Matthew 12:4
New International Version
He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread--which was not lawful for them to do, but only for the priests.

New Living Translation
He went into the house of God, and he and his companions broke the law by eating the sacred loaves of bread that only the priests are allowed to eat.

English Standard Version
how he entered the house of God and ate the bread of the Presence, which it was not lawful for him to eat nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests?

Berean Study Bible
He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for them to eat, but only for the priests.

Berean Literal Bible
how he entered into the house of God, and they ate the loaves of the presentation, which it was not lawful for him nor for those with him to eat, but only for the priests?

New American Standard Bible
how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?

King James Bible
How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

Christian Standard Bible
how he entered the house of God, and they ate the bread of the Presence--which is not lawful for him or for those with him to eat, but only for the priests?

Contemporary English Version
He went into the house of God, and then they ate the sacred loaves of bread that only priests are supposed to eat.

Good News Translation
He went into the house of God, and he and his men ate the bread offered to God, even though it was against the Law for them to eat it--only the priests were allowed to eat that bread.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
how he entered the house of God, and they ate the sacred bread, which is not lawful for him or for those with him to eat, but only for the priests?

International Standard Version
How is it that he went into the house of God and ate the Bread of the Presence, which was not lawful for him and his companions to eat but was reserved for the priests?

NET Bible
how he entered the house of God and they ate the sacred bread, which was against the law for him or his companions to eat, but only for the priests?

New Heart English Bible
how he entered into the house of God, and they ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests?

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
How he entered the house of God, and he ate the bread of the table of THE LORD JEHOVAH, that which was not legal for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but rather for the priests only?

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Haven't you read how he went into the house of God and ate the bread of the presence? He and his men had no right to eat those loaves. Only the priests have that right.

New American Standard 1977
how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?

Jubilee Bible 2000
how he entered into the house of God and ate the showbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests?

King James 2000 Bible
How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the showbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them who were with him, but only for the priests?

American King James Version
How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

American Standard Version
how he entered into the house of God, and ate the showbread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them that were with him, but only for the priests?

Douay-Rheims Bible
How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the loaves of proposition, which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for them that were with him, but for the priests only?

Darby Bible Translation
How he entered into the house of God, and ate the shewbread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those with him, but for the priests only?

English Revised Version
how be entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them that were with him, but only for the priests?

Webster's Bible Translation
How he entered into the house of God, and ate the show-bread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them who were with him, but only for the priests?

Weymouth New Testament
how he entered the House of God and ate the Presented Loaves, which it was not lawful for him or his men to eat, nor for any except the priests?

World English Bible
how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests?

Young's Literal Translation
how he went into the house of God, and the loaves of the presentation did eat, which it is not lawful to him to eat, nor to those with him, except to the priests alone?
Study Bible
The Lord of the Sabbath
3Jesus replied, “Have you not read what David did when he and his companions were hungry? 4He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for them to eat, but only for the priests. 5Or haven’t you read in the Law that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and yet are innocent?…
Cross References
Leviticus 24:9
It belongs to Aaron and his sons, who are to eat it in a holy place; for it is to him a most holy part of the offerings made by fire to the LORD--his portion forever."

1 Samuel 21:4
"There is no common bread on hand," the priest replied, "but there is some consecrated bread--provided that the young men have kept themselves from women."

1 Samuel 21:6
So the priest gave him the consecrated bread, since there was no bread there but the bread of the Presence, which had been removed from before the LORD and replaced with hot bread on the day it was taken away.

Matthew 12:3
Jesus replied, "Have you not read what David did when he and his companions were hungry?

Matthew 12:5
Or haven't you read in the Law that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and yet are innocent?

Mark 2:26
During the high priesthood of Abiathar, he entered the house of God and ate the consecrated bread, which was lawful only for the priests. And he gave some to his companions as well."

Luke 6:4
He entered the house of God, took the consecrated bread and gave it to his companions, and ate what is lawful only for the priests to eat."

Hebrews 9:2
A tabernacle was prepared. In its first room were the lampstand, the table, and the consecrated bread. This was called the Holy Place.

Treasury of Scripture

How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

the shew-bread.

Exodus 25:30
And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway.

Leviticus 24:5-9
And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake…

but.

Exodus 29:32,33
And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation…

Leviticus 8:31
And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and there eat it with the bread that is in the basket of consecrations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it.

Leviticus 24:9
And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it is most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire by a perpetual statute.







Lexicon
He entered
εἰσῆλθεν (eisēlthen)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1525: To go in, come in, enter. From eis and erchomai; to enter.

the
τὸν (ton)
Article - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

house
οἶκον (oikon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3624: A dwelling; by implication, a family.

of God,
Θεοῦ (Theou)
Noun - Genitive Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 2316: A deity, especially the supreme Divinity; figuratively, a magistrate; by Hebraism, very.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

[he and his companions] ate
ἔφαγον (ephagon)
Verb - Aorist Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 5315: A primary verb; to eat.

the
τοὺς (tous)
Article - Accusative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

consecrated bread,
ἄρτους (artous)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 740: Bread, a loaf, food. From airo; bread or a loaf.

which
(ho)
Personal / Relative Pronoun - Accusative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 3739: Who, which, what, that.

was
ἦν (ēn)
Verb - Imperfect Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 1510: I am, exist. The first person singular present indicative; a prolonged form of a primary and defective verb; I exist.

not
οὐκ (ouk)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3756: No, not. Also ouk, and ouch a primary word; the absolute negative adverb; no or not.

lawful
ἐξὸν (exon)
Verb - Present Participle Active - Nominative Neuter Singular
Strong's Greek 1832: It is permitted, lawful, possible.

for [them]
αὐτῷ (autō)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Dative Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

to eat,
φαγεῖν (phagein)
Verb - Aorist Infinitive Active
Strong's Greek 5315: A primary verb; to eat.

but
εἰ (ei)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 1487: If. A primary particle of conditionality; if, whether, that, etc.

only
μόνοις (monois)
Adjective - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3441: Only, solitary, desolate. Probably from meno; remaining, i.e. Sole or single; by implication, mere.

for the
τοῖς (tois)
Article - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

priests.
ἱερεῦσιν (hiereusin)
Noun - Dative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 2409: A priest, one who offers sacrifice to a god (in Jewish and pagan religions; of Christians only met.). From hieros; a priest.
(4) How he entered into the house of God.--Strictly speaking, it was in the tabernacle at Nob, where Ahimelech (possibly assisted by Abiathar, Mark 2:26) was ministering as high priest (1Samuel 21:6). The shewbread, or "bread of oblation," consisted of twelve loaves, in two rows of six each, which were offered every Sabbath day (Exodus 25:30; Exodus 40:23; Leviticus 24:5-9), the loaves of the previous week being then removed and reserved for the exclusive use of the priests. The necessity of the case, however, was in this instance allowed to override the ceremonial ordinance, and our Lord teaches men through that single instance to see the general principle that when positive commands and necessities involving the good of man come into collision, the latter, not the former, must prevail.

Verse 4. - How he entered into the house of God, and did eat; rather, and they did eat, with Revised Version margin (ἔφαγον), the simple plural verb laying the action less at David's door than does the phrase in the parallel passages - "and he gave" them to eat. Observe that the mention of ordinary people, like David's attendants, adds to the force of our Lord's illustration. The shew-bread (Exodus 25:30; Leviticus 24:5-7). Which. Which kind of food (). Was not lawful (οὐκ ἔξον η΅ν). Reminding the Pharisees of their own words in ver. 2. For him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? (Leviticus 24:9). 12:1-8 Being in the corn-fields, the disciples began to pluck the ears of corn: the law of God allowed it, De 23:25. This was slender provision for Christ and his disciples; but they were content with it. The Pharisees did not quarrel with them for taking another man's corn, but for doing it on the sabbath day. Christ came to free his followers, not only from the corruptions of the Pharisees, but from their unscriptural rules, and justified what they did. The greatest shall not have their lusts indulged, but the meanest shall have their wants considered. Those labours are lawful on the sabbath day which are necessary, and sabbath rest is to froward, not to hinder sabbath worship. Needful provision for health and food is to be made; but when servants are kept at home, and families become a scene of hurry and confusion on the Lord's day, to furnish a feast for visitors, or for indulgence, the case is very different. Such things as these, and many others common among professors, are to be blamed. The resting on the sabbath was ordained for man's good, De 5:14. No law must be understood so as to contradict its own end. And as Christ is the Lord of the sabbath, it is fit the day and the work of it should be dedicated to him.
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