is shocked at the intimate contracts made with foreigners, which prove so profitable to the makers, but which bring in idolatry (2:6-8). It was in the time of Isaiah that Assyrian influence began to make itself felt in Judah, and the setting up in the Temple of a pattern of an Assyrian altar (2 Kings 16:10 f) must have been accompanied with an influx of Assyrian commodities of all descriptions. (Similarly, the religious reaction under Hezekiah would have been accompanied by a boycott on Assyrian goods.) Data for the following pre-exilic period are scanty, but Ezekiel 26:2 shows that Jerusalem retained a position of some commercial importance up to the time of her fall. Of especial interest are Isaiah 23 and Ezekiel 26; 27 with their descriptions of the commerce of Tyre. Ezekiel indeed confines himself to description, but Isaiah characterizes the income of all this trade as "the hire of a harlot" (23:17, 18), a phrase that reappears in Revelation 18:3, 9 NAME? Zechariah 6:10 Nehemiah 1:11; Nehemiah 5:17, etc.), and that when an opportunity to return to Palestine was opened, most of the exiles preferred to stay where they were (see EXILE). As a matter of fact, the Palestinian community was beggarly poor for years (Zechariah 8:10 Haggai 1:6 Nehemiah 1:3 Malachi 3:10-12, etc.) and could not even prevent the sale of its children into slavery (Joel 3:6). Such trade as existed was chiefly in the hands of foreigners (Joel 3:17 Zechariah 14:21), but the repeated crop-failures must have forced many Jews into commerce to keep from starving. The history of the 4th century is very obscure, but for the later commercial history of the Jews the foundation of Alexandria (332 B.C.) was a fact of fundamental importance. For Alexandria rapidly became the commercial center of the world and into it the Jews, attracted by the invitations of the Ptolemies, poured in streams. Alexandria's policy was closely copied by Antioch (on the period see Ant, XII, i, iii; compare ALEXANDRIA; ANTIOCH), and Ant, XII, iv, shows that the ability of the Jews was duly recognized by the Gentiles. But this development was outside Palestine. Sirach does not count commerce among the list of trades in 38:24-30 (note, however, the increased importance of artisans) and his references to commerce throughout are not especially characteristic (5:8; 8:13, etc.; but see 42:7). But even the trade of Palestine must have been increasing steadily. Under the Maccabees Joppa was captured, and the opening of its port for Greek commerce is numbered among Simon's "glories" (1 Maccabees 14:5). The unification of the trade-world under Rome, of course, gave Palestine a share in the benefits. Herod was able to work commercial miracles (Ant., XV, vi, 7; viii, 1; ix, 2; xi, 1; XVI, v, 3, etc.), and the Palestine of the New Testament is a commercial rather than an agricultural nation. Christ's parables touch almost every side of commercial life and present even the pearl merchant as a not unfamiliar figure (Matthew 13:45). Into the ethics of commerce, however, He entered little. Sharp dealings were everywhere (Mark 12:40 Luke 16:1-12, etc.), and the service of Mammon, which had pushed its way even into the temple (Mark 11:15-17 and parallel's), was utterly incompatible with the service of God (Matthew 6:19-34, etc.). In themselves, however the things of Caesar and the things of God (Mark 12:17 and parallel's) belong to different spheres, and with financial questions pure and simple He refused to interfere (Luke 12:13 f). For further details and for the (not very elaborate) teaching of the apostles see ETHICS.
The appropriate sections in the HA's and Biblical diets., especially G. A. Smith's indispensable article "Trade" in EB, IV, cols. 5145-99 (1903); for the later period, GJV4, II, 67-82 (1907), III, 97-102 (1909). Compare also Herzfeld, Handelsgeschichte der Juderi des Alterthums2 (1894).
Burton Scott Easton
Greek1710. emporeuomai -- to travel in, to traffic, by impl. to trade ...
. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: emporeuomai Phonetic Spelling:
(em-por-yoo'-om-ahee) Short Definition: I travel as a merchant, engage in trade ... //strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1710.htm - 7k
5078. techne -- art, craft, trade
... art, craft, trade. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: techne Phonetic
Spelling: (tekh'-nay) Short Definition: art, skill, trade Definition: art ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5078.htm - 6k
1711. emporia -- commerce, business, trade.
... 1710, 1711. emporia. 1712 . commerce, business, trade. ... See 1713 (). Word Origin
fem. from emporos Definition commerce, business, trade. merchandise, trade ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1711.htm - 6k
3673. homotechnos -- of the same trade
... of the same trade. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: homotechnos Phonetic
Spelling: (hom-ot'-ekh-nos) Short Definition: of the same trade or craft ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3673.htm - 6k
2585. kapeleuo -- to make a trade of
... to make a trade of. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: kapeleuo Phonetic Spelling:
(kap-ale-yoo'-o) Short Definition: I hawk, trade in Definition: I hawk ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2585.htm - 6k
4231. pragmateuomai -- to busy oneself
... Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: pragmateuomai Phonetic Spelling:
(prag-mat-yoo'-om-ahee) Short Definition: I transact business, trade Definition: ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4231.htm - 7k
2038. ergazomai -- to search, examine.
... Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: ergazomai Phonetic Spelling: (er-gad'-zom-
ahee) Short Definition: I word, trade, do Definition: I work, trade, perform, do ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2038.htm - 8k
2039. ergasia -- work (noun)
... Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: ergasia Phonetic Spelling:
(er-gas-ee'-ah) Short Definition: working, activity, trade, performance Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2039.htm - 6k
3313. meros -- a part, share, portion
... 1), parts (3), party (1), piece (1), place (3), portion (1), regions (1), respect
(1), share (1), side (1), some degree (1), some points (1), trade (1), turn (1 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3313.htm - 6k
3070. Ludia -- Lydia, a Christian woman
... loo-dee'-ah) Short Definition: Lydia Definition: Lydia, a lady resident of Philippi,
native of Thyatira in Lydia (Asia Minor), and engaged in the clothing trade ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3070.htm - 6k
Strong's Hebrew3739. karah -- to trade, get by trade...
3738b, 3739. karah. 3740 . to trade
, get by trade
. Transliteration: karah Phonetic
Spelling: (kaw-raw') Short Definition: bargain. Word Origin a prim. ... /hebrew/3739.htm - 6k
2271. chabbar -- associate, partner (in a trade)
... 2270, 2271. chabbar. 2272 . associate, partner (in a trade). Transliteration:
chabbar Phonetic Spelling: (khab-bawr') Short Definition: traders. ...
/hebrew/2271.htm - 6k
4819. markoleth -- probably place of trade, marketplace
... 4818, 4819. markoleth. 4820 . probably place of trade, marketplace.
Transliteration: markoleth Phonetic Spelling: (mar-ko'-leth) Short Definition: ...
/hebrew/4819.htm - 6k
7404. rekullah -- traffic, merchandise
... 7403, 7404. rekullah. 7405 . traffic, merchandise. Transliteration: rekullah
Phonetic Spelling: (rek-ool-law') Short Definition: trade. ...
/hebrew/7404.htm - 6k
5503. sachar -- to go around or about, travel about
... about, travel about NASB Word Usage commercial (1), customer (3), customers (2),
merchant (1), merchants (6), roving about (1), throbs (1), trade (3), traders ...
/hebrew/5503.htm - 6k
582. enosh -- man, mankind
... man); divers, fellow, X in the flower of their age, husband, (certain, mortal) man,
people, person, servant, some (X of them), + stranger, those, + their trade ...
/hebrew/582.htm - 6k
8446. tur -- to seek out, spy out, explore
... A primitive root; to meander (causatively, guide) about, especially for trade or
reconnoitring -- chap(-man), sent to descry, be excellent, merchant(-man ...
/hebrew/8446.htm - 6k
5504. sachar -- commerce, gain
... 2). merchandise. From cachar; profit (from trade) -- merchandise. see HEBREW
cachar. 5503, 5504. sachar. 5505 . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/5504.htm - 6k
5414. nathan -- to give, put, set
... requite, restore, send (out), set (forth), shew, shoot forth (up), + sing, + slander,
strike, (sub-)mit, suffer, X surely, X take, thrust, trade, turn, utter ...
/hebrew/5414.htm - 9k
5505. sachar -- mart, merchandise
... Word Origin the same as sachar, qv. mart, merchandise From cachar; an emporium;
abstractly, profit (from trade) -- mart, merchandise. see HEBREW cachar. ...
/hebrew/5505.htm - 5k
Jewish views on Trade, Tradesmen, and Trades' Guilds
... Chapter 11 Jewish Views on Trade, Tradesmen, and Trades' Guilds. We read
in the Mishnah (Kidd. iv.14) as follows: "Rabbi Meir said ...
/.../edersheim/sketches of jewish social life/chapter 11 jewish views on.htm
The Prayer of Faith is the Only Power in the Universe to which the ...
... It is a life trade. The hindrances of prayer are the hindrances in a holy life. ... A
cobbler in the trade of praying is a bungler in the trade of salvation. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/bounds/purpose in prayer/chapter v the prayer of.htm
Connection Between Covetousness and Idolatry. Certain Trades ...
... place proceeding to mendacity, the minister of covetousness (of false swearing I
am silent, since even swearing is not lawful  )"is trade adapted for a ...
/.../tertullian/on idolatry/chapter xi connection between covetousness and.htm
Sowing in the Wind, Reaping under Clouds
... and come to the trader, what tradesman will do anything if he is always worrying
about the competition, and about the difficulties of his trade, which is so ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 38 1892/sowing in the wind reaping.htm
A Notice of Aetius, Eunomius' Master in Heresy, and of Eunomius ...
... how, I do not wish to say, lest I should be thought to be entering on his history
in a bad spirit,"he became at first a tinker, and had this grimy trade of a ...
/.../gregory/gregory of nyssa dogmatic treatises etc/section 6 a notice of.htm
By the Sea of Galilee - the Final Call of the First Disciples, and ...
... favourite articles of diet, in health and sickness, on week-days and especially
at the Sabbath-meal, many must have been employed in connection with this trade ...
/.../edersheim/the life and times of jesus the messiah/chapter xiii by the sea.htm
The Thirty Years' War. AD 1618-1650.
... such as those of the Hanse League and Nuremberg for instance, were indeed beginning
to lose a little of their pre-eminence, as the carrying trade of the world ...
/.../winkworth/christian singers of germany/chapter viii the thirty years.htm
... enlisted in its favor. . Besides this religious instruction, he was
taught the trade of tent-making. The goat's hair which was ...
/.../mcgarvey/a commentary on acts of the apostles/acts ix.htm
... city of all Greece. Its advantages for trade had attracted the large Jewish
population which the apostle found there. 2, 3. Paul ...
/.../mcgarvey/a commentary on acts of the apostles/acts xviii.htm
The Ministry and Prayer
... "The Christian's trade is praying," declared Martin Luther. Every Jewish
boy had to learn a trade. Jesus Christ learned two, the ...
/.../bounds/the weapon of prayer/vii the ministry and prayer.htm
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) A track; a trail; a way; a path; also, passage; travel; resort.
2. (v.) Course; custom; practice; occupation; employment.
3. (v.) Business of any kind; matter of mutual consideration; affair; dealing.
4. (v.) Specifically: The act or business of exchanging commodities by barter, or by buying and selling for money; commerce; traffic; barter.
5. (n.) The business which a person has learned, and which he engages in, for procuring subsistence, or for profit; occupation; especially, mechanical employment as distinguished from the liberal arts, the learned professions, and agriculture; as, we speak of the trade of a smith, of a carpenter, or mason, but not now of the trade of a farmer, or a lawyer, or a physician.
6. (v.) Instruments of any occupation.
7. (n.) A company of men engaged in the same occupation; thus, booksellers and publishers speak of the customs of the trade, and are collectively designated as the trade.
8. (n.) The trade winds.
9. (v.) Refuse or rubbish from a mine.
10. (v. i.) To barter, or to buy and sell; to be engaged in the exchange, purchase, or sale of goods, wares, merchandise, or anything else; to traffic; to bargain; to carry on commerce as a business.
11. (v. i.) To buy and sell or exchange property in a single instance.
12. (v. i.) To have dealings; to be concerned or associated; -- usually followed by with.
13. (v. t.) To sell or exchange in commerce; to barter.
14. (v.) imp. of Tread.
ThesaurusTrade (33 Occurrences)...
occupation; especially, mechanical employment as distinguished from the liberal
arts, the learned professions, and agriculture; as, we speak of the trade
of a .../t/trade.htm - 40k
Commerce (3 Occurrences)
... the exchange of merchandise, on a large scale, between different places or communities;
extended trade or traffic. ... 5. (vi) To carry on trade; to traffic. ...
/c/commerce.htm - 15k
Traffic (12 Occurrences)
... 1. (vi) To pass goods and commodities from one person to another for an equivalent
in goods or money; to buy or sell goods; to barter; to trade. ...
/t/traffic.htm - 12k
Merchant (15 Occurrences)
... East, in ancient times, merchants travelled about with their merchandise from place
to place (Genesis 37:25; Job 6:18), and carried on their trade mainly by ...
/m/merchant.htm - 13k
Merchandise (34 Occurrences)
... Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (n.) The objects of commerce; whatever is usually bought
or sold in trade, or market, or by merchants; wares; goods; commodities. ...
/m/merchandise.htm - 22k
Trading (24 Occurrences)
... 1. (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Trade. 2. (a.) Carrying on trade or commerce; engaged
in trade; as, a trading company. 3. (a.) Frequented by traders. ...
/t/trading.htm - 13k
Utter (111 Occurrences)
... 5. (v.) To put forth or out; to reach out. 6. (v.) To dispose of in trade;
to sell or vend. 7. (a.) hence, to put in circulation ...
/u/utter.htm - 35k
Trafficker (3 Occurrences)
... the topmost of the young twigs (of cedar) thereof, and carried it unto a land of
traffic; he set it in a city of merchants." (2) Micchar means "trade," and so ...
/t/trafficker.htm - 9k
Smyrna (2 Occurrences)
... upon a good harbor, at the head of one of the chief highways to the interior, it
early became a great trading-center and the chief port for the export trade. ...
/s/smyrna.htm - 12k
James (40 Occurrences)
... the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman, in
partnership with Peter (Matthew 20:20; 27:56). With John ...
/j/james.htm - 78k
Bible ConcordanceTrade (33 Occurrences)
Matthew 22:5 But they gave no attention, and went about their business, one to his farm, another to his trade:
Matthew 25:16 Immediately he who received the five talents went and traded with them, and made another five talents.
(Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV)
Luke 19:13 And he called ten of his servants and gave each of them a pound, instructing them to trade with the money during his absence.
(WEY ASV DBY RSV)
John 2:16 And to those who were trading in doves he said, Take these things away; do not make my Father's house a market.
Acts 18:3 and because he practiced the same trade, he lived with them and worked, for by trade they were tent makers.
(WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV)
Acts 19:25 He called his workmen together, and others who were engaged in similar trades, and said to them, "You men well know that our prosperity depends on this business of ours;
(Root in WEY BBE NAS NIV)
2 Corinthians 2:17 For we do not, as the many, make a trade of the word of God; but as of sincerity, but as of God, before God, we speak in Christ.
James 4:13 Come now, you who say, "Today or tomorrow let's go into this city, and spend a year there, trade, and make a profit."
(WEB ASV RSV)
2 Peter 2:3 Thirsting for riches, they will trade on you with their canting talk. From of old their judgement has been working itself out, and their destruction has not been slumbering.
Revelation 13:17 So that no man might be able to do trade but he who has the mark, even the name of the beast or the number of his name.
Revelation 18:17 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
(KJV WEY WBS RSV)
Revelation 18:22 The voice of harpists, minstrels, flute players, and trumpeters will be heard no more at all in you. No craftsman, of whatever craft, will be found any more at all in you. The sound of a mill will be heard no more at all in you.
Genesis 34:10 You shall dwell with us, and the land will be before you. Live and trade in it, and get possessions in it."
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 34:21 "These men are peaceful with us. Therefore let them live in the land and trade in it. For behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters.
(WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 42:34 Bring your youngest brother to me. Then I will know that you are not spies, but that you are honest men. So I will deliver your brother to you, and you shall trade in the land.'"
(WEB BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 46:32 And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.
Genesis 46:34 That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.
2 Chronicles 20:37 Then Eliezer the son of Dodavahu of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because you have joined yourself with Ahaziah, Yahweh has destroyed your works. The ships were broken, so that they were not able to go to Tarshish.
Isaiah 23:3 Who get in the seed of Shihor, whose wealth is the trade of the nations.
Isaiah 23:17 And it will be after the end of seventy years, that the Lord will have mercy on Tyre, and she will go back to her trade, acting as a loose woman with all the kingdoms of the world on the face of the earth.
Jeremiah 14:18 If I go forth into the field, then, behold, the slain with the sword! and if I enter into the city, then, behold, those who are sick with famine! for both the prophet and the priest go about in the land, and have no knowledge.
Lamentations 1:11 All her people sigh, they seek bread; they have given their pleasant things for food to refresh the soul: look, Yahweh, and see; for I am become abject.
Ezekiel 17:4 Biting off the highest of its young branches, he took it to the land of Canaan, and put it in a town of traders.
(Root in BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 26:12 They will take by force all your wealth and go off with the goods with which you do trade: they will have your walls broken down and all the houses of your desire given up to destruction: they will put your stones and your wood and your dust deep in the water.
Ezekiel 27:9 Elders of Gebal and its wise men have been in thee, Strengthening thy breach; All ships of the sea and their mariners, Have been in thee, to trade 'with' thy merchandise.
Ezekiel 27:20 Dedan did trade with you in cloths for the backs of horses.
(BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 27:21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were the merchants of thy hand: in lambs, and rams, and goats, in these did they trade with thee.
Ezekiel 27:22 The traffickers of Sheba and Raamah, they were your traffickers; they traded for your wares with the chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold.
(Root in WEB JPS ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 28:5 By your great wisdom and by your trade your power is increased, and your heart is lifted up because of your power:
(BBE NAS RSV)
Ezekiel 28:16 By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.
(See NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 28:18 From the abundance of thy iniquity, By the perversity of thy traffic, Thou hast polluted thy sanctuaries, And I bring forth fire from thy midst, It hath devoured thee, And I make thee become ashes on the earth, Before the eyes of all beholding thee.
(See NAS RSV NIV)
Amos 8:5 Saying, When will the new moon be gone, so that we may do trade in grain? and the Sabbath, so that we may put out in the market the produce of our fields? making the measure small and the price great, and trading falsely with scales of deceit;
Zephaniah 1:11 Wail, you inhabitants of Maktesh, for all the people of Canaan are undone! All those who were loaded with silver are cut off.
(See RSV NIV)
Commerce (3 Occurrences)
Traffic (12 Occurrences)
Merchant (15 Occurrences)
Merchandise (34 Occurrences)
Trading (24 Occurrences)
Utter (111 Occurrences)
Trafficker (3 Occurrences)
Smyrna (2 Occurrences)
James (40 Occurrences)
Buying (12 Occurrences)
Phoenicia (6 Occurrences)
Negotiate (1 Occurrence)
Occupy (25 Occurrences)
Open (586 Occurrences)
Lod (4 Occurrences)
Lydda (3 Occurrences)
Worked (145 Occurrences)
India (2 Occurrences)
Inn (7 Occurrences)
Thyatira (4 Occurrences)
Trader (7 Occurrences)
Tent-makers (1 Occurrence)
Traded (16 Occurrences)
Makers (20 Occurrences)
Practiced (22 Occurrences)
Practice (71 Occurrences)
Ply (3 Occurrences)
Barter (5 Occurrences)
Cilicia (8 Occurrences)
Cenchrea (2 Occurrences)
Craft (14 Occurrences)
Apprentice (1 Occurrence)
Aquila (7 Occurrences)
Shipwrights (2 Occurrences)
Crafts (2 Occurrences)
Stayed (169 Occurrences)
Ours (63 Occurrences)
Canaan (102 Occurrences)
Assyria (124 Occurrences)
Canaanites (63 Occurrences)
Dispersion (4 Occurrences)
Tarsus (5 Occurrences)
Therein (269 Occurrences)
Tent (333 Occurrences)
Ethiopia (26 Occurrences)
Syria (73 Occurrences)
Demetrius (3 Occurrences)
Sheba (36 Occurrences)
Board (47 Occurrences)
Food (2953 Occurrences)
Greece (15 Occurrences)
Damascus (58 Occurrences)
Samaria (123 Occurrences)
Ancient (64 Occurrences)
Hair (135 Occurrences)
Dwell (474 Occurrences)
Harlot's (10 Occurrences)
Youngest (26 Occurrences)
Venture (10 Occurrences)
Vocation (2 Occurrences)
Zoar (12 Occurrences)
Naught (40 Occurrences)
Nay (92 Occurrences)
Ur (5 Occurrences)
Or (15123 Occurrences)
Owl (11 Occurrences)
Occupation (9 Occurrences)
Jehoshaphat (79 Occurrences)
Jewelry (18 Occurrences)
Jericho (59 Occurrences)
Leather (34 Occurrences)
Linen (111 Occurrences)
Legal (13 Occurrences)
Lively (5 Occurrences)
Line (131 Occurrences)
Lodged (35 Occurrences)
Lasciviousness (9 Occurrences)
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