International Standard Bible EncyclopediaCHIEF FRIENDS; GOOD MEN
See CHIEF FRIENDS; GOOD, CHIEF; CHIEF.
good (Tobh, Tubh, yaTabh; agathos, agathon, kalos, kalon): In English "good" is used in various senses, most of which are represented in the Bible.
(1) In the Old Testament the commonest word is Tobh, occurring very frequently and translated in a great variety of ways. Of the different shades of meaning, which frequently run into each other, the following may be distinguished:
(a) Possessing desirable qualities, beneficial, agreeable, e.g. "good for food" (Genesis 2:9); "We will do thee good" (Numbers 10:29); Who will show us any good?" (Psalm 4:6); "good tidings of good" (Isaiah 52:7).
(b) Moral excellence, piety: "to know good and evil" (Genesis 3:22); "that which is right and good" (Deuteronomy 6:18 1 Samuel 12:23); "good and bad" (1 Kings 3:9, the Revised Version (British and American) "evil"); "Depart from evil and do good" (Psalm 37:27); "a good man" (Proverbs 12:2); compare Isaiah 5:20 Micah 6:8, etc.
(c) Kind, benevolent: "The men were very good unto us" (1 Samuel 25:15); "Give thanks unto Yahweh; for he is good" (1 Chronicles 16:34); "the good Yahweh" (2 Chronicles 30:18); "God is good to Israel" (Psalm 73:1); "Yahweh is good to all" (Psalm 145:9), etc.
(d) Serviceable, adequate, sufficient: "saw the light that it was good" (Genesis 1:4 Songs 1:10, 12 etc.); "not good that the man should be alone" (Genesis 2:18); in the frequent phrase, "if it seem good" (1 Chronicles 13:2 Esther 5:4, etc.), sometimes rendered, "if it please" (Nehemiah 2:5, 7 Esther 1:19, etc.).
(e) Not small or deficient (full, complete): "a good old age" (Genesis 15, 15; Genesis 25:8); "a good dowry" (Genesis 30:20); "good ears," "years," "kine" (Genesis 41:24, 26, 35); "good understanding" (1 Samuel 25:3); "good trees-"land" (2 Kings 3:19, 25), etc. (f) Not blemished, fair, honorable: "tender and good" (Genesis 18:7); "good kids" (Genesis 27:9); "good report" (1 Samuel 2:24; compare 2 Kings 20:3 Jeremiah 24:2); and the renderings "fair" (Genesis 26:7, etc.), "beautiful" (2 Samuel 11:2), "pleasant" (2 Kings 2:19), etc.
(g) Pleasure-giving, happy: "glad of heart" (1 Kings 8:66 Esther 5:9); sometimes in the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) translated "merry" (Judges 16:25 1 Samuel 25:36 2 Samuel 13:28 Proverbs 15:15, the Revised Version (British and American) "cheerful"), etc.
Changes that may be noted in the Revised Version (British and American) are such as, "good" for "ready" (Isaiah 41:7); "I have no good beyond thee" for "My goodness extendeth not to thee" (Psalm 16:2); "goodly" for "good" (Psalm 45:1); "good" for "goodness" (Psalm 107:9); "good" for "well" (Zechariah 8:15).
Tubh means something good, e.g. "the good of the land" (Genesis 45:18, 20 Deuteronomy 6:11 Job 21:16, the Revised Version (British and American) "prosperity").
YaTabh, "to do good," occurs several times, as, I will surely do thee good" (Genesis 32:12); "to do good" (Leviticus 5:4); "Make your ways and your doings good," the Revised Version (British and American) "amend" (Jeremiah 18:11 Zephaniah 1:12, etc.). Numerous other Hebrew words are rendered "good" in various verbal connections and otherwise, as "to bring good tidings" (2 Samuel 4:10 Isaiah 40:9, etc.); "take good heed" (Deuteronomy 2:4; Deuteronomy 4:15 Joshua 23:11); "make good" (Exodus 21:34), etc.; "good will" (ratson, Deuteronomy 33:16 Malachi 2:13); "what good?" the Revised Version (British and American) "what advantages?" (kishron, Ecclesiastes 5:11); "good for nothing," the Revised Version (British and American) "profitable" (tsaleah, Jeremiah 13:10), etc. In Jeremiah 18:4, "as seemed good to the potter," the word is yahsar, which means literally, "right."
(2) In the New Testament the words most frequently translated "good" are agathos and kalos. The former, agathos, denotes good as a quality, physical or moral. Thus, "He maketh his sun to rise on the evil and the good" (Matthew 5:45); "good gifts" (Matthew 7:11); "Good Master (the Revised Version (British and American) "Teacher"). Why callest thou me good? none is good save one" (Mark 10:17; Luke 18:18; compare Matthew 19:16); "they that have done good" (John 5:29). Sometimes it is equivalent to "kind" (thus Titus 2:5 the Revised Version (British and American)); to agathon is "that which is good" (Luke 6:45 Romans 7:13 1 Thessalonians 5:15 1 Peter 3:13), etc.; "that which is honest," the Revised Version (British and American) "honorable" (2 Corinthians 13:7); "meet" (Matthew 15:26 Mark 7:27); "worthy," the Revised Version (British and American) "honorable" (James 2:7); agathon is "a good thing," as "good things to them that ask him" (Matthew 7:11); Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" (John 1:46), etc.; agathoergeo (1 Timothy 6:18), and agathopoieo (Mark 3:4 Acts 14:17), etc., "to do good."
Kalos is properly, "beautiful," "pleasing," "useful," "noble," "worthy" in a moral sense, e.g. "that they may see your good works" (Matthew 5:16); "She hath wrought a good work on me" (Matthew 26:10 Mark 14, 6); "the good shepherd" (John 10:11, 14); "Many good works have I showed you" (John 10:32); "good and acceptable before God" (1 Timothy 5:4; the Revised Version (British and American) omits "good"); "the good fight" (2 Timothy 4:7); "good works" (Titus 2:7); "the good word of God" (Hebrews 6:5). But it is often practically equivalent to agathos, e.g. "good fruit" (Matthew 3:10); "good ground" (Matthew 13:23); "good seed" (Matthew 13:24); but the idea of useful may underlie such expressions; to kalon is properly "that which is beautiful." It occurs in Romans 7:18, 21 1 Thessalonians 5:21, "Hold fast that which is good." In Romans 7 it seems to be used interchangeably with to agathon. In Romans 5:7, "the good man" (ho agathos) is distinguished from "a righteous man" (dikaios): "For the good man some one would even dare to die" (compare Romans 7:16 Hebrews 5:14 James 4:17); kalos, "well," "pleasantly," is translated "good" (Luke 6:27 James 2:3); kalodidaskalos (Titus 2:3), "teachers of good things," the Revised Version (British and American) "of that which is good."
"Good" occurs in the rendering of many other Greek words and phrases, as eudokia, "good pleasure" (Ephesians 1:9); "good will" (Luke 2:14 Philippians 1:15); sumphero, "to bear together," "not good to marry" (Matthew 19:10), the Revised Version (British and American) "expedient"; philagathos, "a lover of good" (Titus 1:8); chrestologia, "good words" (Romans 16:18, the Revised Version (British and American) "smooth speech," etc.).
The following changes in the Revised Version (British and American) may be noted. In Luke 2:14 for "men of good will" (eudokia) the Revised Version (British and American) reads "in whom he is well pleased," margin "good pleasure among men, Greek men of good pleasure." The meaning is "men to whom God is drawing nigh in goodwill or acceptance"; compare Luke 4:19, "the acceptable year of the Lord"; 4:43, "Preach the good tidings of the kingdom of God." In Matthew 11:5 Luke 4:43; Luke 7:22 1 Peter 1:25 and (American Standard Revised Version) Revelation 14:6 "the gospel" is changed into "good tidings." In Matthew 18:8; Mark 9:43, 15, 47 Luke 5:39, good is substituted for "better"; on the last passage in notes "Many authorities read `better' "; in 1 Corinthians 9:15 "good. rather" for "better"; "good" is substituted in Luke 1:19; Luke 8:1 and Acts 13:32 for "glad"; in Acts 6:3 for "honest"; in Hebrews 13:9 for "a good thing." In 2 Thessalonians 1:11, all the good pleasure of his goodness" becomes "every desire of goodness" (m "Gr good pleasure of goodness"); in 1 Timothy 3:2, "good" (kosmios) becomes "orderly." There are many other instances of like changes.
SeeGOODNESS; GOOD, CHIEF.
W. L. Walker
What this consisted in was greatly discussed in ancient philosophy. Varro enumerated 288 answers to the question. By Plato "the good" was identified with God.
In the Old Testament while the "good" of the nation consisted in earthly well-being or prosperity (Deuteronomy 28 etc.), that of the individual was to be found only in God Himself (Psalm 16:2 the Revised Version (British and American), "I have no good beyond thee"; Psalm 41:1-5; Psalm 43:5; Psalm 73:25-28 Jeremiah 31:33; Habakkuk 3:17-19). This implied godly conduct (Micah 6:8, etc.), and led to the experience described as "blessedness" (Psalm 1, etc.; Jeremiah 17:7, etc.). It is the "Wisdom" extolled in Proverbs 1:20; Proverbs 8:1 (compare Ecclesiasticus 1:1; 5:1), elsewhere described as "the fear of Yahweh." That God alone can be the true "good" of man is implied in the fact that man was created in the image of God (Genesis 1:27).
In the New Testament the true "good" is placed by Jesus in "the kingdom of God" (Matthew 6:33; Matthew 13:44, etc.). This means nothing earthly merely (Matthew 6:19), but heavenly and eternal. It implies the Old Testament conception that God is the true "good"; for to seek the Kingdom supremely means whole-hearted devotion to God as our heavenly Father and to His righteousness. It was also spoken of by Jesus, as sonship to the heavenly Father (Matthew 5:45, etc.). This "good" is not something merely to be given to men, but must be sought after and won through taking up a right attitude toward God and our fellows, cherishing the Love that God is, and acting it out in kindness and righteousness, in resemblance to our God and Father (Matthew 5:43-48; here Genesis 1:27 is implied).
In some of the epistles Christ is represented as the true "good" (Philippians 3:8 Colossians 3:1-4, 11). This is because in Him God was manifested in His Truth and Grace; in Him "the Kingdom" was present; through His cross the world is so reconciled to God that men can find acceptance and rest in Him as their "good"; Christ Himself in the Spirit is our Life; in Him we have "God with us." Having God as our "good," nothing but good, in the truest and highest sense, can come to us. Even the most seemingly adverse things are turned into good "to them that love God" (Romans 8:28).
Our true "good" is found thus in God even in this present life; but its fullness can be realized only in the eternal life beyond. Placing our "good" in God leads to such life in devotion to the "good" that God is, as tends to bring all that is best to this present world. It is men's failure to do this that is the source of our misery (Jeremiah 2:13, etc.). The ultimate ideal is that God shall be "all in all" (1 Corinthians 15:28).
W. L. Walker
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
) Possessing desirable qualities; adapted to answer the end designed; promoting success, welfare, or happiness; serviceable; useful; fit; excellent; admirable; commendable; not bad, corrupt, evil, noxious, offensive, or troublesome, etc.
2. (superl.) Possessing moral excellence or virtue; virtuous; pious; religious; -- said of persons or actions.
3. (superl.) Kind; benevolent; humane; merciful; gracious; polite; propitious; friendly; well-disposed; -- often followed by to or toward, also formerly by unto.
4. (superl.) Serviceable; suited; adapted; suitable; of use; to be relied upon; -- followed especially by for.
5. (superl.) Clever; skillful; dexterous; ready; handy; -- followed especially by at.
6. (superl.) Adequate; sufficient; competent; sound; not fallacious; valid; in a commercial sense, to be depended on for the discharge of obligations incurred; having pecuniary ability; of unimpaired credit.
7. (superl.) Real; actual; serious; as in the phrases in good earnest; in good sooth.
8. (superl.) Not small, insignificant, or of no account; considerable; esp., in the phrases a good deal, a good way, a good degree, a good share or part, etc.
9. (superl.) Not lacking or deficient; full; complete.
10. (superl.) Not blemished or impeached; fair; honorable; unsullied; as in the phrases a good name, a good report, good repute, etc.
11. (n.) That which possesses desirable qualities, promotes success, welfare, or happiness, is serviceable, fit, excellent, kind, benevolent, etc.; -- opposed to evil.
12. (n.) Advancement of interest or happiness; welfare; prosperity; advantage; benefit; -- opposed to harm, etc.
13. (n.) Wares; commodities; chattels; -- formerly used in the singular in a collective sense. In law, a comprehensive name for almost all personal property as distinguished from land or real property.
14. (adv.) Well, -- especially in the phrase as good, with a following as expressed or implied; equally well with as much advantage or as little harm as possible.
15. (v. t.) To make good; to turn to good.
16. (v. t.) To manure; to improve.
Greek2097. euaggelizo -- to announce good news ...
to announce good
news. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: euaggelizo Phonetic
Spelling: (yoo-ang-ghel-id'-zo) Short Definition: I bring good
news, preach ... //strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2097.htm - 10k
2107. eudokia -- good pleasure
... good pleasure. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: eudokia Phonetic
Spelling: (yoo-dok-ee'-ah) Short Definition: good-will, favor Definition: (a ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2107.htm - 7k
18. agathos -- good
... good. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: agathos Phonetic Spelling:
(ag-ath-os') Short Definition: good Definition: intrinsically good, good in nature ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/18.htm - 7k
14. agathoergeo -- to do good
... to do good. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: agathoergeo Phonetic Spelling:
(ag-ath-er-gheh'-o) Short Definition: I perform good deeds Definition: I work ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/14.htm - 7k
865. aphilagathos -- without love of good
... without love of good. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: aphilagathos Phonetic
Spelling: (af-il-ag'-ath-os) Short Definition: not loving that which is ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/865.htm - 7k
2570. kalos -- beautiful, good
... beautiful, good. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: kalos Phonetic Spelling:
(kal-os') Short Definition: beautiful, good, worthy Definition: beautiful ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2570.htm - 7k
5358. philagathos -- loving that which is good
... loving that which is good. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: philagathos
Phonetic Spelling: (fil-ag'-ath-os) Short Definition: loving what is good ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5358.htm - 7k
15. agathopoieo -- to do good
... to do good. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: agathopoieo Phonetic Spelling:
(ag-ath-op-oy-eh'-o) Short Definition: I do that which is good Definition: I do ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/15.htm - 7k
2162. euphemia -- good report
... good report. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: euphemia Phonetic Spelling:
(yoo-fay-mee'-ah) Short Definition: commendation, good report Definition ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2162.htm - 6k
2174. eupsucheo -- to be of good courage
... to be of good courage. Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: eupsucheo Phonetic
Spelling: (yoo-psoo-kheh'-o) Short Definition: I am of good cheer Definition: I ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2174.htm - 7k
Strong's Hebrew3190. yatab -- to be good, well, glad, or pleasing...
<< 3189, 3190. yatab. 3191 >>. to be good
, well, glad, or pleasing. Transliteration:
yatab Phonetic Spelling: (yaw-tab') Short Definition: well. Word Origin a prim ... /hebrew/3190.htm - 7k
2896a. tob -- pleasant, agreeable, good
... << 2896, 2896a. tob. 2896b >>. pleasant, agreeable, good. Transliteration:
tob Short Definition: good. Word Origin from tob Definition ...
/hebrew/2896a.htm - 6k
2896. towb -- pleasant, agreeable, good
... << 2895, 2896. towb. 2896a >>. pleasant, agreeable, good. Transliteration:
towb Phonetic Spelling: (tobe) Short Definition: beautiful. ...
/hebrew/2896.htm - 6k
2899b. tobah -- welfare, benefit, good things, good
... << 2899a, 2899b. tobah. 2900 >>. welfare, benefit, good things, good.
Transliteration: tobah Short Definition: good. Word Origin from ...
/hebrew/2899b.htm - 5k
2896b. tob -- a good thing, benefit, welfare
... << 2896a, 2896b. tob. 2897 >>. a good thing, benefit, welfare. Transliteration:
tob Short Definition: good. Word Origin from tob Definition ...
/hebrew/2896b.htm - 5k
2898. tub -- good things, goods, goodness
... << 2897, 2898. tub. 2899 >>. good things, goods, goodness. Transliteration:
tub Phonetic Spelling: (toob) Short Definition: goodness. ...
/hebrew/2898.htm - 6k
2895. tob -- to be pleasing or good
... << 2894, 2895. tob. 2896 >>. to be pleasing or good. Transliteration: tob Phonetic
Spelling: (tobe) Short Definition: well. Word Origin a prim. ...
/hebrew/2895.htm - 6k
3191. yetab -- to be good or pleasing
... << 3190, 3191. yetab. 3192 >>. to be good or pleasing. Transliteration: yetab
Phonetic Spelling: (yet-ab') Short Definition: good. Word ...
/hebrew/3191.htm - 6k
2869. tab -- good
... tab. 2870 >>. good. Transliteration: tab Phonetic Spelling: (tawb) Short Definition:
fine. ... fine, good. (Aramaic) from t'eb; the same as towb; good -- fine, good. ...
/hebrew/2869.htm - 6k
2870a. Tabeal -- "good for nothing," an Aramean (Syrian)
... << 2870, 2870a. Tabeal. 2870b >>. "good for nothing," an Aramean (Syrian).
Transliteration: Tabeal Short Definition: Tabeel. Word Origin ...
/hebrew/2870a.htm - 5k
On the Good of Marriage
On the Good of Marriage. << << <. On the Good of Marriage St. Augustine. Rev. CL
Cornish, MA Table of Contents. Title Page. On the Good of Marriage. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/augustine/on the good of marriage/
The Good News of God
The Good News of God. << << <. The Good News of God Charles Kingsley.
Transcribed from the 1887 Macmillan and Co. edition ...
//christianbookshelf.org/kingsley/the good news of god/
On the Good of Widowhood.
On the Good of Widowhood. << <<. On the Good of Widowhood. St. Augustine. Rev. CL
Cornish, MA Table of Contents. Title Page. On the Good of Widowhood. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/augustine/on the good of widowhood /
The Good Shepherd
The Good Shepherd. << << <. The Good Shepherd Anonymous. Produced by Al Haines Table
of Contents. Title Page. TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/anonymous/the good shepherd/
... BIBLE STORIES AND RELIGIOUS CLASSICS "GOOD-FOR-NOTHING". By HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN. ...
"Ah, you're a good boy, a well-behaved boy!" said the sheriff. ...
/.../wells/bible stories and religious classics/good-for-nothing.htm
The Good Shepherd
... THE GOOD SHEPHERD. 'I am the Good Shepherd, and know My sheep, and am known
of Mine.15. As the Father knoweth Me, even so know I ...
/.../maclaren/expositions of holy scripture i/the good shepherd.htm
Whether the Will is of Good Only?
... OF THE WILL, IN REGARD TO WHAT IT WILLS (THREE ARTICLES) Whether the will is of
good only? Objection 1: It would seem that the will is not of good only. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/aquinas/summa theologica/whether the will is of.htm
The Good Shepherd.
... THE GOOD SHEPHERD. ... Now, why does Jesus call Himself the "good shepherd,"
and the Bible speak of Him as carrying the little lambs? ...
/.../anonymous/mother stories from the new testament/the good shepherd.htm
Timeliness in Doing Good.
... TIMELINESS IN DOING GOOD. To spend well this one brief life of ours, we
must be active in doing good. This we have already learned. ...
/.../christianbookshelf.org/orr/how to live a holy life/timeliness in doing good.htm
The Good Shepherd.
... Chapter X. The Good Shepherd. ... It is Christ who is the Good Shepherd. (John
10:1). 1. He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold. ...
/.../johnson/the new testament commentary vol iii john/the good shepherd.htm
ThesaurusGood-will (8 Occurrences)Good
-will. << Goodwill, Good
-will. Gopher >>. Multi-Version ConcordanceGood
-will (8 Occurrences). Ephesians 6:7 with good.../g/good-will.htm - 8k
Good (8348 Occurrences)
... 7. (superl.) Real; actual; serious; as in the phrases in good earnest;
in good sooth. 8. (superl.) Not small, insignificant, or ...
/g/good.htm - 26k
Good-by (8 Occurrences)
Good-by. << Good, Good-by. Goodbye >>. Noah Webster's Dictionary (n. / interj.)
Alt. of Good-bye. Multi-Version Concordance Good-by (8 Occurrences). ...
/g/good-by.htm - 8k
Good-for-nothing (22 Occurrences)
Good-for-nothing. << Good-day, Good-for-nothing. Goodlier >>.
Multi-Version Concordance Good-for-nothing (22 Occurrences). ...
/g/good-for-nothing.htm - 13k
Good-looking (7 Occurrences)
Good-looking. << Goodliness, Good-looking. Goodly >>. Noah Webster's Dictionary
(a.) Handsome. Multi-Version Concordance Good-looking (7 Occurrences). ...
/g/good-looking.htm - 8k
Good-day (2 Occurrences)
Good-day. << Good-bye, Good-day. Good-for-nothing >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Good-day (2 Occurrences). Luke 9:61 And another man said ...
/g/good-day.htm - 7k
Good-bye (1 Occurrence)
Good-bye. << Goodbye, Good-bye. Good-day >>. Noah Webster's Dictionary (n ...
See. Multi-Version Concordance Good-bye (1 Occurrence). Luke ...
/g/good-bye.htm - 6k
Good-man (1 Occurrence)
Good-man. << Goodman, Good-man. Goodness >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Good-man (1 Occurrence). Proverbs 7:19 For the good...
/g/good-man.htm - 6k
Good-news (1 Occurrence)
Good-news. << Goodness, Good-news. Goods >>. Multi-Version Concordance
Good-news (1 Occurrence). Ephesians 6:15 and having ...
/g/good-news.htm - 6k
Seemeth (36 Occurrences)
... Deuteronomy 23:16 he shall dwell with thee, even in thy midst, in the place that
he shall choose in one of thy gates, where it seemeth good to him; thou shalt ...
/s/seemeth.htm - 18k