|New International Version (©2011)|
"You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.'
New Living Translation (©2007)
"You have heard the law that says, 'Love your neighbor' and hate your enemy.
English Standard Version (©2001)
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’
New American Standard Bible (©1995)
"You have heard that it was said, 'YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR and hate your enemy.'
King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.
Holman Christian Standard Bible (©2009)
"You have heard that it was said, Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.
International Standard Version (©2012)
"You have heard that it was said, 'You must love your neighbor' and hate your enemy.
NET Bible (©2006)
"You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor' and 'hate your enemy.'
Aramaic Bible in Plain English (©2010)
You have heard that it was said, “Show kindness to your neighbor and hate your enemy.”
GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
"You have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.'
King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
You have heard that it has been said, You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.
American King James Version
You have heard that it has been said, You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.
American Standard Version
Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy:
You have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thy enemy.
Darby Bible Translation
Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy.
English Revised Version
Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy:
Webster's Bible Translation
Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thy enemy:
Weymouth New Testament
"You have heard that it was said, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy.'
World English Bible
"You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.'
Young's Literal Translation
'Ye heard that it was said: Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and shalt hate thine enemy;
|Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary|
5:43-48 The Jewish teachers by neighbour understood only those who were of their own country, nation, and religion, whom they were pleased to look upon as their friends. The Lord Jesus teaches that we must do all the real kindness we can to all, especially to their souls. We must pray for them. While many will render good for good, we must render good for evil; and this will speak a nobler principle than most men act by. Others salute their brethren, and embrace those of their own party, and way, and opinion, but we must not so confine our respect. It is the duty of Christians to desire, and aim at, and press towards perfection in grace and holiness. And therein we must study to conform ourselves to the example of our heavenly Father, 1Pe 1:15,16. Surely more is to be expected from the followers of Christ than from others; surely more will be found in them than in others. Let us beg of God to enable us to prove ourselves his children.
Verses 43-48. - The treatment of those who injure us. (Cf. supra, ver. 38.) Our Lord now turns from the reception of injuries to the treatment of those who injure us. We are not to injure them in return, nor merely to keep aloof from them, but to show them positive kindness. The Law, in the natural development of it current at the time, taught very differently. Verse 43.. - Matthew only. Ye have heard (ver. 21, note). Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. The first clause is found in Leviticus 19:18, the second is the natural, and, from one point of view, legitimate, deduction from it. "The whole precept, as it stands, undoubtedly represents, and is a summary of, the sense of the Law" (Mozley, vide infra). The meaning of the words "neighbour" and "enemy" has been much discussed. In Leviticus, indeed, the meaning of "neighbour" is clear; it answers to "the children of thy people" in the preceding clause, i.e. it refers to members of the nation; all Israelites are termed "neighbours." The primary sense, therefore, of this whole precept is love to an Israelite, hatred to a non-Israelite (cf. Deuteronomy 25:17-19). As such, the precept was of value in cementing the unity of the nation and preventing greater exposure to the evils, moral and religious, found outside it. But as quoted by our Lord, it has evidently a more private reference. He treats the precept as referring to personal friends (those who act in a neighbourly way) and enemies, and even this is, in some respects, a legitimate summary of the teaching of the Law, in so far as it forms another side of the law of retaliation. In days when public justice was weak much had to be left to the action of the individual, and he who was wronged was bid satisfy justice by retaliating on his enemy. That, however, it was not the only teaching of the Law is evident from Exodus 23:4 (cf. Job 31:29). But as regards both aspects of the precept the time had come for a change. The Jews only too gladly showed obedience to the second part of the precept, making themselves proverbial (cf. Tacitus, 'Hist.,' 5:5. 2; Juvenal, 'Sat.,' 14:103) for their more than incivility to Gentiles, and they seem to have also zealously carried it out towards their personal enemies (cf. Psalm 109.). On the whole subject, vide especially Mozley ('Ruling Ideas,' pp. 188-200), who, however, hardly allows enough weight to passages like Exodus 23:4.
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
Ye have heard that it hath been said,.... By, or to them of old time. This law has been delivered to them,
thou shalt love thy neighbour, with this appendage to it, or false gloss upon it,
and hate thine enemy; for the first of these only is the law of Moses, Leviticus 19:18, the other is the addition, or wrong interpretation of the Scribes and Pharisees: wherefore the Jew (o) has no reason to charge Christ, or the Evangelist, with a false testimony, as he does, because the latter is no where written in the law, nor in the prophets: nor does Christ say it is; he only observes, that it had been traditionally handed down to them from the ancients, by the masters of the traditions of the elders, that the law of loving the neighbour was so to be understood as to allow, and even enjoin, hatred of enemies: in proof of which, take the following instances (p).
"When one man sins against another, he may not hate him in his heart, and be silent, as is said of the wicked; Absalom spoke not with Amnon: but it is commanded to make it known to him, and to say to him, why hast thou done to me so and so? As it is said, "rebuking, thou shalt rebuke thy neighbour"; and if he returns, and desires him to pardon him, he shall not be implacable and cruel; but if he reproves him many times, and he does not receive his reproof, nor turn from his sin, then , "it is lawful to hate him".''
Again, they say (q),
"Every disciple of a wise man, , "who does not revenge, and keep as a serpent"; that is, as the gloss explains it, "enmity in his heart", as a serpent, is no disciple of a wise man.''
And so Maimonides (r), one of their better sort of writers, says;
"A disciple of a wise man, or a scholar, whom a man despises and reproaches publicly, it is forbidden him to forgive him, because of his honour; and if he forgives him, he is to be punished, for this is a contempt of the law; but "he must revenge, and keep the thing as a serpent", until the other asks pardon of him, and then he may forgive him.''
Thus they bred their scholars in hatred and malice against their enemies. This arises from a mistaken sense of the word "neighbour", which they understood only of a friend; and concluded, that if a friend was to be loved, an enemy was to be hated; not the Gentiles only, but anyone, among themselves, which could come under that name.
(o) R. Isaac Chizuk Emunah, par. 2. c. 11. p. 402. (p) Moses Kotsensis Mitzvot Tora precept. neg. 5. Vid. Maimon. Hilchot Rotseach, c. 13. sect. 14. (q) T. Bab. Yoma, fol. 22. 2. & 23. 1.((r) Maimon. Hilch. Talmud Tora, c. 7. sect. 13.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
43. Ye have heard that it hath been said—(Le 19:18).
Thou shalt love thy neighbour—To this the corrupt teachers added,
and hate thine enemy—as if the one were a legitimate inference from the other, instead of being a detestable gloss, as Bengel indignantly calls it. Lightfoot quotes some of the cursed maxims inculcated by those traditionists regarding the proper treatment of all Gentiles. No wonder that the Romans charged the Jews with hatred of the human race.
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