Luke 4
Meyer's NT Commentary

Luke 4:1. εἰς τὴν ἔρημον] B D L א, Sahid. codd. of It. have ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. Approved by Griesb., adopted by Lachm. and Tisch. The Recepta is a mechanical alteration in accordance with the parallels.

Luke 4:2. Before ἐπείνασε Elz. Scholz have ὕστερον, in opposition to B D L א, vss. Cyr. Beda. From Matthew 4:2.

Luke 4:3. Following nearly the same evidence, read with Lachm. and Tisch. εἶπεν δέ instead of καὶ εἶπεν.

Luke 4:4. ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι Θεοῦ] is wanting in B L א, Sahid. Left out by Tisch. But almost all the versions and Fathers vouch for these words; if they had been added, they would, especially in an expression so well known and frequently quoted, have been more closely and perfectly adapted to Matthew.

Luke 4:5. ὁ διάβολος] is wanting in B D L א, min. Copt. Sahid. Arm. Cant. Condemned by Griesb., deleted by Tisch. An addition from Matthew. There is almost quite as strong evidence against εἰς ὄρος ὑψ., which nevertheless is found in D, but with the addition of λίαν. Lachm. has bracketed εἰς ὄρος ὑψ. Tisch. has rightly deleted it. The expression ἀναγ. by itself seemed to be in need of the more exact definition, and so it was added from Matthew.

Luke 4:7. Instead of πᾶσα, Elz. has πάντα, in opposition to decisive evidence. From Matthew 4:9.

Luke 4:8. Instead of γέγραπται by itself, Elz. has: ὓπαγε ὀπίσω μου σατανᾶ· γέγραπται γάρ. So also has Scholz, but without γάρ; Lachm. has ὓπ. ὀπ. μ. σ. in brackets, and has deleted γάρ. Against ὓπ. ὀπ. μ. σ. are B D L Ξ א, min. and most of the vss. Or. Vigil. Ambr. Bede; against γάρ there is decisive evidence. Both the one and the other, deleted by Tisch., are interpolations; see on Matthew 4:10.

Luke 4:9. Instead of υἱός Elz. has ὁ υἱός, in opposition to evidence so decisive that υἱός without the article is not to be derived from Luke 4:3.

Luke 4:11. Instead of καί Elz. and the Edd. have καὶ ὅτι. As this ὅτι has by no means the preponderance of evidence against it, and as its omission here may be so easily accounted for by its omission in the parallel passage in Matthew, it ought not to have been condemned by Griesb.

Luke 4:17. ἀναπτύξας] A B L Ξ 33, Syr. Copt. Jer. have ἀνοίξας. So Lachm.; but it is an interpretation of the word ἀναπτ., which occurs in the New Testament only in this place.

Luke 4:18. The form εἵνεκεν (Elz. ἕνεκεν) is decisively attested. Not so decisively, but still with preponderating evidence, is εὐαγγελίσασθαι (Elz. εὐαγγελίζεσθαι) also attested.

After ἀπέσταλκέ με Elz. and Scholz (Lachm. in brackets) have ἰάσασθαι τοὺς συντετριμμένους τὴν καρδίαν, which is not found in B D L Ξ א, min. Copt. Aeth. Vulg. ms. It. Sax. Or. and many Fathers. An addition from the LXX.

Luke 4:23. Instead of εἰς Καπ. (Tisch. following B [and א]: εἰς τὴν Καπ.) Elz. Scholz have ἐν τῇ Καπ., in opposition. to B D L א, min. Marcion, the reading in these authorities being εἰς. An amendment. Comp. the following ἐν τῇ πατρ. σ.

Luke 4:25. ἐπὶ ἔτη] B D, min. vss. have merely ἔτη. So Lachm. But how easily ΕΠΙ would drop out as superfluous, and that too when standing before ETH, a word not unlike ΕΠΙ in form!

Luke 4:26. Σιδῶνος] A B C D L X Γ א, min. vss., including Vulg. It. Or., have Σιδωνίας. Approved by Griesb., adopted by Lachm. and Tisch. From the LXX. 1 Kings 17:9.

Luke 4:29. Before ὀφρύος Elz. and Lachm. (the latter by mistake) have τῆς, in opposition to decisive evidence.

Instead of ὥστε Elz. and Scholz have εἰς τό, in opposition to B D L א, min. Marcion, Or. An interpretation.

Luke 4:35. ἐξ] B D L V Ξ א, min. Vulg. It. Or. have ἀπʼ. Approved by Griesb. and Schulz. Adopted by Lachm. and Tisch. Rightly; Luke always expresses himself thus. See immediately afterwards the expression ἐξῆλθεν ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ, which is in correspondence with Christ’s command.

Luke 4:38. ἐκ] B C D L Q א, min. Or. Cant, have ἀπό. Approved by Griesb., adopted by Tisch. Rightly; ἐκ is from Mark 1:29.

The article before πενθερά (in Elz.) has decisive evidence against it.

Luke 4:40. ἐπιθείς] Lachm. and Tisch, have ἐπιτιθείς, following B D Q Ξ, min. Vulg. It. Or. ἐπιθείς was the form most familiar to the transcribers.

Luke 4:41. κράζοντα] Lachm. Tisch. have κραυγάζοντα, following A D E G H Q U V Γ Δ, min. Or. Rightly; the more current word was inserted. After σὺ εἶ Elz. Scholz have ὁ Χριστός, which has such weighty evidence against it that it must be regarded as a gloss.

Luke 4:42. Instead of ἐπεζήτουν Elz. has ἐζήτουν, in opposition to decisive evidence.

Luke 4:43. εἰς τοῦτο ἀπέσταλμαι] Lachm. and Tisch. have ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἀπεστάλην. Rightly; ἐπί is in B L א, min., and ἀπεστάλην in B D L X א, min. Both the εἰς and the perfect form are taken from Mark 1:38, Elz.

And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,
Luke 4:1-13. See on Matthew 4:1-11. Comp. Mark 1:13.

According to the reading ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ (see the critical remarks), Luke says: and He was led by the (Holy) Spirit in the wilderness, whilst He was for forty days tempted of the devil. Thus the Spirit had Him in His guidance as His ruling principle (Romans 8:14). Luke relates besides, varying from Matthew, that Jesus (1) during forty days (comp. Mark 1:13) was tempted of the devil (how? is not specified), and that then, (2) moreover, the three special temptations related in detail occurred.[81] This variation from Matthew remained also in the Recepta εἰς τὴν ἔρημον, in respect of which the translation would be: He was led of the Spirit into the wilderness in order to be tempted of the devil during the space of forty days (by reason of the present participle, see on Luke 2:45).

Luke 4:3. τῷ λίθῳ τούτῳ] more concrete than Matthew 4:4.

Luke 4:5. ἈΝΑΓΑΓΏΝ] (see the critical remarks) he led Him upwards from the wilderness to a more loftily situated place. The “very high mountain” (Matthew) is a more exact definition due to the further developed tradition. Luke has drawn from another source.

ἐν στιγμῇ χρ.] in a point of time, in a moment, a magically simultaneous glimpse; a peculiar feature of the representation.[82] On the expression, comp. Plut. Mor. p. 104 A; Jacobs, ad Anthol. VII. p. 126.

Luke 4:6. αὐτῶν] ΤῶΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙῶΝ.

Observe the emphasis of ΣΟῚἘΜΟΊΣΎ (Luke 4:7).

ΠΑΡΑΔΈΔΟΤΑΙ] by God, which the boastful devil cunningly intends to have taken for granted.

Luke 4:10 f. ὅτι] not recitative, but: that, and then καὶ ὅτι: and that. Comp. Luke 7:16. Otherwise in Matthew 4:6.

μήποτε] ne unquam, not necessarily to be written separately (Bornemann); see rather Ellendt, Lex. Soph. II. p. 107; Lipsius, Gramm. Unters. p. 129 f.

Luke 4:13. πάντα πειρασμ.] every temptation, so that he had no further temptation in readiness. “Omnia tela consumsit,” Bengel.

ἄχρι καιροῦ] until a fitting season, when he would appear anew against Him to tempt Him. It is to be taken subjectively of the purpose and idea of the devil; he thought at some later time, at some more fortunate hour, to be able with better success to approach Him. Historically he did not undertake this again directly, but indirectly, as it repeatedly occurred by means of the Pharisees, etc. (John 8:40 ff.), and at last by means of Judas, Luke 22:3[83]; but with what glorious result for the tempted! Comp. John 14:30. The difference of meaning which Tittmann, Synon. p. 37, has asserted (according to which ἄχρι καιροῦ is said to be equivalent to ἝΩς ΤΈΛΟΥς) is pure invention. See Fritzsche, ad Rom. I. p. 308 f. Whether, moreover, the characteristic addition ἄχρι καιροῦ is a remnant of the primitive form of this narrative (Ewald) or is appended from later reflection, is an open question. But it is hardly an addition inserted by Luke himself (Bleek, Holtzmann, and others), since it is connected with the omission of the ministry of the angels. This omission is not to be attributed to a realistic effort on the part of Luke (Holtzmann, but see Luke 22:43), but must have been a feature of the source used by him, and hence the ἄχρι καιροῦ must also have already formed part of it.

[81] According to Hilgenfeld, Luke’s dependence on Matthew and Mark is said to be manifested with special clearness from his narrative of the temptation. But just in regard to this narrative he must have followed a distinct source, because otherwise his variation in the sequence of the temptations (see on Matthew 4:5, Rem.), and the omission of the angels’ ministry, would be incomprehensible (which Hilgenfeld therefore declares to be a pure invention), as, moreover, the ἄχρι καιροῦ (ver. 13) peculiar to Luke points to another source.

[82] The various attempts to make this ἐν στιγμῆ χρότου intelligible may be seen in Nebe, d. Versuch. d. Herrn, Wetzlar 1857, p. 109 ff. The author himself, regarding the temptation as an actual external history, avails himself of the analogy of the fatum morganum, but says that before the eye of the Lord the magical picture immediately dissolved. But according to the connection ἐν στιγμ. χρ. does not mean that the appearance lasted only a single moment, but that the whole of the kingdoms were brought within the view of Jesus, not as it were successively, but in one moment, notwithstanding their varied local situation upon the whole earth. Bengel says appropriately, “acuta tentatio.”

[83] According to Wieseler, Synopse, p. 201, the persecutions on the part of the Jews are meant, which had begun, John 5:15-18 ff.; there would therefore be a longer interval between vv. 13, 14. But a comparison of ver. 14 with ver. 1 shows that this interval is introduced in the harmonistic interest; moreover, Hofmann’s reference to the agony in Gethsemane (Schriftbew. II. 1, p. 317) is introduced, since not this, but probably the whole opposition of the hierarchy (John 8:44), and finally the crime of Judas (John 13:2; John 13:27), appears as the work of the devil.

Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.
If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence:
For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee:
And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee: and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.
Luke 4:14. Comp. on Matthew 4:12; Mark 1:14. The public Galilaean ministry of Jesus begins, Luke 4:14 forming the introduction, after which, in Luke 4:15 ff., the detailed narrative follows. Schleiermacher, Schr. d. Luk. p. 50, arbitrarily, and contrary to the analogy of the parallels, says: that Luke 4:15 f. was the conclusion of a document which embraced the baptism, the genealogy, and the temptation.

ἐν τ. δυνάμ. τοῦ πν.] invested with the power of the Holy Spirit: “post victoriam corroboratus,” Bengel.

καὶ φήμη κ.τ.λ.] and rumour went forth, etc., not anticipating what follows in Luke 4:15 (de Wette); but it is the rumour of the return of the man who had been so distinguished at his baptism, and had then for upwards of forty days been concealed from view, that is meant.

καθʼ ὅλης κ.τ.λ.] round about the whole neighbourhood, Acts 8:31; Acts 8:40.

And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all.
Luke 4:15. Αὐτός] He Himself, the person as opposed to their report.

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.
Luke 4:16. As to the relation of the following incident to the similar one in Matthew 13:53 ff., Mark 6:1 ff., see on Matthew. No argument can be drawn from Luke 4:23 against the view that the incidents are different, for therein a ministry at Capernaum would already be presupposed (Schleiermacher, Kern, de Wette, Weiss, Bleek, Holtzmann, and others), as a previous ministry in that same place in the course of a journey (not while residing there) is fully established by Luke 4:14-15. According to Ewald (comp. also his Gesch. Chr. p. 345), who, moreover, rightly distinguishes the present from the subsequent appearance at Nazareth, there are incorporated together in Luke two distinct narratives about the discourses of Jesus in Nazareth. But with reference to the mention of Capernaum at Luke 4:23, see above; the connection, however, between Luke 4:22-23 is sufficiently effected by οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ. In Luke 4:31 ff. it is not the first appearance of Jesus at Capernaum in general that is related, but the first portion of His ministry after taking up His residence there (Luke 4:31), and a special fact which occurred during that ministry is brought into prominence (Luke 4:33 ff.). According to Köstlin, p. 205, Luke met with the narrative at a later place in the Gospel history, but placed it here earlier, and allowed the γενόμ. εἰς Καφαρν. inappropriately to remain because it might at a pinch be referred to Luke 4:15. Assuredly he did not proceed so frivolously and awkwardly, although Holtzmann also (comp. Weizsäcker, p. 398), following Schleiermacher, etc., accuses him of such an anticipation and self-contradiction, and, moreover, following Baur and Hilgenfeld, makes this anticipation find its motive withal in the supposed typical tendency of Luke 4:24.

οὗ ἦν τεθραμμ.] an observation inserted to account for the circumstances mentioned in Luke 4:22-23.

κατὰ τὸ εἰωθ. αὐτῷ] refers to His visiting the synagogue on the Sabbath, not also to the ἀνέστη. The Sabbath visit to the synagogue was certainly His custom from His youth up. Comp. Bengel and Lange, L. J. II. 2, p. 545.

ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι] for the Scripture was read standing (Vitringa, Synag. p. 135 f.; Lightfoot, p. 760 f.; Wetstein in loc.); so when Jesus stood up it was a sign that He wished to read. It is true, a superintendent of the synagogue was accustomed to summon to the reading the person whom he regarded as being fitted for it; but in the case of Jesus, His offering Himself is as much in keeping with His peculiar pre-eminence, as is the immediate acquiescence in His application.

And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written,
Luke 4:17. Ἐπεδόθη] it was given up to Him—that is to say, by the officer of the synagogue, Lightfoot, p. 763.

Ἡσαΐου] the reading of the Parascha (section out of the law), which preceded that of the Haphthara (prophetic section), appears to have been already concluded, and perhaps there was actually in the course a Haphthara from Isaiah.[84] But in accordance with His special character (as κύριος τοῦ σαββάτου, Matthew 12:8), Jesus takes the section which He lights upon as soon as it is unrolled (ἈΝΑΠΤ., comp. Herod. i. 48, 125), and this was a very characteristic Messianic passage, describing by very definite marks the Messiah’s person and work. By ἈΝΑΠΤΎΞΑς ΤῸ ΒΙΒΛ. and ΕὟΡΕ the lighting exactly on this passage is represented as fortuitous, but just on that account as being divinely ordered (according to Theophylact: not κατὰ συντυχίαν, but ΑὐΤΟῦ ΘΕΛΉΣΑΝΤΟς).

[84] The arrangement of the present Haphtharas was not yet settled at the time of Jesus. See Zunz, Gottesd. Vorträge d. Juden, p. 6.

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,
Luke 4:18-19. Isaiah 61:1-2, following the LXX. freely. The historical meaning is: that He, the prophet, is inspired and ordained by God to announce to the deeply unfortunate people in their banishment their liberation from captivity, and the blessed future of the restored and glorified theocracy that shall follow thereupon. The Messianic fulfilment of this announcement, i.e. the realization of their theocratic idea, came to pass in Christ and His ministry.[85]

οὗ εἵνεκεν] in the original text יַעַן: because, and to this corresponds οὗ εἵνεκεν: propterea quod, because, as ΟὝΝΕΚΕΝ is very frequently thus used by the classical writers. The expression of the LXX., which Luke preserves, is therefore not erroneous (de Wette and others), nor do the words ΟὟ ΕἽΝΕΚΕΝ introduce the protasis of a sentence whose apodosis is left out (Hofmann, Weissag. u. Erf. II. p. 96). The form εἵνεκεν (2 Corinthians 7:12) is, moreover, classical; it occurs in Pindar, Isthm. viii. 69, frequently in Herodotus (see Schweighaüser, Lex. sub. verb.), Dem. 45. 11. See generally, Krüger, II. § 68. 19. 1 f.

ἔχρισε] a concrete description, borrowed from the anointing of the prophets (1 Kings 19:16) and priests (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 30:30), of the consecration, which in this instance is to be conceived of as taking place by means of the spiritual investiture.[86]

ΠΤΩΧΟῖς] the poor עֲנָוִים. See on Matthew 5:3. They—in the original Hebrew the unhappy exiles—are more precisely designated by αἰχμαλώτ., as well as by the epithets, which are to be taken in their historical sense typically, τυφλοῖς and τεθραυσμένους (crushed to pieces), whereby the misery of the ΠΤΩΧΟΊ is represented as a blinding and a bruising. According to the typical reference to the Messiah, these predicates refer to the misery of the spiritual bondage, the cessation of which the Messiah was to announce and (ἀποστεῖλαι) to accomplish. Moreover, the LXX. varies considerably from the original Hebrew (doubtless the result of a various reading which mixed with this passage the parallel in Isaiah 42:7), and Luke again does not agree with the LXX., especially in ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμ. ἐν ἀφέσει, which words are from Isaiah 58:6, whence Luke (not Jesus, who indeed read from the roll of the book) or his informant relating from memory having taken them erroneously, but by an association of ideas easily explained mixed them up in this place.

ἘΝΙΑΥΤῸΝ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ ΔΕΚΤΌΝ] an acceptable year of the Lord, i.e. a welcome, blessed year belonging to Jehovah, whereby is to be understood in the typical reference of the passage the Messianic period of blessing, while in the historical sense the blessed future of the theocracy after the exile is denoted by the words שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיְהֹוָה, i.e. a year of satisfaction for Jehovah, which will be for Jehovah the time to show His satisfaction to His people (comp. Luke 2:14). The passage before us is strangely abused by the Valentinians, Clemens, Hom. xvii. 19, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, and many more, to limit the ministry of Jesus to the space of one year,[87] which even the connection, of the original text, in which a day of vengeance against the enemies of God’s people follows, ought to have prevented. Even Wieseler, p. 272, makes an extraordinary chronological use of ἐνιαυτός and of σήμερον, Luke 4:21, in support of his assumption of a parallel with John 6:1 ff. in regard to time, according to which the sojourn of Jesus in Nazareth is said to have fallen on the Sabbath after Purim 782. The year is an allusion to the year of jubilee (Leviticus 25:9), as an inferior prefigurative type of the Messianic redemption. The three infinitives are parallel and dependent on ἀπέσταλκέ με, whose purpose they specify.

ἐν ἀφέσει] a well-known constructio pregnans: so that they are now in the condition of deliverance (Polybius, i. 79. 12, xxii. 9. 17), comp. Luke 2:39.

[85] Comp. Schleiermacher, L. J. p. 270 f.

[86] Observe the difference of tense, ἔχρισεἀπέσταλκε: He anointed me, He hath sent me (and I am here!); also the lively asyndeton in the two verbs (ἀπέστ. without καί), as well as also in the three infinitives.

[87] Keim also, D. geschichtl. Chr. p. 140 ff., has very recently arrived at this conclusion in view of Origen’s statement, de princip. iv. 5 : “a year and a few months,” and that too on the ground of the calculation of the Baptist’s death, according to the account of Josephus, Antt. xviii. 5, concerning the war of Antipas against Aretas. The testing of this combination does not belong to this place. But the Gospel of John stands decidedly opposed to the one-year duration of Christ’s official teaching. See, besides, the discussions on the subject in Weizsäcker, p. 306 ff.

To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.
And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him.
Luke 4:20-21. Τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ] הַחַזָן to the officer of the synagogue, who had to take the book-roll back to its place, after it had been folded up by Jesus (πτύξας corresponding to the ἀναπτύξας of Luke 4:17).

ἐκάθισε] in order now to teach upon the passage which had been read,—this was done sitting (Zunz, Gottesd. Vorträge d. Juden, p. 337).

ἤρξατο] He began. Bengel appropriately says: “Sollenne initium.”

ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν] in your ears is this Scripture (this which is written, see on Mark 12:10) fulfilled—to wit, by the fact that the voice of Him of whom the prophet prophesied has entered into your ears. A concrete individualizing mode of expression. Comp. Luke 1:44, Luke 9:44; Acts 11:22; Jam 5:4; Sir 25:9; 1Ma 10:7; Bar 1:3 f.; LXX. Isaiah 5:9. How decisively the passage before us testifies in favour of the fact that from the beginning of His ministry Jesus already had the clear and certain consciousness that He was the Messiah![88] Moreover, that nothing but the theme of the discourse delivered by Jesus is here given is manifest from the passage itself, as well as from Luke 4:22; but He has placed it remarkably close to the beginning of His discourse, and so led the hearer all at once in mediam rem (comp. Zunz, as above, p. 353). Grotius well says: “Hoc exordio usus Jesus explicavit prophetae locum et explicando implevit.”

[88] Comp. Beyschlag, Christ. d. N. T. p. 36 f.

And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.
And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph's son?
Luke 4:22. Ἐμαρτύρ. αὐτῷ] testified in His behalf, praising Him. See Kypke, Loesner, and Krebs. Frequently in the Acts, Romans 10:2, Galatians 4:15, and elsewhere.

ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος] at the sayings of graciousness (genitivus qualitatis), comp. on Colossians 4:6; Hom. Od. viii. 175: χάρις ἀμφιπεριστέφεται ἐπέεσσιν; Sir 21:16; Sir 37:21.

καὶ ἔλεγον] not: at nonnulli dicebant, Kuinoel, Paulus, and older commentators; but their amazement, which ought to have been expressed simply at the matter of fact, showed itself, after the fashion of the Abderites, from the background of a limited regard for the person with whom they knew that these λόγους τ. χάριτος did not correspond.

ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσήφ] If Luke had intended to anticipate the later history of Matthew 13. and Mark 6., for what purpose would he have omitted the brothers and sisters?

And he said unto them, Ye will surely say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal thyself: whatsoever we have heard done in Capernaum, do also here in thy country.
Luke 4:23-24. Whether what follows, as far as Luke 4:27, is taken from the Logia (Ewald), or from some other written source (Köstlin), or from oral tradition (Holtzmann), cannot be determined. But the Logia offers itself most obviously as the source.

πάντως] certainly; a certainty that this would be the case. See on 1 Corinthians 9:10.

ἰατρέ κ.τ.λ.] a figurative proverb (παραβολή, מָשָׁל) that occurs also among the Greeks, the Romans, and the Rabbins. See Wetstein and Lightfoot. The meaning here is: If thou desirest to be a helper of others (Luke 4:18-19; Luke 4:21), first help thyself from the malady under which thou art suffering, from the want of consideration and esteem which attaches to thee; which healing of Himself, as they think, must be effected by means of miracle as a sign of divine attestation. See what follows. Others understand it: Help thine own fellow-townsmen (Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Calvin, Maldonatus, Grotius, Bengel, and others, also Paulus, de Wette, Schegg, Bisping). This is opposed to the meaning of the words, as σεαυτόν and ἰατρέ can only be one person. Moreover, the parabolic word concerning the physician is retained only in Luke, whom it might specially interest.

εἰς Καφαρναούμ] (the name is to be written thus in Luke also, with Lachmann and Tischendorf) indicates the direction of γενόμενα, which took place at Capernaum (Bernhardy, p. 220), comp. on Luke 4:23. The petty jealousy felt by the small towns against Capernaum is manifest here.

ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρ. σου] here in thy birth-place. After the adverb of place comes the place itself, by way of a more vivid designation. Bornemann, Schol. p. 34; Fritzsche, ad Marc. p. 22.

Luke 4:24. But the hindrance to the fulfilment of that παραβολή, and also to the working here as at Capernaum, is found in the fact that no prophet, etc. According to this, it is unfounded for Baur, Evang. p. 506, to assume that the writer here understood πατρίς in a wider reference,[89] so that Paul’s experience in the Acts of the Apostles—of being compelled, when rejected by the Jews, to turn to the Gentiles—had already had its precedent here in the history of Jesus Himself. That the whole section—to wit, from καὶ φήμη, Luke 4:14, to Luke 4:30—is an interpolation from the hand of the redactor, is asserted by Baur, Markusevang. p. 218.

εἶπε δέ] after Luke 4:23 let a significant pause be supposed.

[89] Comp. Hilgenfeld, Evang. p. 168, “the Jewish home of Christianity;” Holtzmann also, p. 214. Whether in general Luke looked on the rejection of Christ in Nazareth as a “significant prelude for the rejection of Christ by His whole people” (Weiss in the Stud. u. Krit. 1861, p. 697), cannot be decided at all, as he gives no hint on the subject.

And he said, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country.
But I tell you of a truth, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elias, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when great famine was throughout all the land;
Luke 4:25-26. In order, however, to quote to you historical examples, in which the miraculous power of the prophets was put forth, not for countrymen, but for strangers, nay, for Gentiles, I assure you, etc. Jesus knew that here this sternness and open decisiveness on His part were not at all out of place, and that He need not hope to win His hearers; this is only confirmed by the later similar incident in Matthew 13:54 ff.

ἐπὶ ἔτη τρία κ. μῆνας ἕξ] so also Jam 5:17. But according to 1 Kings 17:1; 1 Kings 18:1, the rain returned in the third year. Jesus, as also James (see Huther in loc.), follows, according to Luke, the Jewish tradition (Jalkut Schimoni on 1 Kings 16 in Surenhusius, καταλλ. p. 681), in which in general the number 3½ (= ½ of 7) in the measurement of time (especially a time of misfortune, according to Daniel 12:7) had become time-honoured (Lightfoot, p. 756, 950; Otto, Spicileg. p. 142). It was arbitrary and unsatisfactory to reckon (before 1 Kings 17:1), in addition to the three years, the naturally rainless six months preceding the rainy season (Benson on Jam 5:17; Wetstein, Wiesinger, and others; comp. also Lange, II. p. 547 f.), or to date the third year (Beza, Olshausen, Schegg) from the flight of Elias to Sarepta (1 Kings 17:9).

πᾶσαν τ. γῆν] not the whole region (Beza), but the whole earth; popularly hyperbolical.

On Sarepta, situated between Tyre and Sidon, and belonging to the territory of the latter, now the village of Surafend, see Robinson, Palestine, III. p. 690 ff.

Σιδῶνος] the name of the town of Sidon, as that in whose territory Sarepta lay.

μέγας] in Luke 15:14 λιμός is feminine, as it passed over from the Doric into the κοινή (Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 188). But in this place the reading μεγάλη, approved by Valckenaer, is so weakly attested that it cannot be thought of.

εἰ μή] not sed (Beza, Kuinoel), but nisi; see on Matthew 12:4
But unto none of them was Elias sent, save unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow.
And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian.
Luke 4:27. See 2 Kings 5:14.

ἐπί] at the time, Luke 3:2.

And all they in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath,
And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong.
Luke 4:29. Ἕως ὀφρύος τοῦ ὄρους] up to the lofty brink (supercilium) of the hill. See Duncan, Lex. Hom., ed. Rost, p. 877, and Wetstein. This situation of Nazareth upon a hill (ἐφʼ οὗ), i.e. hard by a hill, is still entirely in accordance with its present position,—“the houses stand on the lower part of the slope of the western hill, which rises steep and high above them,” Robinson, Pal. III. p. 419. Especially near the present Maronite church the mountain wall descends right down from forty to fifty feet,[90] Robinson, l.c. p. 423; Ritter, Erdlc. XVI. p. 744.

ὥστε] of what, as they figured to themselves the result was to be. See on Matthew 24:24; Matthew 27:1; comp. Luke 9:52; Luke 20:20.

κατακρημν.] 2 Chronicles 25:12; Dem. 446. 11; Josephus, Antt. ix. 9. 1.

[90] The place which is pointed out by tradition as the spot in question is at too great a distance from the town. See Robinson, l.c., and Korte, Reisen, p. 215 ff.

But he passing through the midst of them went his way,
Luke 4:30. Αὐτὸς δέ] But He, on His part, while they thus dealt with Him.

διὰ μέσου] emphatically: passed through the midst of them. According to Paulus, it was sufficient for this, “that a man of the look and mien of Jesus should turn round with determination in the face of such a mobile vulgus.” Comp. Lange, L. J. II. p. 548: “an effect of His personal majesty;” and III. p. 376: “a mysterious something in His nature.” Comp. Bleek. According to Schenkel, the whole attempt on the person of Jesus is only a later tradition. On the other hand, the old commentators have: φρουρούμενος τῇ ἡνωμένῃ αὐτῷ θεότητι, Euthymius Zigabenus; comp. Ambrosius, in addition to which it has been further supposed that He became invisible (Grotius and others). The latter view is altogether inappropriate, if only on account of διὰ μέσου αὐτ. But certainly there is implied a restraint of his enemies which was miraculous and dependent on the will of Jesus. It is otherwise in John 8:59 (ἐκρύβη). Why Jesus did not surrender Himself is rightly pointed out by Theophylact: οὐ τὸ παθεῖν φεύγων, ἀλλὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἀναμένων.

ἐπορεύετο] went on, that is to say, towards Capernaum, Luke 4:31, and therefore not back again to Nazareth as has been harmonistically pretended.

And came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbath days.
Luke 4:31-37. See on Mark 1:21-28, whom Luke with some slight variations follows.

κατῆλθεν] Down from Nazareth, which lay higher up, to Capernaum, which was situated on the shore. Comp. Matthew 4:13.

πόλιν τ. Γαλιλ.] for here Capernaum occurs for the first time in Luke in the course of the history (it is otherwise at Luke 4:23).

ἦν διδάσκ.] expresses the constant occupation of teaching on the Sabbaths (otherwise in Mark), comp. on Matthew 7:29.

Luke 4:33. πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου] The genitive is a genitive of apposition or of nearer definition (Winer, p. 470 [E. T. 666–7]); and δαιμόνιον, which, according to Greek usage, is in itself applicable to either good or evil spirits, being used by Luke for the first time in this passage, is qualified by ἀκαθάρτου.

ἔα] not the imperative of ἐάω (Vulg.: sine; Euthymius Zigabenus, ad Marc. ἄφες ἡμᾶς, comp. Syr.), but “interjectio admirationis metu mixtae” (Ellendt, Lex. Soph. I. p. 465): ha! Plato, Prot. p. 314 D. Seldom occurring elsewhere in prose, even in the New Testament only in this place (not Mark 1:24). See Fritzsche, ad Marc. p. 32 f., who, nevertheless, traces back the origin of the expression to the imperative form.

ἦλθες κ.τ.λ.] not interrogatively. The words themselves are simply taken from Mark; all the less therefore is any hint to be read into them of the redeeming ministry of Jesus to the Gentile world (Baur, Evang. p. 429 f.).

Luke 4:35. ῥῖψαν] is to be accented thus. See Bornemann, p. 4; comp., nevertheless, Lipsius, Gramm. Unters. p. 31 ff.

εἰς μέσον] He threw him down into the midst in the synagogue. The article might, but must not, be added. See the instances from Homer in Duncan, ed. Rost; Krüger, ad Xen. Anab. i. 8. 15. Observe, moreover, that here Luke describes more vividly than Mark, although his description is too unimportant “to glorify the miracle” (Holtzmann).

Luke 4:36. τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος] not: quid hoc rei est? (Beza, Er. Schmid, Grotius, Kuinoel, de Wette); but: what sort of a speech is this? to wit, that which is related in Luke 4:35; comp. Theophylact: τίς ἡ πρόσταξις αὕτη ἣν προστάσσει, ὅτι ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ φιμώθητι. It is otherwise at Luke 4:32, where λόγος is the discourse which teaches; here, the speech which commands. Mark 1:27 has, moreover, given the former particular (the διδαχή) here again as the object of the people’s astonishment and conference; but Luke, working after him, distinguishes the two, using for both, indeed, the general expression λόγος, but clearly limiting this expression in Luke 4:32 by διδαχή, and in Luke 4:36 by ἐπιτάσσει. Baur decides otherwise in the Theol. Jahrb. 1853, p. 70.

ὅτι] since he, etc., accounts for this question asked in astonishment.

ἐν ἑξουσίᾳ κ. δυνάμ.] with authority aud power. The former is the authority which He possesses, the latter the power which He brings into operation.

Luke 4:37. ἦχος] noise (Acts 2:2; Hebrews 12:19), a stronger, expression for rumour. The classical writers use ἠχώ thus (Herod. ix. 24; Pind. Ol. xiv. 29).

And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power.
And in the synagogue there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice,
Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art; the Holy One of God.
And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him, and hurt him not.
And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out.
And the fame of him went out into every place of the country round about.
And he arose out of the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. And Simon's wife's mother was taken with a great fever; and they besought him for her.
Luke 4:38-41. See on Matthew 8:14-16; Mark 1:29-34. Matthew places the narrative later, not till after the Sermon on the Mount.[91]

ἀπὸ τῆς συναγωγ.] He went from the synagogue into the house of Simon. The article before πενθερά is not needed. Winer, p. 108 f. [E. T. 148 ff.]. Luke, the physician, uses the technical expression for violent fever-heat: πυρετὸς μέγας (the opposite: μικρός). See Galen, De diff. febr. 1, in Wetstein.

ἠρώτησαν] they asked; Peter, to wit, and the members of the family,—hence it is not the plural introduced here without reason only from Mark 1:30 (Weiss).

ἐπάνω αὐτῆς] so that He was bending over her.

ἐπετίμ. τῷ πυρετῷ] the fever regarded as a hostile power, and as personal. Mark, whom Matthew follows, has not this detail; whereas both have the touching with the hand. A divergence in the tradition as to the miraculous method of cure.

αὐτοῖς] refers to Jesus, Simon, and the other members of the family. Comp. ἠρώτησαν, Luke 4:38.

Luke 4:40. ἀσθενοῦντας νόσοις] according to Matthew, demoniacs and sick persons (comp. Mark), with which Luke nevertheless also agrees at Luke 4:41.[92]

τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιτιθείς] Matthew has ΛΌΓῼ, with reference, however, to the demoniacs. In ἙΝῚ ἙΚΆΣΤῼ, which need not be pressed (Weiss, Holtzmann), are implied the solicitude and the indefatigableness of this miraculous ministry of love.

ΛΑΛΕῖΝ, ὍΤΙ] to speak, because. See on Mark 1:34.

[91] The arrangement in Luke, so far as he places (ch. 5) the call of Peter later, is in any case not arbitrarily produced, although he follows the tradition which (as Matthew) does not include the companionship of James and John (so Mark).

[92] All three also agree essentially as to the time of day (δύνοντος τοῦ ἡλίου). Until the evening Jesus had remained in the house of Simon, therefore the siek were first brought to Him there. Thus it was neither with a view to avoiding the heat of the sun, nor to choosing, from “delicacy of feeling,” as Lange supposes, the twilight for the public exhibition of infirmities.

And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her: and immediately she arose and ministered unto them.
Now when the sun was setting, all they that had any sick with divers diseases brought them unto him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them.
And devils also came out of many, crying out, and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God. And he rebuking them suffered them not to speak: for they knew that he was Christ.
And when it was day, he departed and went into a desert place: and the people sought him, and came unto him, and stayed him, that he should not depart from them.
Luke 4:42-44. See on Mark 1:35-39, who is more precise and more vivid.

The bringing of so many sick folks to Him, Luke 4:40, is to be explained, not by this hasty departure, the appointment of which had been known (Schleiermacher), but, in accordance with the text (Luke 4:37), by the fame which the public healing of the demoniac in the synagogue had brought Him.

ἕως αὐτοῦ] not simply: to Him, but: even up to Him, they came in their search, which therefore they did not discontinue until they found Him. Comp. 1Ma 3:26; Acts 9:38; Acts 23:23.

εἰς τοῦτο] namely, to announce not only here, but everywhere throughout the land, the kingdom of God.

ἀπέσταλμαι] It is otherwise in Mark 1:36, whose expression is original, but had already acquired in the tradition that Luke here follows a doctrinal development with a higher meaning.

And he said unto them, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also: for therefore am I sent.
And he preached in the synagogues of Galilee.
Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer's NT Commentary

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