Expositor's Greek Testament
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΝ Βʹ
Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,2 Timothy 1:1-2. Salutation.
2 Timothy 1:1. ἀπόστολος Χρ. Ἰησ. See note on 1 Timothy 1:1.
διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ: This formula is found also in 1 and 2 Cor. Eph. and Col. See note on 1 Timothy 1:1, where it is pointed out that while the same ἐπιταγή may be said to be issued by God the Father and God the Son, θέλημα is always used of the Father’s eternal purpose as regards the salvation of man (Romans 2:18; Romans 12:2; 2 Corinthians 8:5; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 1:9; Ephesians 1:11; Colossians 1:9; Colossians 4:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:18, etc.). St. Paul believed that his own commission as an apostle was a part of God’s arrangements to this end, one of the ways in which the Will manifested itself.
κατʼ ἐπαγγελίαν ζωῆς, κ.τ.λ.: To be connected with ἀπόστολος. His apostleship was for the accomplishment of the promise, etc. See Romans 1:5, ἐλάβομεν … ἀποστολὴν εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν. For the force of κατά with acc. see Winer-Moulton, Gram. p. 502. The notion is more largely expressed in the corresponding passage of Tit. (2 Timothy 1:2), ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αἰωνίον ἤν ἐπηγγείλατο … θεός. We must not suppose that there is any limitation in the reference of the expression here. The mention of “the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus” (Galatians 2:19-20) is not intended as a consolation to Timothy (as Chrys., Bengel), nor was it even specially suggested by his own near approaching death. The preciousness of that promise is never wholly absent from the minds of Christians; though of course it comes to the surface of our consciousness at crises when death is, or seems to be, imminent.
To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.2 Timothy 1:2. ἀγαπητῷ: On the variation here from γνησίῳ, which occurs in 1 Timothy 1:2 and Titus 1:4, see the note in the former place. 2 Timothy 1:5 (“the unfeigned faith that is in thee”) proves that St. Paul did not wish to hint that Timothy had ceased to be his γνήσιον τέκνον. Timothy is St. Paul’s τέκνον ἀγαπητόν also in 1 Corinthians 4:17. ἀγαπητός is complete in itself: it does not require the explanatory addition, ἐν πίστει, or κατὰ κοινὴν πίστιν.
χάρις, κ.τ.λ.: See note on 1 Timothy 1:2.
I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;2 Timothy 1:3-7. I know that your weak point is deficiency in moral courage. Be braced, therefore, by the assurance that I am constantly thinking with thankfulness and prayer about your genuine and inborn faith; and by the fact that the gift of the Holy Spirit which you received at ordination was that of power and love and discipline.
2 Timothy 1:3. χάριν ἔχω: The expression of thanksgiving in the exordium of an epistle is usually prefaced by St. Paul with εὐχαριστῶ (Romans 1:8, 1 Corinthians 1:4, Php 1:3, Philemon 1:4; εὐχαριστοῦμεν Colossians 1:3, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν, Ephesians 1:16; εὐχαριστεῖν ὀφείλομεν, 2 Thessalonians 1:3). A comparison of these passages makes it evident that χάριν ἔχω is to be connected with ὑπόμνησιν λαβὼν, κ.τ.λ.; ὡς ἀδιάλειπτον—πληρωθῶ being a parenthetical account of St. Paul’s state of mind about his absent friend, while μεμνημένος—δακρύων is also a parenthetical clause. The thanksgiving is for the grace of God given to Timothy (cf. esp. 1 Corinthians 1:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:3); and the expression of thankfulness is called forth whenever St. Paul calls him to mind, unceasingly in fact. The use of χάριν ἔχω in 1 Timothy 1:12 is not a parallel case to this. The phrase is quoted from the papyri by Dean Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, p. 283.
ᾧ λατρεύω ἀπὸ προγόνων κ.τ.λ.: Two thoughts are in St. Paul’s mind: (a) the inheritance of his religious consciousness from his forefathers, and (b) the continuity of the revelation of God; the same light in the New Covenant as in the Old, only far brighter.
If St. Paul had been asked, When did you first serve God? he would have answered, Even before God separated me from my mother’s womb for His service. St. Paul was conscious that he was the result of generations of God-fearing people. His inborn, natural instincts were all towards the service of God. (See Acts 22:3; Acts 24:14; Romans 11:1; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Php 3:5).
Moreover St. Paul always maintained that the Gospel was the divinely ordained sequel of Judaism; not a new religion, but the fulfilment of “the promise made of God unto our fathers” (Acts 26:6; see also Acts 23:6, Acts 24:14).
ἐν καθαρᾷ συνειδήσει: Compare the claim he makes, Acts 23:1; Acts 24:16; 1 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:10; and for the language here see note on 1 Timothy 1:5. ὡς is best rendered as (Winer-Moulton, Gram. p. 561, where Matthew 6:12, Galatians 6:10 are cited in illustration). The R.V. how (so Alf.) implies that the cause for thankfulness is the unceasing nature of St. Paul’s remembrance of Timothy; the A.V. that (quod, Vulg.) refers the cause to the remembrance itself. Romans 1:9 is not a parallel instance of ὡς.
ἀδιάλειπτον—δεήσεσίν μου: A regular epistolary formula, as is evidenced by the papyri; though no doubt in St. Paul’s case it corresponded to reality. See his use of it in reff. and Dean Armitage Robinson, Ephesians, pp. 37 sq., 275 sqq. esp. p. 279, sq. on the formula μνείαν ποιεῖσθαι, from which this passage is a remarkable variation.
νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας is connected by the R.V. with ἐπιποθῶν. In 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:10, the phrase unquestionably is connected with what follows. On the other hand, in 1 Timothy 5:5 it comes at the end of a clause; and in this place the A.V. connects it with ταῖς δεήσεσίν μου. This is certainly right, on the analogy of 1 Thessalonians 3:10, where see Milligan’s note. Alf. and Ell. connect it with ἀδιάλειπτον ἕχω.
ἐπιποθῶν σε ἰδεῖν: a Pauline expression. See reff. ἰδεῖν is not expressed in 2 Corinthians 9:14, Php 1:8; Php 2:26.
Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;2 Timothy 1:4. μεμνημένος—δακρύων: Parenthetical. St. Paul’s longing was made keener by his recollection of the tears Timothy had shed at their last parting. So Chrys. fixes the occasion. We are reminded of the scene at Miletus, Acts 20:37. Bengel, comparing Acts 20:19, thinks that reference is rather made to an habitual manifestation of strong emotion. At that time, and in that society, tears were allowed as a manifestation of emotion more freely than amongst modern men of the West.
χαρᾶς πληρωθῶ: For πληρόω with a genitive, cf. Romans 15:13-14. It takes a dat., Romans 1:29, 2 Corinthians 7:4, cf. Ephesians 5:18; an acc., Php 1:11, Colossians 1:9.
When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.2 Timothy 1:5. ὑπόμνησιν λαβών: Having been reminded. Not to be connected with the clause immediately preceding, as R.V.m. ὑπόμνησις, a reminder, i.e., an act of recollection specially excited by a particular person or thing, thus differs from ἀνάμνησις, which is self-originated (so Ammonius Grammaticus, quoted by Bengel). Ell. compares for the thought Ephesians 1:15. For this use of λαμβάνω, cf. Romans 7:8; Romans 7:11 (ἀφορμὴν λ.), Hebrews 2:3 (ἀρχὴν λ.), Hebrews 11:29; Hebrews 11:36 (πεῖραν λ.), 2 Peter 1:9 (λήθην λ.). The fact that St. Paul received this reminder of Timothy’s faith suggests that there were other aspects of his conduct—possibly as an administrator—which were not wholly satisfactory. His unfeigned faith made up for much.
ἥτις ἐνῴκησεν κ.τ.λ.: ἐνοικέω is used in Romans 8:11 and 2 Timothy 1:14 of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit; and in Colossians 3:16 of the Word of Christ. In 2 Corinthians 6:16, ἐνοικήσω is added in the quotation from Leviticus 26:12 to ἐνπεριπατήσω. Tisch. and W.H. read ἐνοικοῦσα for οἰκοῦσα in Romans 7:17. Timothy’s faith was hereditary as St. Paul’s was. πρῶτον does not mean that Lois was the first of her family to have faith, but that it dwelt in her, to St. Paul’s knowledge, before it dwelt in Timothy. It is to be observed that it is implied that the faith of God’s people before Christ came is not different in kind from faith after Christ has come.
μάμμῃ: an infantile equivalent in early Greek for μήτηρ, is used in later Greek for τήθη, grandmother. It occurs, e.g., in 4Ma 16:9, οὐκ ὄψομαι ὑμῶν τέκνα, οὐδὲ μάμμη κληθεῖσα μακαρισθήσομαι. See also Moulton and Milligan, Expositor, vii., vii. 561.
Λωίδι: Since Timothy’s father was a Greek, and his mother a Jewess (Acts 16:1), we may conclude that Lois was the mother of Eunice (see art. in Hastings’ D. B.).
Εὐνίκῃ: See art. in Hastings’ D. B., where Lock notes that the curious reading of cursive 25 in Acts 16:1, υἱὸς γυναικός τινος Ἰουδαίας χήρας, and the substitution of χήρας for Ἰουδαίας in Gig., fuld “may embody a tradition of her widowhood”.
uld. Cod. Fuldensis
πέπεισμαι: The other examples of St. Paul’s use of this word (see reff.) give no support to the notion of Thdrt. (followed by Alf.) that πέπεισμαι here has the force of our I am sure, I am certain, when we wish to hint gently that we desire reassurance on the point about which we express our certainty. In all the places in which St. Paul uses πέπεισμαι he is anxious to leave no doubt as to his own certitude. Nevertheless, in this case, it was quite possible for him to be perfectly certain that unfeigned faith animated Timothy, and at the same time to have misgivings (2 Timothy 1:7) as to Timothy’s moral courage in dealing with men. We supply ἐνοικεῖ after σοί.
Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.2 Timothy 1:6. διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν: not so much “because I am persuaded of thine unfeigned faith” (Theoph., Thdrt.), as, “because this faith does of a surety dwell in thee”. We are most fruitfully stimulated to noble action, not when we know other people think well of us, but when their good opinion makes us recognise the gifts to us of God’s grace. Faith, as well as salvation, is the gift of God, Ephesians 2:8. Except in this phrase (see reff. and Acts 28:20), αἰτία is not found elsewhere in Paul. It is common in Matt., Mark, John, and Acts.
ἀναζωπυρεῖν: In both places cited in reff.—the only occurrences in the Greek Bible—the verb is intransitive: his, or their, spirit revived. Chrys. well compares with the image suggested by ἀναζωπυρεῖν (“stir into flame,”) “quench not the Spirit,” 1 Thessalonians 5:19, where by “the Spirit” is meant His charismatic manifestations of every kind. It is interesting to note in this connexion that ἀναζωπυρεῖν φαντασίας is opposed to σβεννύναι in M. Antoninus, vii. 2 (quoted by Wetstein).
τὸ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ: This expression refers to the salvation of the soul by God’s grace, in Romans 6:23; Romans 11:29. The narrower signification, as here, of a gift given to us to use to God’s glory is χάρισμα ἐκ θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 7:7, or more usually simply χάρισμα. The particular nature of the gift must be determined by the context. In this case it was a charisma that was exercised in a spirit not of fearfulness We can scarcely be wrong, then, if we suppose the charisma of administration and rule to be in St. Paul’s mind rather than “the work of an evangelist” (ch. 2 Timothy 4:5). So Chrys., “for presiding over the Church, for the working of miracles, and for every service”.
διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως—μου: See note on 1 Timothy 4:14, where it is pointed out that we have no right to assume that hands were laid on Timothy once only. Thus Acts 9:17; Acts 13:3 are two such occasions in St. Paul’s spiritual life. There may have been others.
For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.2 Timothy 1:7. οὐ γὰρ ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν: The γάρ connects this statement with the exhortation preceding in such a way as to suggest that God’s gift “to us” of a spirit of power is in the same order of being as the charisma imparted to Timothy by the laying on of St. Paul’s hands. The question is, then, To whom is reference made in ἡμῖν? We can only reply, The Christian Society, represented by the apostles on the Day of Pentecost. (The aor. ἔδωκεν points to a definite occasion). Then it was that the Church began to receive the power, δύναμις, which had been promised (Luke 24:49; Acts 1:8) by the Lord, and realised by the apostles collectively (Acts 4:33; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 1 Corinthians 5:4), and individually (Acts 6:8; 1 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 2 Corinthians 12:9). Whatever special charismata are bestowed on the ministers of the Church at ordination, they are a part of the general stream of the Pentecostal gift which is always being poured out by the ascended Lord.
πνεῦμα δειλίας: It is simplest to take πνεῦμα here as a comprehensive equivalent to χάρισμα, as in 1 Corinthians 14:12, ζηλωταί ἐστε πνευμάτων. God did not infuse into us fearfulness, etc. The gen. after πνεῦμα, in this and similar cases, Romans 8:15 (δουλείας, υἱοθεσίας), Romans 11:8 (κατανύξεως), 1 Corinthians 4:21, Galatians 6:1 (πραΰτητος), 2 Corinthians 4:13 (πίστεως), Ephesians 1:17 (σοφίας, κ.τ.λ.), expresses the prominent idea, the term πνεῦμα adds the notion that the quality spoken of is not self-originated. The personal Holy Spirit is not meant unless the context names Him unambiguously, as in Ephesians 1:13.
δειλία: fearfulness, timidity, timor. This is the right word here, as δουλείας is the right word in Romans 8:15. It is curious that in Leviticus 26:36, where B has δουλείαν A &c. have δειλίαν. See apparat. crit. There was an element of δειλία in Timothy’s natural disposition which must have been prejudicial to his efficiency as a Church ruler. For that position is needed (a) force of character, which if not natural may be inspired by consciousness of a divine appointment, (b) love, which is not softness, and (c) self-discipline, which is opposed to all easy self-indulgence which issues in laxity of administration. σωφρονισμοῦ: sobrietatis. Better active, as R.V., discipline, first of self, then of others. See Blass, Grammar, p. 61.
Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;2 Timothy 1:8. μὴ οὖν ἐπαισχυνθῇς: The Saying of Jesus (Mark 8:38 = Luke 9:26) was probably in St. Paul’s mind. He alludes to it again, 2 Timothy 2:12. The aor. subj. with μὴ forbids the supposition that Timothy had actually done what St. Paul warns him against doing (Winer-Moulton, Grammar, p. 628, and J. H. Moulton, Grammar, vol. i. p. 122 sq.). See note on 1 Timothy 4:14. Personal appeals are a feature of this epistle cf. 2 Timothy 1:13, 2 Timothy 2:3; 2 Timothy 2:15, 2 Timothy 3:14, 2 Timothy 4:1-2; 2 Timothy 4:5.
τὸ μαρτύριον τ. Κυρίου: Testimony borne by our Lord, His words, His ethical and spiritual teaching, by which Christianity has influenced the ideals and practice of society. The gen. after μαρτύριον is best taken as subjective. See 1 Corinthians 1:6; 1 Corinthians 2:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:10.
τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν: See note on 1 Timothy 1:14.
ἐμὲ τὸν δέσμιον αὐτοῦ: This does not mean one made prisoner by the Lord, but one who belongs to the Lord and is a prisoner for His sake. There is nothing figurative about δέσμιος. St. Paul calls himself ὁ δέσμ. τ. Χρ. Ἰησ. in Ephesians 3:1, δέσμ. Χρ. Ἰησ. Philemon 1:1; Philemon 1:9. The idea is more clearly expressed in ὁ δέσμ. ἐν Κυρίῳ Ephesians 4:1. He is a prisoner; he is also “in Christ”. The expression also suggests the thought that his earthly imprisonment is ordered by the Lord, not by man. The present captivity is alluded to again in 2 Timothy 1:16 and 2 Timothy 2:9. It is not the same figure as in 2 Corinthians 2:14, “God which always leadeth us in triumph in Christ” as His captives. See Lightfoot on Colossians 2:15.
συνκακοπάθησον τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ: Join us [the Lord and me] in our sufferings for the Gospel’s sake. More than once in this epistle St. Paul declares that he is suffering (πάσχω, 2 Timothy 1:12; κακοπαθῶ, 2 Timothy 2:9). He has said, “Be not ashamed … of me”; but he has just coupled the testimony of the Lord with his own; and further on (2 Timothy 2:8) Jesus Christ is noted as the great illustration of the law, “No cross, no crown”. See note there. It is best then to give a wider reference than μοι to the συν in συνκακοπάθ. The R.V., Suffer hardship with the gospel is needlessly harsh. The dat. τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ is the dativus commodi.
κατὰ δύναμιν θεοῦ must be connected with συνκακοπάθ.; and this suggests that the power of God here means power given by God, as in 2 Corinthians 6:7, 1 Peter 1:5, “the power that worketh in us” (Ephesians 3:20), the assured possession of which would brace Timothy to suffer hardship. Alf. and Ell., following Bengel, take it subjectively: the power of God displayed in our salvation (as in Romans 1:16; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 1:24; 1 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 13:4). But St. Paul could scarcely exhort Timothy to display a degree of fortitude comparable to God’s active power. The next verse, τοῦ σώσαντος, κ.τ.λ., is not a detailed description of God’s power to save, but a recalling of the fact that Timothy had actually experienced God’s saving grace in the past. This consideration would stimulate Timothy to play the man.
2 Timothy 1:8 to 2 Timothy 2:2. The leading thoughts in this section are (a) the Day of reward and judgment which is surely coming (2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:18), (b) the unreasonableness therefore of cowardly shame (2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:16), and (c) the necessity that Timothy should guard the deposit and hand it on (2 Timothy 1:14 to 2 Timothy 2:2).
Be not ashamed, therefore, of the Gospel to which our Lord was not ashamed to testify; nor be ashamed of me, who am in prison because of testimony borne to Him and it. Share our sufferings in the strength given by God, whose power is displayed in the Gospel of life of which I was appointed a preacher. This is the direct cause of my present lot; but I am not ashamed; for I know the power of Him to whom I have committed myself in trust. Do you imitate His faithfulness: guard the deposit committed to you. I am not asking you to do more than some others have done. You know Onesiphorus and his work as well as I do. When all turned their backs on me, he was not ashamed to make inquiries for me; and, finding me in prison, he constantly cheered me by his visits. May God bless him and his! Do you, then, welcome the strengthening grace of Christ, and provide for a succession of faithful teachers to preserve intact the sacred deposit of the faith.
Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,2 Timothy 1:9. τοῦ σώσαντος, κ.τ.λ.: The connexion, as has been just remarked, is that our recognition at our baptism of God’s saving and calling grace—He saved us and called us at a definite point of time (aor.)—ought to strengthen our faith in the continuance in the future of His gifts of power to us. On the insistence in this group of epistles on God’s saving grace, see notes on 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:4.
καλέσαντος κλήσει ἁγίᾳ: To a holy calling, i.e., to a life of holiness, is less ambiguous than with a holy calling, which might mean “a calling uttered by a Holy One,” or “in holy language”. κλῆσις does not here mean the invitation (as in Romans 11:29), but, when qualified as here by an adj., it means the condition into which, or the purpose for which, we have been called (so ἡ ἄνω κλ., Php 3:14, ἐπουράνιος κλ., Hebrews 3:1; and cf. 1 Corinthians 7:20). We have been “called to be saints,” Romans 1:7, “called into the fellowship of God’s Son,” 1 Corinthians 1:9.
οὐ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα: The sentiment is more clearly expressed in Titus 3:5, οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων … ἃ ἐποιήσαμεν ἡμεῖς. There is an echo in both places of the controversy, now over, concerning works and grace. Perhaps κατά is used in this clause to mark more vividly the antithesis to the next, κατὰ ἰδ. πρόθ., in which its use is more normal. See Ephesians 2:8, οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον.
ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἰδίαν πρόθεσιν, κ.τ.λ.: The grace in which the divine purpose for man expresses itself was given to mankind before times eternal; mankind, sons of God, being summed up, concentrated, in the Son of God, whom we know now as Christ Jesus. In Him was present, germ-wise, redeemed humanity, to be realised in races and individuals in succeeding ages.
We have here the same teaching about the Church and Christ as is more fully given in Ephesians and Colossians (see especially Ephesians 1:4). In Romans 16:25 the antithesis between a reality veiled in the past and now unveiled, or manifested, is expressed in language very similar to that of the passage before us: κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν μυστηρίου χρόνοις αἰωνίοις σεσιγημένου φανερωθέντος δὲ νῦν.
πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων: expresses the notion of that which is anterior to the most remote period in the past conceivable by any imagination that man knows of.
But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:2 Timothy 1:10. φανερωθεῖσαν: See note on 1 Timothy 3:16. Bengel calls attention to the fit juxtaposition of illustria verba: φανερωθεῖσαν, ἐπιφανείας, φωτίσαντος.
διὰ τῆς ἐπιφανείας, κ.τ.λ.: See on 1 Timothy 6:14. The ἐπιφάνεια here must not be referred to the Incarnation, considered as having taken place at a particular moment in time. It includes it; the ἐπιφάνεια began then; and will be continued, becoming ever brighter and clearer, until its consummation, to which the term ἐπιφάνεια is elsewhere restricted.
καταργήσαντος: We cannot, because of the absence of an article before the participles, safely translate, when he brought to nought, rather than, who brought to nought. Abolished does not express the truth. Christians all “taste of death” as their Master did (John 8:52, Hebrews 2:9), though they do not “see” it; and they are confident that they too will be “saved out of death” (Hebrews 5:7). Death for them has lost its sting (Hebrews 2:14-15). It need not cause any difficulty that here the undoing of death is spoken of as past, whereas in 1 Corinthians 15:26; 1 Corinthians 15:54, it is “the last enemy that shall be abolished” (see Revelation 20:14). We have a parallel in John 16:11, “The prince of this world hath been judged”.
τὸν θάνατον: Alf., following Bengel, sees a special force in the art.—“as if he had said Orcum illum”.
φωτίσαντος: To be connected with διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου. The Gospel is that by which the presence of Christ, the light, is apprehended. That light does not create life and incorruption: it displays them.
ζωὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν: Immortality or Incorruption defines the life more clearly.
Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.2 Timothy 1:11. εἰς ὃ ἐτέθην, κ.τ.λ.: See 1 Timothy 2:7, where these words are also found, and the note on 1 Timothy 1:11.
For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.2 Timothy 1:12. διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν: i.e., because I am a preacher of the Gospel. Cf. Galatians 5:11.
οὐκ ἐπαισχύνομαι: Non confundor. I am not disappointed of my hope, as in ref.
πεπίστευκα … πέπεισμαι: The perfects have their usual force. For πέπεισμαι see Romans 8:38 and note on 2 Timothy 1:5.
τὴν παραθήκην μου is best taken as that which I have deposited for safe keeping. Cf. the story of St. John and the robber from Clem. Alex. Quis Dives, § 42, quoted by Eus. H. E. iii. 23, τὴν παρακαταθήκην ἀπόδος ἡμῖν. Here it means “my soul” or “myself,” cf. Psalms 30 (31):6, εἰς χεῖράς σου παραθήσομαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου, Luke 23:46, 1 Peter 4:19, 1 Thessalonians 5:23. This explanation of παραθήκην harmonises best with ἐπαισχύνομαι, πεπίστευκα, and φυλάξαι. The whole verse has a purely personal reference. Nothing but a desire to give παραθήκη the same meaning wherever it occurs (1 Timothy 6:20, q.v.; 2 Timothy 1:14) could have made Chrys. explain it here as “the faith, the preaching of the Gospel”. So R.V.m., that which he hath committed unto me. “Paulus, decessui proximus, duo deposita habebat: alterum Domino, alterum Timotheo committendum,” Bengel. This exegesis compels us to refer ὧ to God the Father.
εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν: The day of judgment and award, 1 Corinthians 3:13.
Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.2 Timothy 1:13. ὑποτύπωσιν ἔχε: A resumption of the exhortation which was broken off in 2 Timothy 1:9. This command is strictly parallel to that which follows: ὑποτ. ὑγιαιν.—ἤκουσας corresponds to, and is the external expression of, τὴν καλ. παραθήκην; ἔχε corresponds to φύλαξον; and ἐν πίστει—Ἰησοῦ to διὰ—ἡμῖν.
ὑποτύπωσιν ὑγιαινόντων λόγων: The gen. is that of apposition: a pattern, sc. of faith, expressed in sound words. The phrase marks an advance on the μόρφωσις τῆς γνώσεως (Romans 2:20) or μόρφ. εὐσεβείας (2 Timothy 3:5). It happily suggests the power of expansion latent in the simplest and most primitive dogmatic formulas of the Christian faith.
ἔχε has the same strengthened signification as in 1 Timothy 1:19, where see note.
ὑγιαινόντων λόγων: See note on 1 Timothy 1:10.
ὦν … ἤκουσας: Alf. notes that the use of ὧν rather than ἤν shows that ὑγιαιν. λόγ. and not ὑποτύπ. is the chief thing in St. Paul’s mind. It is obvious that Timothy could not have heard the ὑποτύπωσις, which is a concept of the mind expressed in many sound words heard on various occasions. As to the translation, von Soden agrees with Hort, who insists on “the order, the absence of τὴν, and the use of ἔχε” as compelling us to render, “Hold as a pattern,” etc. This rendering would favour Hort’s conjecture that “ΩΝ is a primitive corruption for ON,” i.e., “Hold as a pattern of sound words the word which thou hast heard,” etc. But the absence of the article is such a marked feature in the Pastorals that no argument can be based on it here.
Bengel calls attention to the change in order in 2 Timothy 2:2. Here, παρʼ ἐμοῦ ἤκουσας, the emphasis being on St. Paul’s personal authority; there, ἤκουσας παρʼ ἐμοῦ, because of the antithesis between ἤκουσας and παράθου.
ἐν πίστει, κ.τ.λ.: See note on 1 Timothy 1:14. This clause must be joined with ἔχε, not with ἤκουσας, nor with ὑγιαιν. λόγ. only: as given in faith, etc. (von Soden),
That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.2 Timothy 1:14. τὴν καλὴν παραθήκην: The faith, which is a ὑποτύπωσις in relation to the growing apprehension of it by the Church, is a παραθήκη, deposit, in the case of each individual. On the constant epithet καλός see 1 Timothy 1:18, and on παραθήκη 1 Timothy 6:20. There is a special force in καλήν here, as distinguishing the precious faith from τὴν παραθήκην μου of 2 Timothy 1:12.
φύλαξον διὰ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου: φυλάσσειν is more than ἔχειν: it implies here final perseverance; and that can only be attained through the Holy Spirit. God must co-operate with man, if man’s efforts are to be successful. Cf. “Work out your own salvation … for it is God which worketh in you” (Php 2:12-13).
Πνεύματος Ἁγίου: This verse and Titus 3:5 are the only places in the Pastorals in which the Holy Spirit is mentioned.
This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.2 Timothy 1:15. οἶδας τοῦτο: There is a personal appeal for loyalty in this reminder. The whole paragraph, with its examples cited of disloyalty and loyalty, was intended as an object lesson to Timothy.
ἀπεστράφησάν με: The reff., with the exception of chap. 2 Timothy 4:4, are parallel to this use of the verb.
πάντες must not be pressed: it is the sweeping assertion of depression. If it had been even approximately true, Timothy would have had no church to administer. On the other hand, something less serious than apostasy from the faith may be alluded to, such as personal neglect of the apostle (cf. 2 Timothy 4:16, πάντες με ἐγκατέλειπον, and the contrast of Onesiphorus’ conduct with theirs in the next verse), a thing which to us who see St. Paul through the halo of centuries of veneration seems painfully hard to understand. But it is abundantly plain that apostles did not during their lifetime receive that universal and unquestioning reverence from their fellow-Christians which we would have antecedently supposed could not have been withheld from them. Cf. 3 John 1:9.
οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ: Asia means the Roman province, which included Mysia, Lydia, Caria, great part of Phrygia, the Troad, and the islands off the coast.
This statement is most naturally explained of a defection in Asia of natives of Asia. Plummet conjectures that St. Paul had applied by letter from Rome for help to some leading Asiatic Christians, and had been refused. Of course it is possible that St. Paul refers to something that had taken place in Rome (so Bengel, who compares char. 2 Timothy 4:16). But all who are in Asia would be a strange way of referring to some Asiastics who had been in Rome and had returned to Asia; and though οἶδας τοῦτο is naturally understood as mentioning something of which Timothy had knowledge only by report, we cannot be sure that St. Paul intended here to distinguish οἶδας from γινώσκεις. Perhaps the defection had taken place during an absence of Timothy from Asia. Nothing else is known certainly of Phygelus and Hermogenes.
The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:2 Timothy 1:16. δῴη ἔλεος, κ.τ.λ.: δίδωμι ἔλεος, like εὑρίσκω ἔλεος, is a Hebraism. See reff. The correlative, λαμβάνω ἔλεος occurs Hebrews 4:6. ποιεῖν ἔλεος μετά τινος (Luke 1:72; Luke 10:37; Jam 2:13) is a similar phrase. Here, we should say, May God bless so and so. ἔλεος does not correspond to any special sin.
τῷ Ὀν. οἴκῳ: This household is saluted in 2 Timothy 4:19. It is most natural to suppose that Onesiphorus himself was dead, both from this expression and from the pious wish in 2 Timothy 1:18. Prayer for living friends is normally and naturally in regard to objects which will be realised here in earth. The evidence of 2Ma 12:44-45, proves that an orthodox Jew of our Lord’s time could have prayed for the dead. A full discussion of the question must embrace a consideration of the final cause of prayer, and of the nature of that which we call death. See reff. to recent literature on this subject in Milligan’s art. Onesiphorus in Hastings’ D. B.
ἀνέψυξεν: The comprehensive term refresh expresses the notion admirably. They are “the blessed of God the Father” to whom the King shall say, “I was in prison, and ye came unto me” (Matthew 25:36. See Hebrews 10:34; Hebrews 13:3). For St. Paul’s appreciation of the pleasures of friendly intercourse, see Romans 15:32, 1 Corinthians 16:18, 2 Corinthians 7:13, Philemon 1:7; Philemon 1:20.
ἐπαισχύνθη: For other examples of the absence of the temporal augment cf. Luke 13:13 (ἀνορθώθη   , etc.); Luke 24:27, John 6:18, Acts 2:25, Romans 9:29 (ὁμοιώθημεν     ).
 Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).
 Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.
 Codex Claromontanus (sæc. vi.), a Græco-Latin MS. at Paris, edited by Tischendorf in 1852.
 Codex Alexandrinus (sæc. v.), at the British Museum, published in photographic facsimile by Sir E. M. Thompson (1879).
 Codex Augiensis (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Trinity College, Cambridge, edited by Scrivener in 1859. Its Greek text is almost identical with that of G, and it is therefore not cited save where it differs from that MS.
 Codex Boernerianus (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Dresden, edited by Matthæi in 1791. Written by an Irish scribe, it once formed part of the same volume as Codex Sangallensis (δ) of the Gospels.
 Codex Angelicus (sæc. ix.), at Rome, collated by Tischendorf and others.
 Codex Porphyrianus (sæc. ix.), at St. Petersburg, collated by Tischendorf. Its text is deficient for chap. 2 Timothy 2:13-16.
But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me.2 Timothy 1:17 γενόμενος ἐν Ῥώμῃ: The reference is most likely to the apostle’s first Roman imprisonment, Ephesians 6:20. Whichever it was, πολλάκις implies that it had lasted some time.
The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.2 Timothy 1:18. It is immaterial whether we explain ὁ Κύριος, in this verse, of God the Father, the source of judgment, or of God the Son, the instrument of judgment. It is far-fetched to suppose that the repeated Κύριος … Κυρίου refer to different divine Persons. Huther’s expl., followed by Alf., seems the best, that δῴη ὁ Κύριος had become so completely a formula that the recurrence did not seem harsh.
καὶ δσα κ.τ.λ.: This clause is an afterthought.
διηκόνησεν: The verb is used with a perfectly general reference here, as in Hebrews 6:10.
βέλτιον: The comparative here is intensive or elative. See Blass, Grammar, pp. 33, 141, 142. Other examples are in 1 Timothy 3:14 (Tisch.) and in the Received Text of 2 Timothy 1:17 of this chapter.