ICC New Testament Commentary
After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death.CONSPIRACY AND ANOINTING
14:1-11. The Sanhedrim plan to arrest Jesus stealthily, and to put him to death. He is anointed by a woman at the house of Simon the leper. Judas conspires with the Sanhedrim to deliver him up to them.
Jesus spends the last two days in Bethany. During his absence, the authorities consult about the ways and means of putting him to death, and decide to postpone it till after the feast, when the people, whom they know to be friendly to Jesus, will have left Jerusalem. At some time during these two days, Jesus is entertained at the house of Simon the leper, and during the supper, a woman (John says, Mary, the sister of Lazarus) anoints him with a costly ointment, worth upwards of three hundred denaries (shillings nominally, really more nearly dollars). Some of those present (Mt. says, disciples) were indignant at this waste. But Jesus justifies her act as befitting the time when he is about to be taken away, and when the act therefore acquires the unconscious significance of an anointing for his burial. And he prophesies that the beauty of the act will keep it alive in the memories of men wherever the glad tidings is proclaimed. Apparently from this very feast, Judas goes to the authorities, and conspires to deliver him up to them, causing another change in their plans, so that the intended delay till the close of the feast is given up.
1. τὸ πάσχα καὶ τὰ ἄζυμα—Both of these words are used originally to denote the things entering into the feast of the Passover, the sacrifice of the paschal lamb and the eating of unleavened bread, and then they came to be used, one or the other, to denote the feast itself. The unusual thing here is the use of the two terms to denote with fulness the character of the feast by the mention of both its characteristic marks.
This is the first mention of the Passover in connection with these events. Probably, it is introduced to explain the conclusion of the authorities to postpone the execution of their plot till after the feast, as it was only two days to the beginning of it (v. 2). οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς—the chief priests and the scribes. A designation of the Sanhedrim by the two principal classes composing it. ἐν δόλῷ—by cunning; not openly.
2. ἔλεγον γὰρ—for they said, etc. This is intended to prove the preceding statement that they plotted to take him by cunning, not openly. The determination not to take him during the Passover, with the almost necessary publicity which would attend that, shows the secrecy which made a part of their plan. Μὴ ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ—Not during the feast. The reason for this is given in what follows. They feared an uprising of the people, whom they knew to be favorable to Jesus, especially the Galilean pilgrims, and so they postponed their attempt till after the feast, when the multitudes attending the feast would be gone, and they could accomplish their purpose quietly. This part of their plan they gave up afterwards, owing to the opportunity which Judas put in their way. μήποτε ἔσται θόρυβος1—lest perchance there shall be an uproar2 of the people.
γὰρ, instead of δὲ, after ἔλεγον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, mss. Latt. Memph. Harcl. marg.
3. Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ—The circumstances differ too much to permit the identification of this anointing with that at the house of Simon the Pharisee in Luke 7:36-50. The points of likeness are simply the anointing and the name of the host. But in Lk.’s account the salient features are, that the woman was a sinner, that Simon was lacking in ordinary courtesy to his guest, and Jesus’ answer to the charge of permitting such attentions from a woman of this character. Here, the extravagance of the act is the thing complained of. On the other hand, there is every indication that the event is the same as that in J. 12:1-8. The only difference is, that the Synoptists (Mt. and Mk.) give the name of the host, which is omitted in J., and J., on the other hand, gives the name of Mary, and connects her with Lazarus and Martha. But in case of the identity of these accounts, there is a difference of four days in the time, J. putting it six days before the Passover, and the Synoptists two days. This Simon the leper is not mentioned elsewhere. Evidently, his leprosy had been healed, and so he may have been one of those healed by Jesus. γυνὴ—J. says that this was Mary, the sister of Lazarus. ἀλάβαστρον1 μύρου νάρδου πιστικῆς πολυτελοῦς—an alabaster box of costly ointment of pure nard, or spikenard. This word πιστικῆς has caused much dispute. Our English version, spikenard, comes from the Vulg., nardi spicati, and that is probably a modification of the Old Latin, nardi pistici, which is merely a transliteration of a term which puzzled the translators. Fritzche and others translate it potable, deriving it either from πίνω or πιπίσκω. But while this etymology is defensible, the word does not occur in that sense. But the word is used in the sense of persuasive, or in the latter language, trustworthy, which as applied to things, would come to mean genuine. This is, on the whole, the accepted opinion now, being supported by Grimm, Robinson, Meyer, DeWette, Morison, and others. There was a pseudo-nard, with which the genuine nard was often adulterated. τῆς κεφαλῆς—the head. J. says, the feet, following in this particular the account of the anointing at the house of Simon the Pharisee, Luke 7:38, Luke 7:46. It is not unlikely, though the two events are distinct, that the accounts have become a little mixed. συντρίψασα τὴν (τὸν) ἀλάβαστρον κατέχεεν αὐτοῦ τῆς κεφαλῆς—having broken the alabaster box, she poured it upon his head.
Omit καὶ before συντρίψασα, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BL Memph. τὸν before ἀλάβαστρον, Tisch. א* ADEFHKSUVWb X ΓΠ. τὴν, Treg. WH. אc BCL Δ. Omit κατὰ2 before τῆς κεφαλῆς, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL Δ 1, 28, 435.
4. ἦσαν δὲ τινες ἀγανακτοῦντες πρὸς ἑαυτούς, Εἰς τί ἡ ἀπώλεια αὕτη—And there were some indignant to themselves.—“Why this destruction,” etc.? πρὸς ἑαυτούς means probably that they kept their indignation to themselves, though it may mean among themselves, denoting an indignation which they expressed to each other.1 The omission of καὶ λέγοντες, and saying, adds to the force of the statement, while detracting from its smoothness.
Omit καὶ λέγοντες, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. א BC* L, one ms. Lat. Vet.
Matthew 26:8 says that it was the disciples who expressed this indignation. J. says it was Judas Iscariot, and attributes it to his peculating habits, which this interfered with. It is a part of J.’s evident attempt to belittle Judas. Obviously, the true account is given by Mt., who gives us the ugly form of the fact.
5. δηναρίων τριακοσίων—300 denaries, or shillings. Or, since the real value of the denarius at the time was a day’s wages, it would amount to more than as many dollars. This explains the indignation. The act was extravagant, certainly. Here and in v. 3, in the description of the ointment, J. betrays his dependence on the Synoptical source, by the same identity of language which shows the interdependence of the Synoptists. ἐνεβριμῶντο—were very angry.2 Both of the words used to express their feelings are very strong.
Insert τὸ μύρον, ointment, after τοῦτο, this, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. ABCKLU ΔΠ, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. Harcl. marg.
6. καλὸν ἔργον ἡργάσατο ἐν ἐμοί—it is a good work that she wrought on me. καλὸν ἔργον is emphatic, contrasted with their depreciation of what she had done. It is not estimated by our Lord according to a utilitarian standard, by which it would have little or no value. But he was at a crisis of his life when it was of the utmost value to him to know that he had won a place in a human heart. And for any one to be reckless or even extravagant, not calculating, in the expression of this was to him a good turn. It was the fragrance of a loving heart that was brought to him by the costly nard. Generally, Jesus would have men serve him in the persons of his poor. But such a vicarious transfer always involves reflection, and sometimes spontaneousness is worth more than reflection.
ἠργάσατο, instead of εἰργάσατο, Tisch. WH. א* B* D 69, 150. ἐν ἐμοί, instead of εἰς ἐμέ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. and almost all sources.
7. πάντοτε γὰρ τοὺς πτωχοὺς … ἐμὲ δὲ οὐ πάντοτε—for the poor you have always … but me not always.3 This was the reason, not why the woman anointed him, but why such anointing was a good work, which he therefore encouraged. The whole transaction, as appears also from the προέλαβε μυρίσαι that follows, is given a special meaning and value in the mind of Jesus by the approach of his death. If it had not been for that, if they could have had him always with them, as they had the poor, this would not have touched so tender a spot, would not have been so good a work on him. οὐ πάντοτε is a case of language gaining force from extenuated expression.
8. ὃ ἔσχεν ἐποίησε—She did what she could.1 προέλαβε μυρίσαι—She anticipated the anointing.2 This is an unintended meaning which the act gains from its place so near our Lord’s death. Unconsciously, she has rendered to him, while still living, the honors of burial. ἐνταφιασμόν3—preparation for burial. J. says, “Suffer her to keep it for the day of my preparation for burial,”4 a decided lowering of the meaning.
Omit αὕτη, this (woman), Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. א BL 1, 13, 28, 69, 209, 346, two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Harcl. ἔσχεν, instead of εἶχεν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. and most sources.
9. Ἀμὴν δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, Ὅπου ἐὰν κηρυχθῇ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον εἰς ὃλον τὸν κόσμον, καὶ ὅ ἐποίησεν αὕτη λαληθήσεται—And verily I say to you, Wherever the glad tidings is proclaimed in all the world, also what this woman did will be spoken. Not shall be spoken of, as if Jesus meant to procure this mention himself in some way; but will be spoken of, a thing that he foresees. He sees that the beauty of this act, unappreciated now by his disciples, is such that it will win its way to this universal mention. μνημόσυνον—a memorial.5 Holtzmann treats the use of εὐαγγέλιον in this verse as an instance of the meaning Gospel in the sense of an account of Jesus’ life. But the use of κηρυχθῇ is against this.
Insert δὲ after Ἀμὴν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDgr EGKLSVWb ΓΔΠ, one ms. Lat. Vet. ἐὰν, instead of ἂν, after ὅπου, Tisch. WH. א ABCLWb X ΓΔΠ. Omit τοῦτο, this, after εὐαγγέλιον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDL 13, 28, 69, mss. Lat. Vet.
10. Καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριώθ6 … ἀπῆλθε πρὸς τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς, ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδοῖ αὐτοῖς—And Judas Iscariot … went away to the chief priests, to deliver him up to them. εἷς τῶν δώδεκα—one of the twelve. This is simply a necessary part of the story, and this accounts sufficiently for its insertion, without supposing any rhetorical purpose in the writer. But its effect is tremendous.
It does not appear from Mk.’s account that there was any connection between this and the preceding event, as if Judas was led by it to what he did, though J. does tell us that Judas was specially aggrieved by the waste of the ointment. But the council of the Sanhedrim, the feast and the anointing, and the conspiracy of Judas, are simply put together as the events of this day. It has been assumed that we must find a logical connection of these events, and considerable ingenuity has been expended in accounting for the anointing on this ground. But the chronological connection explains everything. Notice that the chief priests become the leading actors in the proceedings against Jesus after his entry into Jerusalem, instead of the Scribes.
Omit ὁ before Ἰούδας, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCDELM ΓΔΠ. Omit ὁ before Ἰσκαριώθ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א* BC* D. Ἰσκαριώθ, instead of -ώτης, Tisch. WH. א BC* L mss. Lat. Vet. παραδοῖ, instead of παραδῷ, Tisch. Treg. WH. BD.
11. ἀργύριον—money. Mt. mentions the amount as τριάκοντα ἀργύρια, thirty shekels, or twenty dollars. For curious parallels to this price, see Exodus 21:32, Zechariah 11:12, cf. Matthew 27:9. εὐκαίρως—opportunely. Lk. states more exactly how he sought to deliver him up, viz. ἄτερ ὄχλου, in the absence of the multitude.
παραδοῖ is substituted for παραδῷ in this verse, on the same authority as in v. 10.
PREPARATION FOR THE PASSOVER
12-16. On the first day of the Passover feast, the disciples ask for instructions in regard to their preparations for the Passover meal. Jesus tells two of them to go to the city and to follow a man whom they will meet there carrying a jar of water. At the house which he enters, they will find the owner prepared to show them a large room ready for their purpose. And there they will prepare for the feast. They follow his directions, and find everything as he tells them.
12. τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν ἀζύμων—the first day of unleavened bread. Strictly speaking, the feast did not begin till six o’clock of the afternoon, i.e. not until the beginning of the next day, the fifteenth of the month.1 ὅτε τὸ πάσχα ἔθυον—when they sacrificed the paschal lamb.2 The killing of the paschal lamb was done by the priests at the temple, originally by the head of the family.3 θέλεις ἑτοιμάσωμεν—do you wish us to prepare?4 This celebration of the Passover among themselves, instead of with their families, shows how their association with Jesus had come to take the place of ordinary ties with the twelve.
13. δύο τῶν ἀποστόλων—Luke 22:8 names Peter and John as the two. κεράμιον—Etymologically, this word denotes any earthenware vessel, but in use, it is restricted to a jar or pitcher. It is a question, whether this sign of a man bearing a jar of water on his head had been prearranged between Jesus and the οἰκοδεσπότης, or whether this is an instance of Jesus’ supernatural knowledge of events. The manner of narration seems to imply that the evangelist meant us to understand the latter. There can be little doubt that the rest of the matter had been arranged with the host.
14. οἰκοδεσπότῃ—master of the house.1 Ποῦ ἐστι τὸ κατάλυμά2 μου …; Where is my dining room …?
Insert μου after κατάλυμα, Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 1, 13, 28, 69, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Harcl. marg.
15. καὶ αὐτὸς ὑμῖν δείξει ἀνάγαιον3 μέγα ἐστρώμενον ἕτοιμον· καὶ ἐκεὶ ἑτοιμάσατε ἡμῖν—and he will show you a large upper room furnished and ready; and there prepare for us.
ἐστρωμένον—spread or strewn. It is used of making up a bed or couch, and here of making up, or furnishing a room with couches. καὶ ἐκεῖ ἑτοιμάσατε—καὶ connects ἑτοιμάσατε with ὑπάγετε, ἀκολουθήσατε, and εἴπατε.
ἀνάγαιον, instead of ἀνώγεον, Tisch. Treg. WH. א AB* CDEFGHKLPV Π. Insert καὶ before ἐκεὶ, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BCDL 346, two mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.
Καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μαθηταί, καὶ ἦλθον—And the disciples went out, and came.
Omit αὐτοῦ, his, after μαθηταί, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. א BL Δ Egyptt.
AT THE PASSOVER, JESUS PREDICTS HIS BETRAYAL
17-21. As they were reclining at the Passover meal, Jesus announces that one of them, a disciple who eats with him, and is near enough to dip into the same dish with him, will deliver him up to the authorities. This is only fulfilling his destiny, but just the same it is woe to the man who betrays him. He had better never have been born.
18. παραδώσει—will deliver up, to the authorities. The word for betrayal is προδιδόναι. ὁ ἐσθίων μετ῾ ἐμοῦ—he who eateth with me. This is not a specification of the one of the twelve who was to do the deed, but of that which he does in common with the rest. It is this which has led to the reading τῶν ἐσθιόντων, WH. marg. This is shown first, by the act itself, as they all ate with him; and secondly, by the questions which follow, which show that the traitor is still unknown. The designation points out not the traitor, but the treachery of the Act_1
τῶν ἐσθιόντων, (one of you) who eat, instead of ὁ ἐσθίων, (one) who eats, WH. marg. B Egyptt.
19. Ἤρξαντο λυπεῖσθαι, καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ εἷς κατὰ εἷς,2 Μήτι ἐγώ;3—And they began to grieve, and to say to him, one by one, Is it I?
Omit Οἱ δὲ at beginning of verse, Tisch. Treg. WH. אBL Memph. κατὰ, instead of καθʼ, before εἷς, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BL Δ. Omit καὶ ἄλλος, Μήτι ἐγώ; and another, Is it I? Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. אBCLP Δ, two mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt. Syrr.
20. Ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Εἷς τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ ἐμβαπτόμενος μετʼ ἐμοῦ εἰς τὸ τρυβλίον4—And he said to them, One of the twelve, who dips with me in the dish. This comes nearer to pointing out the betrayer than the preceding ὁ ἐσθίων μετʼ ἐμοῦ, as this would be shared in only by those in his immediate vicinity. It adds to the sitting at table with him, nearness to him at the table. Mk. and Lk. do not relate that the traitor was more closely indicated than this. Mt., on the other hand, says that Judas was told himself that he was the betrayer. And in Mt., the ὁ ἐμβάψας … οὗτος is evidently intended to point him out to the rest, by indicating the one who dipped his hand into the dish with Jesus at a particular time. This difference between the two accounts is evidently intentional. Mk. does not mean to indicate the traitor, but only to emphasize the treachery of the act. Mt. means to relate the discovery of the betrayer. The individual handling of common material is evident. τρυβλίον is the dish containing the sauce of figs, dates, almonds, spice and vinegar, which is called in the Mishna חֲרוֹסֶתְ, charoseth.
Omit ἀποκριθείς, answering, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Pesh. Omit ἐκ before τῶν δώδεκα, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. א BCL 38, 60, 78, 127, Egyptt.
21. ὅτι ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑπάγει—because the Son of Man goes. This confirms the statement of the betrayal by that of his departure from this world, doubt of which would render the other doubtful. It is the general fact, the admission of which opens the way for belief in the betrayal.
Insert ὅτι, because, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. א BL Egyptt.
καθὼς γέγραπται περὶ αὐτοῦ—As it is written of him. Lk. says, κατὰ τὸ ὡρισμένον—according to the decree. The O.T. prophecy to this effect is Isa_53. The primary reference of the passage is to the suffering servant of Yahweh, who is defined in the prophecy itself to be the righteous Israel. But, as in the case of many of these prophecies, the principle involved makes it applicable to the fate of our Lord. This principle, that it is the fate of righteousness to suffer in this evil world, makes Jesus predict also the persecution of his followers as well as of himself. The O.T. prophets, himself, and his followers are involved in a like fate. οὐαὶ δὲ—but woe. This is not a malediction, in the sense of a wish or prayer that this vengeance may follow the traitor, but a solemn announcement of the Divine judgment. It differs in this respect from the comminatory Psalms.
ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑπάγει—ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται—οὐαὶ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐκείνῳ—εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη ὅ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος—The Son of Man goes—The Son of Man is delivered up—woe to that man—if that man had not been born. The repetition of the title ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου is emphatic, and serves to bring it into tragic conjunction with παραδίδοται. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος is repeated on the same principle, and with the same effect. Καλὸν αὐτῷ, εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη—well for him, if … had not been born. This puts the condition in the past, and the conclusion in the present. The expression is evidently rhetorical, rather than exact.
Omit ἦν, it would be, after καλὸν, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. BL, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
THE INSTITUTION OF THE LORD’S SUPPER
22-25. In the course of the Passover meal, Jesus takes a portion of the bread from the table, and gives it to the disciples after the ordinary blessing or giving of thanks, saying, This is my body. And the cup of wine he blessed in the same way, and gave it to them, saying, This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. This is the last time, he says, that he will drink with them, until they share with him the new wine of the kingdom.
22. Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν—And as they were eating. In the course of the meal, therefore. But none of the evangelists state the time more exactly. λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασε—he took bread, and having blessed he broke it. The object of εὐλογήσας may be God, in which case, it means, having praised, its ordinary sense; or it may be the bread, in which case, it means, having invoked a blessing on; a Biblical use. The former meaning is suggested by the use of εὐχαριστήσας in Luke 22:19, and 1 Corinthians 11:24. As a matter of fact, the invocations at meals among the Jews intermingled thanksgiving and blessing. λάβετε, τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου. Lk. adds τὸ ὐπὲρ ὐμῶν διδόμενον, which is given for you, and 1 Cor. the same without διδόμενον. Both add τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. As to the meaning of the words, this is my body, it is enough to say that any insistence on their literal meaning is entirely contrary to linguistic laws and usage. They may mean, this represents my body, just as well as, this is literally my body. Meyer refers for examples of this use of εἶναι to Luke 12:1—the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy; J. 10:7—I am the door of the sheep; 14:6—I am the way, the truth, and the life; Galatians 4:24—these (two sons of Abraham) are two covenants; Hebrews 10:20—the veil, that is his flesh. But it is useless to multiply instances of so common and evident a usage. And yet, the one that evidently disproves the literal meaning, not merely establishing the possibility of the symbolic use here, but making the literal meaning impossible, is right at hand. For in the account of the consecration of the cup, Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, it reads τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, This cup is the new covenant in my blood. No one would contend for the literalness of the language in this case, and yet it is perfectly evident that the copula is used in the same sense in both cases, giving the meaning of the bread in the one case, and of the cup in the other, but not saying that the bread is actually flesh, nor the cup a covenant. All this without taking into account our Lord’s manner of speech. We have some right to judge what any person says in a particular case by his habit of thought and speech. This warrants us in saying that the literal meaning is impossible to Jesus. It would pull down all that he had been at pains to set up throughout his ministry—a spiritual religion.
Omit ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. אaBD, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Omit φάγετε, eat, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCDKLM* PU Π, 1, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt.
23. καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον—And having taken a cup. εὐχαριστήσας—having given thanks. Like εὐλογήσας, v. 22, it denotes some form of thanksgiving for the good things of God.
Omit τὸ, the, before ποτήριον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. אBCDLWb X Δ 1, 11, 13, 28.
24. Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης—this is my blood of the covenant. διαθήκη in classical Greek means a will, or testament. But in the N.T., the only examples of this use are in Hebrews 9:16, Hebrews 9:17, where by a play upon the double meaning of the word, the writer justifies his statement that a covenant (διαθήκη) is ratified by blood by showing that a testament (διαθήκη) comes into force only with the death of the testator. Everywhere else it has the purely Biblical and ecclesiastical meaning, a covenant. These words, the blood of the covenant, are borrowed from the institution of the Law, regarded as a covenant between God and the Jews (Exodus 24:8, Leviticus 17:11). Moses sprinkled the people with the blood of sacrifice, as a seal of the covenant between God and them in the giving of the Law. And now, the new covenant, see Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, in which the law is written in the heart, Jeremiah 31:31-35, is established, and that is sealed with the blood of him who died to bring it about. It is through his blood that the law of God is written inwardly in the heart, and so it becomes the blood of the new covenant. τὸ ἐκχυνόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶν—which is poured out for many. This fixes the sacrificial meaning of the flesh and blood. The pouring out of the blood signifies a violent death, and ὑπὲρ πολλοῶν denotes that this death was suffered in behalf of others. ὑπὲρ may be used to express the vicarious idea, instead of, but it does not necessitate it, as ἀντί does. Christ leaves this whole question of the exact part played by his death quite open. He does not anticipate any of the later lines of N.T. treatment of this subject. But one more element needs to be considered in estimating the meaning of the Eucharist, as it came from the hands of our Lord. The bread and wine were to be eaten and drunk. The meaning is thus a partaking of the Lord, the feeding of our spirit with the crucified Jesus. That is to say, it is Jesus our life, rather than the externally atoning aspect of his death, that is imparted to us in the sacrament (cf. J. 6).
Jesus’ use of the language of sacrifice in connection with his death does not indicate that he means to give to that death the current idea of sacrifice, but that he means to illumine the idea of sacrifice by his own death. As if he had said, “Here is the true meaning of sacrifice.” The Gospels do not give us any command for the repetition of the supper, nor for its continuance as a church institution. That is implied in 1 Corinthians 11:25.
Omit τὸ before τῆς (καινῆς) διαθήκης, Tisch. WH. RV. א BCD2 ELVWb X 11, 157. Omit καινῆς, new, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.ed. Theb. ὑπὲρ, instead of περὶ, before πολλῶν, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL Δ 13, 69, 124.
25. γενήματος τοῦ ἀμπέλου—fruit of the vine.
γενήματος, instead of γεννήματος, Tisch. Treg. WH. א ABCEFHLMSU VWb X ΔΠ. The form γένημα is rare, not occurring outside of Biblical Greek, and γεννήματος becomes thus an obvious correction.
ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείης ὅταν etc.—until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God. Luke 22:15-18 makes Jesus say this in general of the Passover meal at the beginning, before the institution of the sacrament. καινόν is not the word for new wine, for which νέον is used, but καινόν denotes a new kind of wine. In the making of all things new, the ἀνακαίνωσις, there is to be a new festal meeting and association of Christ and his disciples, a realization of these earthly feasts and symposia, which are brought to an end in this last supper. There is thus a note of sadness, a word of breaking up, closing these human associations, but a more solemn note of gladness, looking forward to the new spiritual associations and joys of the Messianic kingdom.
JESUS PREDICTS THE SCATTERING OF THE DISCIPLES, AND THE DENIAL OF HIM BY PETER
26-31. After singing the Hallel, they go out to the Mount of Olives. On the way, Jesus warns the disciples that they will all fall away from him that night. He quotes a passage from Zechariah, showing that scattering of the sheep follows the smiting of the shepherd. After his resurrection, he will go before them into Galilee. Peter protests that he at least will not prove unfaithful, whereupon Jesus predicts that before the second crowing of the cock, he will deny him thrice. Peter again protests vehemently that he will sooner die with him, than deny him, and the rest of the disciples join him.
26. ὑμνήσαντες—The hymn sung by the Jews at the Passover supper was the Great Hallel, consisting of Ps. 113-118, 136. It was the second part of this, 115-118, according to the school of Shammai 114-118, which they sang at this time, after the Passover meal. τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαίων—the name of the hill covered with olives, lying east of Jerusalem, and about half a mile from the city.
27. Ὅτι πάντες σκανδαλίσεσθ·1 ὅτι γέγραπται, Πατάξω τὸν ποιμένα, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα διασκορπισθήσονται—All of you will fall away. For it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered. The quotation is from Zec_13. In the original, it reads, smite the shepherd. But since it is Jehovah who invokes the sword against the shepherd in the original, this πατάξω renders the sense of the passage. The whole passage in the original is involved in obscurity, but there is the same indication as in all the O.T. prophecies of the application to an immediate, and not a remote future; cf. v. 8. The application to this event in the life of Jesus is because the relation between shepherd and sheep leads to the same result in both cases. Probably the shepherd in Zech. is the king, and the sheep are the people.
Omit ἐν ἐμοὶ, because of me, after σκανδαλίσεσθε, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BC* DHLSVWb X ΓΔΠ2, two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.edd. Omit ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ταύτῃ, this night, about the same. διασκορπισθήσονται, instead of-σεται, Tisch. Treg. WH. א ABCDFGKLN Δ.
28. ἐγερθῆναι—this is the common word for the resurrection, but it acquires here a special meaning from the preceding πατάξω, denoting his rising from the earth to which he has been smitten. προάξω—this word also gets its special sense here from the figure of the sheep and shepherd. He will go before them, as a shepherd leads his flock, i.e. he will resume toward them his office of shepherd, and go before them to the familiar scenes of his earthly ministry. See J. 10:4. The fact that there is no appearance to the disciples in Galilee in Mark 16:9-20, in connection with this prediction, is one of the conclusive proofs that that passage is from another hand.
29. Εἰ καὶ πάντες σκανδαλισθήσονται, ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐγώ—Even if all fall away, yet not I. Strictly speaking, εἰ και does not strengthen the statement as much as καὶ εἰ. But the difference is too minute for a style like that of the N.T. Greek.1
Εἰ καί, instead of καὶ εἰ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCGL 1, 13, 69.
30. ὅτι σὺ σήμερον ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ, πρὶν ἢ δὶς ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι, τρίς με ἀπαρνήοῃ—that you to-day, this night, before the cock crows twice, will thrice deny me. Peter in his boast emphasizes the πάντες. Jesus in his rebuke emphasizes the σύ—you who feel so confident. Peter had singled himself out as the one to be faithful in the midst of general defection. Jesus singles him out as the one out of them all to deny him. σήμερον ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ—to-day, this night, the very day in which you have shown such self-confidence. δὶς ἀλὲκτορα φωνῆσαι—This is the only gospel in which this δίς occurs, both in the prediction of Jesus, and in the account of the denials. Those two fatal cock-crowings had stuck in Peter’s memory, and so find their way into the Gospel which gets its inspiration from him. φωνῆσαι—this is a general word for sounds of all kinds. But the instances are rare in profane authors of its use for animal cries. ἀπαρνήοῃ—thou wilt deny. As applied to persons, it means denial of acquaintance or connection with them.
Insert σὺ before σήμερον, Tisch. Treg. WH. ABEFGHKLMNSUVWb X ΓΠ, two mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt. Syrr. ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ, instead of ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ταύτῃ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, mss. Lat. Vet.
31. ὁ δὲ ἐκπερισσῶς ἐλάλει—But he spoke with utter vehemence. περισσῶς by itself means inordinately, and is used of anything that exceeds bounds. ἐκ adds to it the sense completely, utterly.1
ἐκπερισσῶς, instead of ἐκ περισσοῦ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCD 56, 58, 61. ἐλάλει, instead of ἔλεγε, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDL, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Omit μάλλον, more, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt. Harcl.
ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ πάντες ἔλεγον—and so said also all. Peter, according to this, did not occupy a singular position, but simply took his place of leader and spokesman, speaking out what was in the minds of all, to which they all assented.
THE AGONY IN GETHSEMANE
32-42. Jesus comes with his disciples to Gethsemane, an olive orchard on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. Here he leaves the rest of them, and retires with Peter, James, and John, to pray. Beginning to be oppressed with the approaching trial, he bids them watch, and retires still further, where he prays that his impending fate may be averted, submitting himself, however, to the Divine will. Returning to the three disciples, he finds them asleep, and again bids them watch, adding as a reason this time that they themselves need to pray that they may be delivered from temptation. A second time, he prays, and returns to find them sleeping. The third time, finding them still asleep, he bids them at first sleep on; and then announces the approach of the betrayer.
32. χωρίον—a diminutive from χώρα, denoting a small enclosure, a field. Γεθσημανεί—Greek form of a Hebrew name, meaning oil-press. It indicates that the place was an olive orchard, with an oil-press as one of the appurtenances, like a sugar house in a maple grove. J. 18:1 locates it on the farther side of the brook Kedron. καθίσατε ὥδε—sit here. The scene was one of those sacred things in a man’s life, in which his best instincts bid him be alone. The other cases in our Lord’s life of which we are told were the temptation, the raising of the daughter of Jairus, and the transfiguration. Peter, James, and John were taken nearer to the scenes of his soul’s wrestling with impending fate, but even they were to remain outside, and watch.
Γεθσημανεί, instead of Γεθσημανή, Tisch. WH. (Treg. -νεῖ) א ABCDEFGHLMNSV Theb.
33. Καὶ παραλαμβάνει τὸν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην μετʼ αὐτοῦ—And he takes with him Peter, and James, and John.
Omit τὸν before Ἰάκωβον, Tisch. Treg. WH. marg. א CDEFGHMNSUVWbX ΓΔΠ2. μετʼ αὐτοῦ, instead of μεθʼ ὲαυτοῦ, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BCD 57, 69, 346.
34. ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι καὶ ἀδημονεῖν—to be utterly amazed and troubled. One derivation makes ἀδημονεῖν from ἄδημος, homesick, and the other from ἀδεῖν, to be sated. Either derivation makes it very expressive. The strong statement of his amazement opens before us a curious problem. His fate, as he comes to face it, is not only troubling, but amazing. His rejection by men, their fierce hatred of him, his isolation of spirit, even among his own—all these things coming to the Son of Man, the lover of his kind, whose whole life was wrought by love into the fibre and tissue of the common human life, and was individual in no sense—amazed him utterly. περίλυπος—encompassed by grief. ἕως θανάτου—unto death. My sorrow is killing me, is the thought; it is crushing the life out of me. καὶ γρηγορεῖτε—and watch. It is possible to take these words in a merely external sense. He knew that his enemies were at hand, and he might want some one to be on the watch for them. But it seems more probable that, as Mt. puts it (26:38), he wanted them to watch with him, to share his vigil, not against human foes, but against the flood of woes overwhelming his soul. If possible, he would have companionship in his extreme hour. See also v. 38.
35. ἡ ὥρα—the hour; the time used for the event with which it was big. There is a theologizing attempt to minimize it, as if it referred not to the sacrificial death, which our Lord had no desire to escape, but to the unnecessary incidents of it, from the denial by Peter, and the betrayal by Judas, to the crucifixion itself, as if these were not the very things that made his death sacrificial. It was the bitterness put into death by human sin that gave it its significance as a sin-offering. εἰ δυνατόν ἐστι—if it is possible. This possibility is limited only by the accomplishment of his work. If it is possible for him to do his work of redemption without that sacrificial death, he would escape that tragic fate. But it is not the bitterness of death itself nor even the agonies of crucifixion, that he would escape, but the bitterness poured into it by the sin of men, which makes his cross to be the place where all the horror of sin gathered itself together to strike him down, and made his torn and bleeding heart to become then and there the sin-bearer for the race.
ἔπιπτεν, instead of ἔπεσεν, Tisch. Treg. marg. WH. RV. א BL Memph. edd.
36. Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ. This combination of the Greek and Hebrew words would not of course appear in the speech of our Lord, who used only the Hebrew. Neither is the ὁ πατήρ explanatory of the Ἀββᾶ, as the Evangelists employ for this the formulas, ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, or simply ὅ ἐστι, Matthew 1:23, Matthew 27:33, Mark 3:17, Mark 3:5:41, Mark 3:15:16, Mark 3:34. But this is a combination of the two, belonging to the later usage, and put here by the evangelist into the mouth of Jesus. πάντα δυνατά σοι—all things are possible to thee. Here the condition, if it is possible, is changed into the statement, all things are possible to thee, and so, as for the matter of possibility, the prayer is left unconditioned, remove this cup from me. But the condition is made now the will of God. This is Jesus’ wish and prayer, to have the cup removed. But, after all, he knows that not his will, but that of the Father, will be carried out, and with that he is content.
37. καὶ ἕρχεται—and he comes. Jesus is not concerned about himself alone in this critical hour, but about his disciples as well. And so he interrupts even this agony of prayer, in order to see after their watchfulness. This is the one attitude of mind necessary in them from this time on,—see his prophetic discourse, ch. 13,—and now, in the crisis of his fate and theirs, he is anxious to impress the lesson on them. He has just predicted that they will desert him, and that Simon will deny him this very night. But this prediction, like all prediction, is intended to avert whatever evil it foretells. If it could only become a warning to them, they would be aroused past all danger of sleeping, and might have watched past all danger of desertion and denial.
38. γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεῦχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ ἔλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν1—watch and pray, that you come not into temptation. In v. 34, he has enjoined watching on them in connection with his own awful sorrow. Now, without emphasizing the change, he enjoins it as necessary for themselves. And so now he adds prayer, and makes the object of both to be, that they enter not into temptation. The temptation is located not in external conditions, which constitute only a trial or test, but in the internal conditions, the evil desires of the heart, the weakness of the flesh. The outward attack on their steadfastness was right on them, and was not to be averted. They were to pray that this might not be an occasion of inward weakness, which would lead them into sin. Τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής—The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. The πνεῦμα and the σάρξ are not contrasted elsewhere in this Gospel, nor in the teachings of Jesus. They denote the two extremes of human nature, πνεῦμα being the highest word used to describe the spiritual part of man, and hence, where distinctions are made within the soul itself, being the word used to denote the higher part; and σάρξ being used to denote the animal nature with its passions, and hence everything that belongs to the lower nature, everything that is debased and weak, whether proceeding from the flesh or not. The two terms cover much the same ground in this popular use as our terms higher and lower nature. Jesus is not pleading this as an excuse for his disciples’ sleepfulness, but as a reason why they should watch and pray. The spirit is πρόθυμον, eager, ready, to stand by me, even to death, as you have just shown in your protestations; but the flesh is weak, the lower nature fears death and danger, and that exposes you to temptation.
ἔλθητε, instead of εἰσέλθητε, enter, Tisch. WH. א* B 346, one ms. Lat. Vet.
39. τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον—the same word. λόγον is used here collectively of the language used by Jesus in his prayer. Mt. changes the prayer here, making it one of submission. Father, if it is not possible that this cup pass from me, except I drink it, thy will be done.
40. καὶ πάλιν ἐλθὼν εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας· ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καταβαρυνόμενοι1—and again, having come, he found them sleeping; for their eyes were (being) weighed down. The present part. καταβαρυνόμενοι denotes the process, not the completed state. καὶ οὐκ ᾔδεισαν—this belongs with the principal clause, not with the subordinate introduced by γάρ. He found them sleeping; for their eyes were heavy; and they knew not what to reply to him. So in the AV. and the RV., though the Greek is pointed the other way. Both their shame and their drowsiness would make them dumb.
καταβαρυνόμενοι, instead of βεβαρημένοι, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. אc ABKLNU ΔΠ 1, 11, 13, 69, 106.
41. καθεύδετε τὸ λοιπὸν κ. ἀναπαύεσθε—sleep on now, and rest. This is a free, but not at all a bad translation. On expresses very well the meaning of the pres. imp., which does not command the beginning of an action, but the continuance of an action already begun. τὸ λοιπὸν means the rest of the time, and is contrasted with the preceding time, when he has bidden them keep awake. Now is thus not a bad translation of it. As for the feeling with which Jesus would say this, it is impossible to keep out of it a certain kind of sad bitterness. ἀπέχει—it is enough.1 This meaning is found in only one, possibly two other passages. But the other meaning, to be distant, is always used with some measure of distance. Morison supposes that the English version dates from the Vulgate, and that most everybody who has adopted it, has taken it from the Latin without much thought. But where did the Vulg. get it, and how does it happen that a mere hit, like that, should be justified by two recondite passages? It is shown to be a meaning of the word, it fits here, and it does not have against it the objection that Morison’s own translation has. This apparently abrupt disturbance of their sleep after he had just told them to sleep, would imply that there was some time between it and that permission. ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα—literally, the hour came. The hour is that of the delivering up of the Son of Man, the announcement of which immediately follows. παραδίδοται—is delivered up.2 The word for betrayal, προδιδόναι, is not used anywhere in connection with this event. τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν—the sinners. The article denotes the class, not individuals of the class. The signal thing about the career of Jesus had been his non-assumption of the power associated with his position, while yet he claimed to be the Messianic king; not simply a king, but the ideal king. And it seemed to be a sufficient answer to his claims to be a king, that he was not a king. But so far, he had at least kept out of the hands of his enemies, owing to their fear of the people and of Jesus’ influence over them. Now, the crisis of his fate had come; the hour had struck; and the Son of Man, personating as he does in the prophecy, the kingdom of the saints of the Most High, an everlasting kingdom, and an endless dominion, is actually to be delivered up into the hands of the opposing party, the sinners. To our ears, it has a familiar sound, and we are accustomed to the whole train of ideas associated with it. But to the disciples, it must have sounded like the stroke of doom. And Jesus does not even try to escape it; he goes forth to meet his fate.
CAPTURE OF JESUS BY AN IRREGULAR FORCE SENT OUT BY THE SANHEDRIM, PILOTED BY JUDAS ISCARIOT
43-52. The party that captured Jesus is represented as a crowd from the Sanhedrim armed with swords and clubs. Judas had given them a sign by which they would recognize Jesus, arranging that the one to whom he gave the kiss of salutation they were to take and hold fast. This meant simply that the one whom he saluted as master was the leader whom they were sent out to capture, and this programme was carried out. One of the disciples (John says, Peter), not yet convinced that all was lost, and carrying out his purpose to die with his lord, if necessary, drew his sword, and with a random blow cut off the ear of the high priest’s servant. But Jesus says to his captors, Why do you use force against me, as if I were a highwayman? Why did you not take me quietly when I was teaching every day in the temple? But this treatment of me as a malefactor is only a fulfilment of the fate marked out for me by the Scriptures. At this, the disciples, seeing that Jesus does not mean to defend himself, and in that the destruction of all their hopes, forsook him and fled. One, however, a young man, who had been roused from his bed by the tumult, and had thrown a sheet about him, was taken by them, and escaped only by leaving the sheet in their hands.
43. καὶ εὐθύς, ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, παραγίνεται Ἰούδας (ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης), εἶς τῶν δώδεκα, καὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ὂχλος μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων, παρὰ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ (τῶν) πρεσβυτέρων—And immediately, while he was still speaking, there comes a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, and the scribes, and (the) elders.
Insert ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης after Ἰούδας, Tisch. (Treg.) אADKMUWb Π Latt. Syrr. Omit ὦν, being, after εἶς, one, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCDKLN SUWb Π Latt. Egyptt. Pesh. Omit πολὺς, great, after ὄχλος, crowd, Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BL 13, 69, mss. of Latt. Egyptt. Pesh. Omit τῶν, the, before πρεσβυτέρων, elders, Tisch. א* AU 1, 69, 115, 131, 251, 282, 346, Orig.
εἷς τῶν δώδεκα—one of the twelve. This is repeated from v. 10, to keep this tragic element of the situation before us. ἂχλος—a crowd. The apprehending force is shown by this word ὂχλος to have been of the nature of a mob, an irregular and unorganized force. J. 18:3, on the contrary, says that it was the σπεῖρα, the Roman cohort, or a detachment representing it, under the command of the chiliarch, its commanding officer, together with the official attendants of the Sanhedrim. ἀρχιερέων … γραμματέων … πρεσβυτέρων—chief priests, scribes, elders. This is the complete designation of the Sanhedrim by the classes composing it.
44. σύνσημον1—a sign between them, a concerted signal. The need of this does not appear, as Jesus was a well-known figure. But in the darkness and confusion, there was the possibility of escape, and there was an evident desire to make everything sure. ὅν ἂν φιλήσω—This sign given by Judas had nothing unusual about it, but was the ordinary form of salute. κρατήσατε αὐτὸν κ. ἀπάγετε ἀσφαλῶς—These directions were given by Judas to the crowd of which he had constituted himself the leader. ἀσφαλῶς—securely, giving no chance for escape. Judas, having once entered into this affair, did not want a fiasco made of it. The motives of Judas in this extraordinary treachery are difficult to understand. In judging of them, we have to remember that he was one of the twelve chosen by Jesus to be his most intimate companions, and we must not undervalue that choice by ascribing to Judas motives of such utter and irredeemable vileness as would make him an impossible companion for any decent person. It may be that he had for his purpose in this extraordinary move to force Jesus to assume the offensive against his enemies. This is, at least, vastly more probable than the mercenary motive hinted at in the Fourth Gospel. But, whatever his motive, whether he actually turned against Jesus, or only seemed to, in order to compel him to assume his power, he would want to make sure that his plan succeeded.
ἀπάγετε, instead of ἀπαγάγετε, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BDL 28, 40, 69.
45. ἐλθὼν…προσελθὼν—having come, he came up to. The first of these participles denotes an act precedent to that of the principal verb and the other participle taken together.2 κατεφίλησεν—he kissed. The prep. denotes a certain profuseness in the Act_3
46. Οἱ δὲ ἐπέβαλαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ—And they laid their hands on him.
ἐπέβαλαν, instead of -λον, Tisch. WH. א B. τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ, instead of ἐπʼ αὐτὸν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν, Tisch. Treg. WH. אc BDL 1, 11, 13, 69, 118, 346, mss. Lat. Vet.
47. Εἶς δὲ. It is probable that the numeral is used here, as it is commonly, to call attention to the number, not like the indefinite τις. The probability of this is increased if τις is retained in the text. Only one of the disciples resorted to this extreme action, involving, as it did, a certain courage, and also blindness. There was in it also an element of tentativeness, an initiative, in which all the prejudices of the disciples pointed to success, but in which the words of the Master must have raised bewilderment and doubt. Luke 22:49 says that the disciples generally asked if they should strike with the sword, and that one of them, without waiting for an answer, sought to precipitate matters by taking the offensive. J. 18:10 gives the name, Simon Peter, and the incident is entirely characteristic. He also names the servant, Malchus. Luke 22:51 adds the interesting fact, that Jesus healed the man.
Omit τις, a certain, after εἶς, one, Treg. (WH.) א ALM, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Harcl. ὠτάριον, instead of ὠτίον, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BD 1, Harcl. marg.
48. λῃστὴν—a highwayman. The word for thief is κλέπτης. Force would be unnecessary in capturing a mere thief. Jesus mildly resents the idea of lawlessness, implied in sending out an armed force to capture him. He is no highwayman, prepared to resist the law that he has violated.
ἐξήλθατε, instead of ἐξήλθετε, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BD 1, Harcl. marg.
49. καθʼ ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων—I was daily with you in the temple teaching. This protests against the secrecy which they have used in his arrest. There is in it again, the idea that they have a dangerous character to deal with. He had not sought to hide himself, nor to cover up his teachings. He had mingled with them daily, and taught in the temple. He implies that there must be some secret reason, involving the weakness of their cause, not of his, for their proceeding against him with both force and secrecy. ἀλλʼ ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί—The Scriptures that would be fulfilled in this instance were those that presaged his treatment as a malefactor, e.g. Isaiah 53:6-9, Isaiah 53:12. Our Lord must have entered very deeply into the inner meaning and heart of the Scriptures, to find them presaging his fate; just as the Scriptures themselves nowhere vindicate their inspired quality as in that presentiment.
50. καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον πάντες—They had stood by him until his words and acts made it evident that Jesus was committed to a policy of non-resistance. After that, to stay was simply to involve themselves in his fate, and for that, not courage, but faith was lacking. This is the explanation of their conduct during this crisis; their faith had suffered an eclipse. To the rest of the Jews, his non-resistance and the failure of heaven to interfere in his behalf were conclusive proof of the falseness of his Messianic claim. To the disciples, whose simpler and less sophisticated mind was deeply impressed with the varied proof of greatness afforded in their intimate association with him, but who had the same Jewish ideas of the Messiah, these untoward events were an occasion of profound doubt and perplexity, but not of actual unbelief. But doubt removes courage; the disciples fled because their faith wavered.
51. νεανίσκος τις συνηκολούθει—a certain young man accompanied him. This is a singular episode in the tragedy of our Lord’s betrayal, and it is still more singular that it should have found its way into the account, forming, as it does, a picturesque incident, but not an essential of the event. The linen cloth was a sheet which he had thrown around him, when he got out of his bed, probably aroused by the stir which the crowd made when it passed by his house. Evidently he was a disciple, but his hasty dress shows that he was not one of the twelve. The failure to mention his name does not show that it was unknown to Mk.; see v. 47. Rather, this, together with the mention of an event otherwise so trivial, might easily point to Mk. himself as the person.
νεανίσκος τις, instead of εἶς τις νεανίσκος, Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt. Pesh. συνηκολούθει, accompanied, instead of ἠκολοῦθει, followed, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL.
52. καὶ κρατοῦσιν αὐτόν· ὁ δὲ καταλιπὼν τὴν σινδόνα γυμνὸς ἔφυγεν—and they seize him; but he, having left the linen cloth, fled naked.
Omit οἱ νεανίσκοι, the young men, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BC*DLΔ, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh. Omit ἀπʼ αὐτῶν, from them, Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BCL, two mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt. Pesh.
JESUS BEFORE THE SANHEDRIM
53-65. Jesus is carried before the Sanhedrim, who examine him in regard to his standing before Jewish law. This is necessary in order to vindicate their procedure as a national tribunal. But in this examination, they proceed as a prosecuting body, seeking testimony by which they may put him to death, instead of sitting as judges on the question of his guilt. They found, however, only false witness, and that not self-consistent, to the effect that he had threatened to destroy the temple built with hands, and to build another in three days, without hands. The first part of this was the only one containing any offensive matter, and that was false. The high priest then questioned Jesus in regard to this testimony, and Jesus by his silence implied that there was nothing to answer. Then the high priest asks him directly if he is the Messiah, which is the real question at issue. Jesus sees in this a question which he has no desire to evade, the matter about which he wants no mistake nor doubt, especially before the highest tribunal, and he answers, I am. He prophesies also that they will see the Son of Man occupying the position of Divine vicegerent, and exercising his authority here on earth. This is taken as convicting him of blasphemy out of his own mouth, and he is condemned guilty of this capital crime. Then they begin to abuse him, spitting on him, and casting ridicule on his prophetic claims by vailing his face, and then after buffeting him, saying, Prophesy, who struck you. Meantime, while this sorry business is going on, Peter, not wishing to identify himself with his Master, and yet unwilling to remain ignorant of his fate, seats himself in the court with the under-officers of the Sanhedrim.
53. τὸν ἀρχιερέα—the high priest, who was ex-officio the president of the Sanhedrim. Mt. gives us the name of the high priest, viz. Caiaphas.1 J. tells us of a preliminary examination before Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas, for which the Synoptics leave no room, and with which it is difficult to keep the consistency of John’s account.2 οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς κ. οἱ πρεσβύτεροι κ. οἱ γραμματεῖς—These were the three classes composing the Sanhedrim. This trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrim as the judicial body of the nation, was to ascertain his guilt under the law of the land. Probably, that would not be enough to procure his condemnation before the Roman procurator, who would not be likely to put him to death except for some offence against the imperial government. But they knew that they would not be justified before the nation for procuring his death, unless they could find him guilty of some capital sin against the Jewish law. This meeting of the Sanhedrim must have been arranged in expectation of Jesus’ arrest.
Omit αὐτῷ, to him, after συνέρχονται, gather, Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WH. א DLΔ 13, 64, 69, 124, 346, Latt. Memph.
54. ἀπὸ μακρόθεν3 ἕως ἔσω, εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν—literally, as far as inside, into the court. It seems better here to retain the proper meaning of αὐλὴν, viz. the open space, enclosed by the walls of the palace, the court, though it probably has the meaning palace in some places.4 ὑπηρετῶν—the attendants, or officials of the Sanhedrim, like the Roman lictors, or our sergeants-at-arms, or doorkeepers. πρὸς τὸ φῶς—at the light of the fire. R V. Possibly the light, instead of the fire itself, is named, because it calls attention to the fact that Peter was in sight, not hid away in the darkness.
55. ἐζήτουν μαρτυρίαν … εἰς τὸ θανατῶσαι—sought witness … to put him to death. They did not act as judges, but having formed the purpose to put him to death, they sought witness against him. Nominally, they were judges; really, they were prosecutors.1
56. πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν—for many bore false witness. This confirms the statement that they found no witness to put him to death. Such testimony, i.e. as would answer their purpose, since, though many bore false witness, their testimony did not agree.
58. Ἐγὼ καταλύσω τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον, etc.—I will destroy this temple made with hands, and after three days I will build another without hands. The nearest approach to this is found in J. 2:19, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it.” This omits the only damaging part of the testimony, the “I will destroy this temple.” ἀχειροποίητον2—not made with hands.
WH. marg. has the singular reading ἀναστήσω, I will raise another not made with hands. It is found in D and four mss. Lat. Vet.
59. καὶ οὐδὲ οὕτως—and not even so, implying that this was the nearest approach to definite and consistent testimony that they found, but that even in this, the testimony of different witnesses disagreed in essential particulars. Mk. calls it ψευδομαρτυρία, but evidently in the sense that it misrepresented a saying of Jesus, not that there was no such saying. According to Mt., there were two witnesses who testified to this.
60. Failing to find testimony, the high priest proceeds to question Jesus, as if the testimony itself had been of such a nature as to require an answer from him. The silence of Jesus is due to this fact. It is as much as to say, “There is nothing to answer.”
Omit τὸ before μέσον, midst, Tisch. Treg. WH. and about everything, except DM Memph. οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν, instead of οὐδὲν ἀπεκρίνατο, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCL 33, Egyptt.
The high priest then puts a leading question, seeking to make Jesus criminate himself. And the question is put in the form expecting assent, Thou art, art thou? ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ εὐλογητοὺ—the Son of the blessed. This addition to the simple ὁ Χριστός, the Messiah, is intended to bring out the solemnity of the claim, and thus the blasphemy that would be involved in the false claim. It was not something added to the claim of Messiahship by Jesus, involving blasphemy, whereas the claim of Messiahship by itself would not involve that: but it was a legitimate part of the Jewish description of the Messiah. εὐλογητός is not found elsewhere in the N.T., except as a predicate of Θεός in doxologies. It means the one who is worshipped.
62. Now, the high priest gets an answer. The time has come for Jesus to make his confession before the highest tribunal of the nation. To be silent now would wear the look of abdicating his claim at the critical moment of his life. And he proceeds to add to it even more of august and solemn circumstance than the high priest had maliciously invested it with. κ. ὄψεσθε τ. υἱὸν—And you will see the Son of Man seated on the right hand of power, and coming with the clouds of heaven. He cites here again the language of Daniel 7:13, applying it to himself. It is as if he had said, you will see fulfilled in me the most august of the Messianic prophecies. καθήμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τῆς δυνάμεως—occupying, i.e. the throne of God’s vicegerent, the position next to the throne itself. This again is a legitimate part of the Messianic claim, according to Jewish expectation, but it shows, as the language of the High Priest had done, the blasphemy of a false claim. In the mouth of Jesus, it denotes the place that he was to occupy in heaven. Mt. adds, ἀπʼ ἄρτι, from this very time on, and Lk. ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν, from now on; and with this addition, it points evidently to the earthly evidences of this heavenly power. They were to see with their own eyes the advancing kingdom of the Son of Man in the world. With this limitation of time, the language cannot refer to what was to take place at the end of the world, but to what was to take place continually in the world from that time on. It was to become immediately the scene of the Messianic kingdom, in which the Son of Man was to rule over its affairs from his throne in heaven. κ. ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν. See on 13:26. This denotes more specifically the intervention of the Son of Man, the Messianic King, in the affairs of the world. The whole statement means, in connection with Jesus’ confession of the Messianic claim, that they would see him exercising the Messianic power.
63. διαρῥήξας τ. χιτῶνας—having rent his garments. χιτῶνας is used here of garments in general, not restricted to inner garments. Mt. says ἱμάτια (26:65).
64. ἠκούσατε τ. βλασφημίας—you heard the blasphemy. The blasphemy did not consist in the terms in which he claimed the Messianic dignity, since he used simply the language of prophecy, but in what the high priest considered to be his false claim to so august a position. ἔνοχον θανάτου—liable to (the punishment of ) death. The high priest has named the crime of which they find him guilty under the Jewish law. This is the penalty of that crime of blasphemy.
65. Καὶ ἤρξαντό τινες ἐμπτύειν αὐτῷ—And some began to spit on him. Lk. says, those who held him.1 But he puts this in another place. According to him, the Sanhedrim did not assemble till the next morning, and this reviling was done by those who held Jesus in custody during the interval. Προφήτευσον—Prophesy. The subject of prophecy was to be, who smote him.1 οἱ ὑπηρέται—the attendants, the officers of the Sanhedrim.2 ῥαπίσμασιν αὐτὸν ἔλαβον—received him with blows. This marks the end of the present procedure before the Sanhedrim, when he would be turned over to the officials for custody. And this is the reception which they gave him.
ἔλαβον, instead of ἔβαλλον, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCIKLNSV ΓΔΠ. DG 1, 13, 69, Memph. Harcl. ἐλάμβανον.
66-72. While the trial is going on, Peter is at the fire in the court of the palace. One of the maid-servants of the high priest sees him there, and charges him with being a follower of Jesus. Peter denies it, and pretends not even to understand what she says. But he sees that the situation is becoming dangerous, and goes out into the vestibule, leading from the court into the street, when a cock crowed. There the servant repeats her charge, and Peter his denial. Finally, after a short time, the bystanders detect the Galilean burr in Peter’s speech, and renew the charge. Then Peter begins to protest with oaths that he does not know whom they are talking about. It is the third denial, and the cock crowed a second time, which brought to his mind Jesus’ warning, and having thought on it, Peter wept.
67. Καὶ σὺ μετὰ τοῦ Ναξαζηνοῦ ἦσθα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ—You too were with the Nazarene, Jesus. καὶ adds σὺ to the rest of the disciples, who have kept away from the place of danger. You too, who take your place so boldly here. The position of Ναζαρηνοῦ, and its separation from τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, makes it emphatic. The Nazarene concentrates in itself their notion of the absurdity of his claim.
ἦσθα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, instead of Ἰησοῦ ἦσθα, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. BCL. Also א D Δ Latt. Syrr. insert τοῦ before Ἰησοῦ.
68. οὔτε οἶδα οὔτε ἐπίσταμαι—I neither know, nor understand what you say. Peter makes his denial as explicit as possible. It is a denial of all knowledge, or even understanding of what, the woman is saying. προαύλιον1—the vestibule, or covered way, leading from the street into the inner court. καὶ ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησε—and a cock crowed, not the cock.
οὔτε … οὔτε, instead of οὐκ … οὐδὲ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BDL, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Egyptt. Omit καὶ ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησε, and a cock crowed, WH. RV.marg. א BL, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
69. καὶ ἡ παιδίσκη—and the maid, the same who had made the former charge. Matthew 26:71 says ἄλλη, another maid. L 22:58 says ἕτερος, another man. J. 18:25 says ἔλεγον, they said.
τοῖς παρεστῶσιν, instead of τοῖς παρεστηκόσιν, Tisch. Treg. WH. א BCIKL ΔΠ*.
70. ἠρνεῖτο—denied. Mt. says μετὰ ὅρκου, with an oath. The answer of Peter varies also in the several accounts. μετὰ μικρὸν—L says διαστάσης ὡσεὶ ὥρας μιᾶς, about one hour having intervened. J. says that the person making this third charge was a kinsman of Malchus, whose ear Peter had cut off at the arrest, and that he asks if he did not see Peter with Jesus in the orchard. The Synoptists agree in their account of this charge, all of them inserting ἀληθῶς, Verily (L ἐπʼ ἀληθείας), and giving substantially the same reason, viz. that he was a Galilean. Mt. adds, ἡ λαλιά σου δηλόν σε ποιεῖ—thy speech makes thee known. The best texts omit these words in Mk.
Omit καὶ ἡ λαλιά σου ὁμοιάζει, and your speech is like, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א BCDL 1, 118, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.
71. ἀναθεματίζειν—to curse.2 It does not denote, any more than ὀμνύναι, vulgar swearing, but the imprecation of divine penalties on the person, if he does not speak the truth.
ὀμνύναι, instead of ὀμνύνειν, Tisch. Treg. WH. BEHLSUVX Γ
72. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ δευτέρου ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησε—And immediately, a second time, a cock crowed. τὸ ῥῆμα ὡς3—the word, how. κ. ἐπιβαλὼν ἔκλαιε—and having thought on it, he began to weep. This meaning of the verb is clearly established now, and it is clearly the best rendering, if allowable.4 The impf. denotes the act in its inception, he began to weep. Peter had lost his faith for the time, but that was no reason why he should lose his courage and honesty. But his courage was supported by his faith, and fell with it. Why should he run any risks for a hope that had failed him? This was his thought while he was under pressure. But now he remembers the warning of Jesus, and with it recalls all that Jesus had been to him, whatever might become of the hope that they had all associated with him, and he weeps over his own baseness. But he does not take back his denial.
τὸ ῥῆμα ὡς, instead of τοῦ ῥήματος οἷ, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. א ABCL Δ Egyptt. Insert εὐθὺς before ἐκ δευτέρου, Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. א BDGL 13, 69, 124, 346, Latt. Pesh.
1 On the use of the future with μήποτε, see Burton, 199. The meaning, lest perchance, belonging to μήποτε in the N.T., is characteristic of later Greek.
2 θόρυβος is used properly of the noise and disturbance of an excited crowd.
WH. Westcott and Hort.
RV. Revised Version.
B Codex Vaticanus.
C Codex Bezae.
D Codex Ephraemi.
L Codex Regius.
Latt. Latin Versions.
marg. Revided Version marg.
1 The proper form of this word is ἀλάβαστον, without the ρ. The usage seems to vary between the masc. and fem.
A Codex Alexandrinus.
E Codex Basiliensis.
F Codex Borelli.
H Codex Wolfi B.
K Codex Cyprius.
S Codex Vaticanus.
U Codex Nanianus.
V Codex Mosquensis.
X Codex Wolfi A.
2 On this omission of κατά after verb compounded with it, see Thay.-Grm. Lex.
1 .Codex Basiliensis
28 Codex Regius.
1 Thay.-Grm. Lex. gives both meanings.
Lat. Vet. Vetus Latina.
2 See on 1:43.
69 Codex Leicestrensis.
1 On the use of ἔχω in the sense of possum, see Thay.-Grm. Lex.
2 Win. 54, 4.
3 A Biblical word.
4 J. 12:7.
13 Codex Regius.
209 An unnamed, valuable manuscript.
346 Codex Ambrosianus.
5 A rare word, found only once besides in the N.T. The occurrence of it therefore, here, in both Mt. and Mk., confirms again the interdependence of the Synoptics.
6 See on 3:19.
M Codex Campianus.
2 The impf. denotes a customary act.
3Exodus 12:21, Deuteronomy 16:5.
4 On this use of the subj. without ἵνα after θέλειν, see Win. 41 a, 4 b; Burton, 171.
1 The common Greek usage separates this word into its parts, οἴκου δεσπότῃ.
2 κατάλυμα is etymologically, a place to relax; hence an inn, or a dining-room. The word belongs to Biblical Greek. See Thay.-Grm. Lex., καταλύω (c.)
3 This word is variously spelled—ἀνάγαιον, ἀνώγαιον, ἀνώγεον, ἀνώγεως, ἀνώγεων, But these are all variant readings, as here. Liddell & Scott, ἀνώγεον.
P Codex Guelpherbytanus.
Egyptt. Egyptian Versions.
1 Cf. Psalm 41:9.
2 On this construction, common in later Greek, see Thay.-Grm. Lex. εἷς, 4 c; Win. 37, 3.
3 On the distinction between μή and μήτι, see on 4:21.
Syrr. Syriac Versions.
4 Both ἐμβαπτόμενος and τρυβλίον in this statement occur only in this account in the N.T., and their use by both Mt. and Mk. is thus another strong confirmation of the interdependence of the Synoptics.
1 See on 4:17.
N Codex Purpureus.
1 See Thay.-Grm. Lex. εἰ, III. 6, 7.
1 ἐκπερισσῶς occurs only here.
1 πειρασμόν is a Biblical word.
1 καταβαρυνόμενοι is found only here in the N.T., and is rare in Greek writers.
AV. Authorised Version.
1 Thay.-Grm. Lex.
2 The pres. used to denote a certain future event. In this case, it is actually beginning with the advent of his captors, v. 43.
1 A word belonging to Biblical Greek.
2 Win. 45, 3b
3 Thay.-Grm. Lex.
2 J. 18:15, 24.
3 On the pleonastic use of the prep., see Win. 65, 2.
4Matthew 26:3, Matthew 26:58, Mark 15:16, Luke 11:21, J. 18:13.
1 See v. 1.
2 A word found only in the N.T.
33 Codex Regius.
1Matthew 26:68, Luke 22:64.
2 See on v. 54.
1 A rare word, found in the N.T. only here.
2 A purely Biblical and ecclesiastical word, found in the N.T. only here, and Acts 23:12, Acts 23:14, Acts 23:21.
3 See Thay.-Grm. Lex. ὡς, I. 6.
4 See Morison for best statement of different views.
But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.
And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made?
For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her.
And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me.
For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always.
She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.
Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.
And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?
And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.
And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.
And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?
And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.
The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.
And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.
And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.
And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.
Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.
And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.
But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.
But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I.
And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all.
And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;
And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.
And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.
And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour?
Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak.
And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words.
And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him.
And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.
And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.
And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.
And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear.
And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled.
And they all forsook him, and fled.
And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him:
And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.
And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes.
And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.
And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.
For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.
And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.
But neither so did their witness agree together.
And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee?
But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses?
Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.
And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest:
And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.
And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto.
But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.