Deuteronomy 33:2
New International Version
He said: "The LORD came from Sinai and dawned over them from Seir; he shone forth from Mount Paran. He came with myriads of holy ones from the south, from his mountain slopes.

New Living Translation
"The LORD came from Mount Sinai and dawned upon us from Mount Seir; he shone forth from Mount Paran and came from Meribah-kadesh with flaming fire at his right hand.

English Standard Version
He said, “The LORD came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand.

Berean Study Bible
He said: “The LORD came from Sinai and dawned upon us from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran and came with myriads of holy ones, with flaming fire at His right hand.

New American Standard Bible
He said, "The LORD came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them.

King James Bible
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

Christian Standard Bible
He said: The LORD came from Sinai and appeared to them from Seir; he shone on them from Mount Paran and came with ten thousand holy ones, with lightning from his right hand for them.

Contemporary English Version
The LORD came from Mount Sinai. From Edom, he gave light to his people, and his glory was shining from Mount Paran. Thousands of his warriors were with him, and fire was at his right hand.

Good News Translation
The LORD came from Mount Sinai; he rose like the sun over Edom and shone on his people from Mount Paran. Ten thousand angels were with him, a flaming fire at his right hand.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
He said: The LORD came from Sinai and appeared to them from Seir; He shone on them from Mount Paran and came with ten thousand holy ones, with lightning from His right hand for them.

International Standard Version
He said: "The LORD came from Sinai. Rising from Seir upon us, he shone forth from Mount Paran, accompanied by a myriad of his holy ones, with flaming fire from his right hand for them.

NET Bible
He said: A Historical Review The LORD came from Sinai and revealed himself to Israel from Seir. He appeared in splendor from Mount Paran, and came forth with ten thousand holy ones. With his right hand he gave a fiery law to them.

New Heart English Bible
He said, "The LORD came from Sinai, and rose from Seir to them. He shone forth from Mount Paran. He came from the ten thousands of holy ones. At his right hand was a fiery law for them.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
He said, "The LORD came from Sinai. For his people he rose from Seir [like the sun]. He appeared like sunshine from Mount Paran. He came with tens of thousands of holy ones. On his right was a raging fire for them.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.

New American Standard 1977
And he said, “The LORD came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from Mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of holiness, at his right hand the law of fire for them.

King James 2000 Bible
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

American King James Version
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir to them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

American Standard Version
And he said, Jehovah came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And he came from the ten thousands of holy ones: At his right hand was a fiery law for them.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And he said, The Lord is come from Sina, and has appeared from Seir to us, and has hasted out of the mount of Pharan, with the ten thousands of Cades; on his right hand were his angels with him.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And he said: The Lord came from Sinai, and from Seir he rose up to us: he hath appeared from mount Pharan, and with him thousands of saints. In his right hand a fiery law.

Darby Bible Translation
And he said, Jehovah came from Sinai, And rose up from Seir unto them; He shone forth from mount Paran, And he came from the myriads of the sanctuary; From his right hand [went forth] a law of fire for them.

English Revised Version
And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And he came from the ten thousands of holy ones: At his right hand was a fiery law unto them.

Webster's Bible Translation
And he said, the LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir to them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

World English Bible
He said, "Yahweh came from Sinai, And rose from Seir to them. He shone forth from Mount Paran. He came from the ten thousands of holy ones. At his right hand was a fiery law for them.

Young's Literal Translation
and he saith: -- 'Jehovah from Sinai hath come, And hath risen from Seir for them; He hath shone from mount Paran, And hath come with myriads of holy ones; At His right hand are springs for them.
Study Bible
Moses Blesses the Twelve Tribes
1This is the blessing that Moses, the man of God, pronounced upon the Israelites before his death. 2He said: “The LORD came from Sinai and dawned upon us from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran and came with myriads of holy ones, with flaming fire at His right hand. 3Surely You love the people; all the holy ones are in Your hand, and they sit down at Your feet; each receives Your words—…
Cross References
Acts 7:53
you who have received the Law ordained by angels, yet have not kept it."

Galatians 4:24
These things serve as illustrations, for the women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children into slavery: This is Hagar.

Jude 1:14
Enoch, the seventh from Adam, also prophesied about them: "Behold, the Lord is coming with myriads of His holy ones

Exodus 19:18
Mount Sinai was completely enveloped in smoke, because the LORD had descended on it in fire. And smoke rose like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked violently.

Exodus 19:20
The LORD descended to the top of Mount Sinai and called Moses to the summit. So Moses went up,

Exodus 23:20
Behold, I am sending an angel before you to protect you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared.

Numbers 10:12
and the Israelites set out from the Wilderness of Sinai, traveling from place to place until the cloud settled in the Wilderness of Paran.

Judges 5:4
O LORD, when You went out from Seir, when You marched from the land of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens poured out rain, and the clouds poured down water.

Psalm 50:2
From Zion, perfect in beauty, God shines forth.

Psalm 68:8
the earth shook and the heavens poured down rain before God, the One on Sinai, before God, the God of Israel.

Psalm 68:17
The chariots of God are tens of thousands--thousands of thousands are they; the Lord is in His sanctuary as He was at Sinai.

Daniel 4:13
As I lay on my bed, I also saw in the visions of my mind a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven.

Daniel 7:10
A river of fire was flowing, coming out from His presence. Thousands upon thousands attended Him, and myriads upon myriads stood before Him. The court was convened, and the books were opened.

Habakkuk 3:3
God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His glory covered the heavens, and His praise filled the earth.

Treasury of Scripture

And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir to them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

came from Sinai

Exodus 19:18-20
And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly…

Judges 5:4,5
LORD, when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water…

Habakkuk 3:3
God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise.

ten thousands

Psalm 68:7,17
O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people, when thou didst march through the wilderness; Selah: …

Daniel 7:9
I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.

Acts 7:53
Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and have not kept it.

a fiery law [heb] a fire of law

Deuteronomy 5:22
These words the LORD spake unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice: and he added no more. And he wrote them in two tables of stone, and delivered them unto me.

2 Corinthians 3:7,9
But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: …

Galatians 3:10
For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.







Lexicon
He said:
וַיֹּאמַ֗ר (way·yō·mar)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 559: To utter, say

“The LORD
יְהוָ֞ה (Yah·weh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3068: LORD -- the proper name of the God of Israel

came
בָּא֙ (bā)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 935: To come in, come, go in, go

from Sinai
מִסִּינַ֥י (mis·sî·nay)
Preposition-m | Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5514: Sinai -- the mountain where the law was given

and dawned
וְזָרַ֤ח (wə·zā·raḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2224: To irradiate, to rise, to appear

upon us
לָ֔מוֹ (lā·mōw)
Preposition | third person masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew

from Seir;
מִשֵּׂעִיר֙ (miś·śê·‘îr)
Preposition-m | Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8165: Seir -- a mountain range in Edom, also its inhabitants, also a mountain in Judah

He shone forth
הוֹפִ֙יעַ֙ (hō·w·p̄î·a‘)
Verb - Hifil - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3313: To shine out or forth, to send out beams, cause to shine

from Mount
מֵהַ֣ר (mê·har)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 2022: Mountain, hill, hill country

Paran
פָּארָ֔ן (pā·rān)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6290: Paran -- a place in Sinai

and came
וְאָתָ֖ה (wə·’ā·ṯāh)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 857: To arrive

with myriads
מֵרִבְבֹ֣ת (mê·riḇ·ḇōṯ)
Preposition-m | Number - feminine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 7233: Multitude, myriad, ten thousand

of holy ones,
קֹ֑דֶשׁ (qō·ḏeš)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6944: A sacred place, thing, sanctity

with flaming fire
דָּ֖ת (dāṯ)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 799: Fire of a law

at His right hand.
מִֽימִינ֕וֹ (mî·mî·nōw)
Preposition-m | Noun - feminine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3225: The right hand, side, the south
(2)"And he said, Jehovah came from Sinai,

And dawned upon them from Seir;

He shone forth from mount Paran.

And there came from the ten thousands of holiness,

From His right hand, a fire of law [10] for them."

[10] On this expression see an additional note at the end of the book.

The appearance of God on Sinai is described as a sunrise. His light rose from Sinai, and the tops of the hills of Seir caught its rays. The full blaze of light shone on Paran. (Comp. Psalm 1:2 : "Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined.") He came with ten thousands of saints is a mere mistranslation. The preposition is "from," not "with." If the verb "he came," in the fourth line, is taken to refer to God, we must translate: "He came from ten thousands of saints" (to sinful men). Rashi takes "from" to mean "part of." "There came some of His ten thousands of saints, but not all of them." I believe the true translation is what I have given. The law itself was "ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator" (Galatians 3:19). It is called "the word spoken by angels" in Hebrews 2:2. The language of Daniel 7:10--"A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him: thousand thousands ministered unto Him"--supplies a complete parallel. The fiery law came from the ten thousands on "His right hand;" or ADDITIONAL NOTE ON Deuteronomy 33:2. "A FIERY LAW."

THE original expression, eshdath or esh dath, sometimes written as one word, and sometimes as two, has created some difficulty. Esh is "fire," and dath, if taken as a distinct word, is "law." But dath does not appear elsewhere in the Hebrew of the Old Testament, until we meet it in the book of Esther, where it occurs frequently. It is also found in Ezra 8:36. In the Chaldee of Daniel and Ezra it occurs six times. Modern authorities assert that it is properly a Persian word. But since it is found in the Chaldee of Daniel, it was in use among the Chaldaeans before the Persian empire. The word has Semitic affinities. The Hebrewsyllable theth would have nearly the same meaning. A datum (or dictum) is the nearest equivalent that we have. There seems no reason to doubt that the word dath had obtained a place both in Chaldee and in Hebrew at the time of the Captivity. It is perfectly possible that its existence in Chaldee dates very much earlier. We must remember that Chaldee was the language of the family of Abraham before they adopted Hebrew. "A Syrian ready to perish was my father," is the confession dictated by Moses in Deuteronomy 26:5. Syriac and Chaldee in the Old Testament are names of the same language. In the Babylonish captivity the Jews really returned to their ancestral language. It is therefore quite conceivable that Chaldaean words lingered among them until the Exodus; and this word dath, if it be a true Chaldaean word, may be an example. But, obviously, these Chaldaean reminiscences would be fewer as the years rolled on. The three Targums all take dath to be "law" in this place. The LXX. has "angels" (???????), instead of the combination eshdath. Possibly the word was taken as ashdoth (plural of the Chaldee ashda), meaning "rays" (of light?) and so "angels." Comp., "He maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire;" they "ran and returned as a flash of lightning" (Psalm 104:4; Ezekiel 1:14). It is also possible that the LXX. read r instead of d in the word which they had before them, and that they arrived at the meaning "angels" through the Hebrew word sharath, "to minister." The confusion between r and d, which are extremely alike in Hebrew, is very common. The parallels referred to in the notes on the verse show that "fiery law" will yield a good sense. The only question is whether dath, "law," can be reasonably supposed to have occurred in the Mosaic writings. If the word were at all generally known at that period, to whatever language it properly belonged, it would hardly have escaped such a man as Moses. I think it quite possible that the common translation may be right. The Hebrew commentators accept it. The only alternative I can suggest is that of the LXX., which cannot be verified with certainty.

Verse 2. - And he said. Here begin the words of Moses. He commences by depicting the majesty of Jehovah as he appeared to Israel when he came to make the covenant with them and give them his Law. The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them, etc. Seir is the mountain land of Edom to the cast of Sinai. Mount Paran is probably the range of lofty hills which form the southern boundary of the Promised Land to the north of the desert of Et-Tih. These places are not mentioned as scenes of different manifestations of the Divine glory, but as indicating the extent to which the one manifestation given at Sinai reached. The light of the Divine glory that rested on Sinai was reflected also from the mountains of Seir and Paran (cf. Hebrews 3:3; Judges 5:4). He came with ten thousands of saints; rather, he came from ten thousands of holy ones; literally, out from myriads of holiness; i.e. "from his celestial seat, where myriads of angels surround his throne" (Rosenmüller). The rendering "with," though that of the Targum, LXX., and Vulgate, cannot be retained; nor does Scripture represent God as attended by angels when he comes forth to manifest his glory to men. They are represented as surrounding his throne in heaven (1 Kings 22:19; Job 1:6; Daniel 7:10), as his servants awaiting his behest, and his host that do his pleasure (Genesis 28:12; Genesis 32:2, 3; Psalm 103:21); and God is represented as dwelling in the midst of them (Psalm 68:17). Hence he is represented here as coming forth from among them to manifest himself to his people. A fiery law. There is a various reading here; instead of אֵשׁ םדּת, fire of law, many codices have אשׁדת in one word, and this is supported by the Samaritan text and other authorities, and is accepted by most critics and interpreters. It is a fatal objection to the textual reading that דַּת is not a Semitic word, but one of Persian origin, brought by the Jews from Babylonia, and found only in the post-exilian books (Esther 1:8, 19; Esther 2:8, 12; Esther 3:8, 14; Esther 4:11, 15; Ezra 7:12, 21; Ezra 8:36; Daniel 2:9, 13, 15; Daniel 6:5, 9, 13, 16); and in them as applied to the Law of God only by heathens. It is, therefore, altogether improbable that this word should be found in any Hebrew writing anterior to the Captivity. Besides, what is the sense of אֵשׁ דַּת, supposing דת to mean "law?" The words cannot be rendered, as in the Authorized Version, by "fiery law;" they can only be rendered by "a fire, a law," or "a fire of law," and What either of these may mean it is not easy to see. The ancient versions vary here very considerably: LXX., ἐκ δεξιῶν αὐτοῦ ἄγγελοι μετ αὐτοῦ: Vulgate, fin dextera ejus ignea lex; Targum of Onkelos, "Written by his right hand, from the midst of the fire, a law gave he to us;" Syriac, "With myriads of his saints at his right hand. He gave to them, and also caused all peoples to love them." The best Hebrew manuscripts have אשׁדת as one word. The Masoretic note is, "The Chatiph is one word, and the K'ri two." The word אשׁדת is best explained as a compound of אֵשׁ, fire, and שׁדא, an Aramaic word signifying to throw or dart; the Syriac , or the Hebrew יָדָה, having the same signification, so that the meaning is "fire-dartings:" from his right hand went rays of fire like arrows shot forth (cf. Habakkuk 3:4; Exodus 19:16). To them; i.e. to the Israelites, to whom this manifestation was vouchsafed. 33:1-5 To all his precepts, warnings, and prophecies, Moses added a solemn blessing. He begins with a description of the glorious appearances of God, in giving the law. His law works like fire. If received, it is melting, warming, purifying, and burns up the dross of corruption; if rejected, it hardens, sears, pains, and destroys. The Holy Spirit came down in cloven tongues, as of fire; for the gospel also is a fiery law. The law of God written in the heart, is a certain proof of the love of God shed abroad there: we must reckon His law one of the gifts of his grace.
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Alphabetical: and At came dawned flashing for forth from hand He his holy lightning LORD midst Mount mountain myriads of on ones over Paran right said Seir shone Sinai slopes south ten The them there thousand was with

OT Law: Deuteronomy 33:2 He said Yahweh came from Sinai (Deut. De Du) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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