John 19
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.
[1. Τότεἑμαστίγωσε, Then Pilate—scourged) The origin of the opinion concerning the scourging having been repeated, Korte, in his Itinerary, thinks is to be derived from the two columns (pillars), one of which is usually shown at Jerusalem, the other at Rome.—When the Jews were urgent for the crucifixion, which, according to custom, was preceded by scourging, Pilate conceived the plan of scourging Jesus, and, according as circumstances would suggest, either letting Him go (Luke 23:22, “I will therefore chastise Him and let Him go”), or sentencing Him to be crucified. The latter course, by reason of the very violent solicitations of the people, prevailed (was adopted by Pilate), not indeed once for all, or at one and the same time, but by degrees. Owing to this, Luke 23:24, does not say ἔκρινε, but ἐπέκρινε, passed sentence according to (ratified) the judgment of the priests and wishes of the people. Pilate yielded to the Jews, and unwillingly delivered up to their will one whom he himself would rather have let go; however, it was after this delivering up of Jesus that the scourging followed, and not till then, along with the mocking that attended it. Then Pilate afresh, moved with a renewed feeling of pity, tried to let Jesus go; and when, for the last time, he had sat on the tribunal (Matthew 27:19, “When he was set down on the judgment-seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man,” etc.), again his attempt proving abortive, he at last delivered up Jesus by a full and final sentence.—Harm., p. 554, etc.]

And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,
John 19:2. Οἱ στρατιῶται, the soldiers) The delivering up of Jesus by Pilate, was a thing done in successive steps [not all at once]. See Harm.

And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.
John 19:3. Ῥαπίσματα, strokes) with a reed [not “with their hands,” as Engl.: see note, ch. John 18:22]; Mark 15:19.

Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.
John 19:4. Ἴδε ἄγω, Behold, I bring Him forth) as though he were not about again to bring Him before them. Pilate wishes to appear to act deliberately.

Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!
John 19:5. Φορῶν, wearing) Pilate did not check the wanton insolence of the soldiers. There was here a rare mixture of jestings and of serious acts.—λέγει, saith) viz. Pilate. For it is to Pilate that they answer in the sixth verse.—ἴδε ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Behold the man) So in John 19:14, Behold your King: A gradation, or ascending climax. A similar nominative (exclamatory) occurs in John 19:26-27, “Woman, behold thy son (ὁ υἱός σου)—Behold thy mother” (ἡ μήτηρ σου).

When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.
John 19:6. Ὅτε, when) Pilate had wished to move their compassion, but he only augments (exasperates) their cruelty.—λέγοντες, σταύρωσον, saying. Crucify Him) Matthew 17:22. For they rejected one appeal of Pilate to them after another, with this cry (common party-cry or watch-word), “Crucify Him.” [From the scourging that had taken place, according to the received custom (which made scourging to precede crucifixion), they draw the conclusion of crucifixion.—V. g.]

The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.
John 19:7. Νόμον, a law) A part of which was the commandment concerning the putting to death of blasphemers.—ὀφείλει, He ought) They hereby denote His guilt. Nay, but another ought (of which they were unconscious) was lurking beneath their words. Hebrews 2:17, “In all things it behoved Him (ὤφειλεν) to be made like unto His brethren,” etc.: [and therefore He ought to “destroy, through death, him that had the power of death,” for the sake of His ‘brethren,’ John 19:14.]—Θεοῦ Υἱὸν, God’s Son[387]) Pilate had called Him “the man,” John 19:5. The Jews seem to have fastened on this now.

[387] The margin of both Editions favours this order of the words; but the Germ. Version has “Zu einem Sohn Gottes.” However this very change in the order is subservient to the expressing of emphasis, which, according to the original order of the words in the text, falls on the word Θεοῦ, rather than on Υἱόν.—E. B. Only inferior authorities have the order Θεοῦ Υἱόν. ABabc Vulg. Origen and Cypr. have Υἱὸν Θεοῦ.—E. and T.

When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;
John 19:8. Μᾶλλον, the more, rather) He did not assent to the Jews as to putting Jesus to death, but rather feared lest he should sin against the Son of God.

And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.
John 19:9. Πόθεν whence) Dost thou ask, Pilate? He was of God and from above, as He Himself implies in John 19:11, whilst seeming to give no answer to this question. Comp. ch. John 18:36-37, [where He states only from whence His kingdom is not, viz. “not of this world;” but not from whence it is, viz. from heaven; but He implies this in saying, “I came into the world.”]

Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?
John 19:10. Ἐμοὶ, unto me) This was said with severity.

Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.
John 19:11. Οὐδεμίαν, no power at all) either to crucify or to let go, or any other power.—δεδομένον, given) It had been given to Pilate to have power.—διὰ τοῦτο, therefore) Because thou hast not known (dost not know) Me at all.—ὁ παραδιδούς μέ σοι, he who hath delivered Me to thee) This was Caiaphas. Pilate, when he heard mention, however, made of the Son of God, was afraid: Caiaphas, when he had heard from the Lord Himself that He was the Son of God, called Him a blasphemer, and judicially pronounced Him “guilty of death” [Matthew 26:65-66].

And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
John 19:12. [Ἔκραζον, continued crying out) They called loud enough to reach the ears of Pilate within, they being in the open air, and he in the judgment-hall; John 19:9; John 19:13.—V. g.]—πᾶς, every one) By not adding for, they add or impart ἀποτομίαν, abrupt sternness and force to their language.—[ἀντιλέγει, speaketh against) The world frequently attempts to harass the kingdom of Christ under a political pretext.—V. g.]

When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.
John 19:13. Ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος, on the judgment-seat) The judgment-seat was outside the judgment-hall or pretorium, in the place called Gabbatha.—λεγόμενον, called) There is not added, “in Greek,” for John wrote in Greek; comp. John 19:17.—Λιθόστρωτον) A tesselated stone pavement, formed of various kinds of stones, and so, as it were, made into a painting. [Mosaic-work, inlaid with stones.] See concerning such pavements, Amœn. lit. T. vii., p. 19, et seqq.—Γαββαθὰ, Gabbatha) A place elevated and conspicuous.

And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!
John 19:14. Ἦν δὲ, now it was) This assigns the reason why both the Jews and Pilate were anxious that the proceeding should be brought to an issue. The Preparation was close at hand. So ἦν, “it was a feast,” in ch. John 5:1. Every Friday or sixth day of the week is called “the Preparation” [Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54 : whence with the Rabbins, the whole day which is succeeded by the Sabbath is called the evening (of the Sabbath): Harm., p. 557]; and as often soever as the Passover fell on the seventh day, it was “the Preparation of the Passover.” [But in this passage, when the Passover fell on the Friday (sixth day) itself, the παρασκευὴ, or Preparation, was not a preparation for the Passover, or before the Passover, but rather on the Passover, a preparation for the Sabbath (as Luther rightly renders it). Mark and Luke, in the passages quoted above, carefully guard against our understanding it of the Preparation for the Passover; and even John himself, expressly mentions the παρασκευή, Preparation for the Sabbath, John 19:41-42 (with which comp. John 19:31). The Passover fell at one time on this, at another time on that day of the week; but then, just as in the exodus from Egypt, according to the testimony of the most ancient of the Hebrews, the Passover fell upon the beginning of the Friday (the sixth day, which began on Thursday evening), so, as often soever as the Passover claimed to itself this day of the week (the sixth day), the fact was considered worthy of note. Christ is our Passover: the first Passover in Egypt, and the Passover of the Passion of Christ, have such a correspondence with one another (in falling on the same day of the week, the sixth), as was worthy to be marked by John by means of this very phrase. Comp. Ord. Temp., p. 266 (ed. ii., p. 230).—Harm., p. 557, et seqq].—τρίτη, third) Most copies read ἓκτη, the sixth, which is unquestionably an error; that it is an error, is acknowledged by that most learned person, Charl. Gottlob Hofmann in his “Introductio Pritiana N. T.,” pp. 370, 377. The Evangelists everywhere mention hours of the same kind, and so also John; and in this passage especially, where he is treating of the παρασκευή, the Jewish kind of hour must be meant. Now the Jews did not use or apply the name to any other hours than those of which the first was in the early morning, the twelfth in the evening; so John 11:9, “Are there not twelve hours in the day?” whence the sixth, seventh, and tenth occur, John 4:6; John 4:52; John 1:39. The third hour was decidedly the hour in which our Lord was crucified; and afterwards, from the sixth to the ninth hour, darkness prevailed; Mark 15:25; Mark 15:33.[388] We acknowledge with pious and grateful feelings, O Lord Jesu, the lengthened continuance of the time that Thou didst drink the cup of suffering to the dregs, hanging on the cross!—καὶ λέγει, and he saith) Pilate did not say this in derision, and yet at the same time he did not believe; but in every way tried to move the Jews to pity.

[388] LX and second-rate authorities alone support τρίτη. The Chron. Alex. alleges that “the accurate copies contain it, as also the autograph of the Evangelist himself preserved at Ephesus.” Nonnus (fifth cent.), Severus of Antioch (sixth cent.), Ammonius of Alexandria (third cent.), and Theophylact (eleventh cent.), support τρίτη; the last three say that transcribers confounded the numeral ς (or ἕκτη) with γ (or τρίτη). But AB Vulg. and all the Versions have ἕκτη, which sets aside the notion of ἕκτη coming from transcribers. Besides, the very difficulty of the reading, according to Bengel’s own canon, proves it is not an interpolation. The sixth hour in John is no doubt six o’clock in the morning. St John begins the day as the Romans did, at midnight; but counted the hours, as the Asiaties about Ephesus, where he was Bishop, did, after the Macedonian method, which came into use there through Alexander’s conquests. See Townson’s Harm., viii. § 1, 2, 3, where he shows the probability that the hours are so to be understood in ch. John 1:39, John 4:6-7, John 4:52-53, in opposition to Bengel.—E. and T.

But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
John 19:15. Ἀπεκρίθησαν, answered) And yet they would have gladly set aside Cæsar, if they could. They deny Jesus to such a degree as to deny the Christ altogether: Acts 17:7, The Jews in Thessalonica say against Jason, etc., “These all do contrary to the decrees of Cæsar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus.”

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
John 19:19. Ἔγραψε, wrote) not caring what would he likely to please the Jews.—Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews) Mark expressed the predicate alone, the King of the Jews; Luke also the same, prefixing, This is [See my note, Luke 23:38]; Matthew, This is Jesus the King of the Jews. John expresses the actual words of Pilate, which without doubt were the same in the three tongues.

This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.
John 19:20. Πολλοὶ, many) for a testimony to them. [It is not recorded when the inscription was put up, just as in the case of the cross itself, we are not told when it was raised up.—V. g.]—ὅτι, because) For not many comparatively would have gone far to see it.—τῆς) Construe this with ἐγγύς.—ὅπου) Refer this to τόπος.

Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.
John 19:21. Οὶ ἀρχιερεῖς) So the Syr[389], Arab., and Anglosax. Versions have it, without adding τῶν Ἰουδαίων, which is read in other copies. Very often οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς are mentioned, and never are they called οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων: and in this passage transcribers most easily laid hold of τῶν Ἰουδαίων from the subsequent words. If, however, John wrote it so, he has intended thereby to mark the hatred wherewith the chief Priests of the Jews abhorred the King of the Jews.[390]—ἐκεῖνος, that man) They now by this time use an appellation of Him, as of one whom they have removed far from them. In ch. John 18:30 they had said οὗτος, this man.

[389] yr. the Peschito Syriac Version: second cent.: publ. and corrected by Cureton, from MS. of fifth cent.

[390] Syr. alone of the oldest authorities omits τῶν Ἰουδαίων. Tisch quotes also Vulg. Amiat. for the omission. But Lachm. gives the Vulg. ‘Judæorum.’ AB and all the oldest authorities have τῶν Ἰουδαίων.—E. and T.

Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.
John 19:22. Ὃ γέγραφα, what I have written) Pilate’s thought was to consult for the honour of his own authority: he really hereby subserved the Divine authority. [In the person of the Procurator (Governor) himself something of a prophetical character was in this instance vouchsafed, as in the case of the High Priest, ch. John 11:51, Caiaphas: “One man should die for the people. This spake he not of himself; but being High Priest that year, he prophesied” etc.—V. g.]—γέγραφα, I have written) Ploce [The same word repeated: first used simply, then to express some attribute.—Append.] The second, I have written, is meant to express, I will not write otherwise.

Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
John 19:23. Στρατιῶται, the soldiers) viz. four.—καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα, and the tunic) [the inner vest] they took.—ἄραφος, without seam, not sewed together) appropriate to the holy body of the Saviour. Weigh well what Fabricius, in the Centifolium, p. 407, has collected concerning the mode of living of the Saviour. Nor did He ever rend His garments in sunder.

They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.
John 19:24. [Λάχωμεν, cast lots for it) A rare event, and yet not unforetold.—V. g.]—ταῦτα, these things) which they had spoken of among themselves.

Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.
John 19:25. Εἱστήκεισαν, there were standing) John from modesty does not mention his own mother Salome, who also stood by [Mark 15:40].—ἡ ἀδελφὴ, the sister) No brother of Mary is mentioned. She herself was heir of her father, and was therefore transmitting to Jesus the right to the kingdom of David.

When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!
John 19:26. Τὸν μαθητὴν, the disciple) It is probable that Thomas also stood at a distance, ch. John 20:25,[391] and the others.—λέγει, He saith) He does not employ a long valediction, being about presently after to see them again.—ὁ υἱός σου, thy son) Thus Jesus honoured John by imparting to him as it were His own name; Thy son, saith He, to whom thou mayest commit thyself. Jesus even afforded an example of love towards surviving relatives and friends: but when He had discharged (performed) that office of love, He removed from His thoughts His mother, and had to do with His Father alone at the last.

[391] “Except I shall see in His hands the print of the nails,” etc.: implying, by the graphic mode of expression, that he had seen Him when the nails were in His body.—E. and T.

Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.
John 19:27. Ἡ μήτηρ σου) thy mother, both by natural and spiritual grade of relationship and of age; the care of whom do thou take in charge in My stead. This consequence the love of the disciple easily deduced from the brief sentence spoken by Jesus. The sword had already enough “pierced into the soul” of Mary: now a precaution is taken that she may not see and hear the most severe trials of all—the darkness, the dereliction of the Son by the Father, the death.—ἔλαβεν, took) Perhaps he had not ventured to do so until he was desired.—εἰς τὰ ἴδια, to his own) viz. home. Great was the faith of Mary to stand by the cross of her Son; great her obedience, to depart before His death. [At least the disciple immediately gave proofs (indications) that he would comply with the wish of Jesus, and subsequently (then next) he took His mother to his own home: whether he did so in that very hour, before the death of the Lord and the piercing of His side (in which case John must have returned to the cross, John 19:35, “He that saw it [the piercing of the side] bare record”); or whether his doing so took place not until afterwards. Therefore the dwelling of John was at Jerusalem, and in that dwelling the mother of Jesus stayed during subsequent times.—V. g.]

After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
John 19:28. Μετὰ τοῦτο, after this) after this one event which immediately preceded. [After the parting of the garments, whereby the Scripture which was immediately before quoted by John obtained its fulfilment.—V. g.] [The conjecture is somewhat different, which is exhibited almost in these words in the Harm., p. 569: “The phrase μετὰ τοῦτο seems rather to refer to the whole Acts of the crucifixion, than the address to His mother and the disciple mentioned in John 19:26-27, as immediately preceding. For John, having brought Mary to his dwelling, returned to the cross, John 19:35; from which we may gather the inference, that not only was she brought into the house out of the open air before the darkness, but even that immediately after the first word spoken by Jesus on the cross, which was directed to the Father, the second word had regard to His mother, whom He observed beneath His cross.” Let the impartial Reader weigh well in what way best the statements which the Gnomon has, as to the order of these events, can be made to harmonise with those which we have now brought forward, as well from the Harm. Ev. as also from the Germ Vers.—E. B.] Τοῦτο differs from ταῦτα, ch. John 11:11. The former is never taken adverbially.—εἰδὼς, knowing) Believers also, in the agony of the last conflict, may perceive that the issue (end) is near.—πάντα, all things) for instance, those things which are recorded in John 19:24, even concerning minor matters.—τετέλεσται, ἵνα τελειωθῇ) The verb τελέω applies to events; τελειόω, to Holy Scripture. The verb διψῶ, I thirst, and the verb τετέλεσται, it is finished (‘consummated’), are closely connected. The thirst had been, in the case of the body of Jesus, what the dereliction by the Father had been in His soul. In His journey on foot He had felt weariness (ch. John 4:6); in His voyage, He had been overpowered by sleep (Mark 4:38); in the desert previously, He had felt hunger (Matthew 4:2); and now, in fine, on the cross, the most extreme and burning thirst, after His sweat, His goings back and forward [between Caiaphas, Herod, Pilate, and the people], His speaking, His scourging, and the nails. Amidst all these He had not said, He is in pain; for the fact spoke for itself as to His pains, which were foretold in Scripture; but He does speak of His thirst, in which all the rest have their confluence and termination, and thereby He asks for a drink. For the Scripture had foretold both the thirst and the drink. Thirst is wont both to be felt most, and to be quenched, only then when one’s toil has been completely ended: ἵνα, that, may be joined with λέγει, He saith.

Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.
John 19:29. Ὑσσώπῳ) The hyssop in those regions being larger than that of our country, suitably held with its small branches a sponge full of vinegar.—περιθέντες, putting upon the hyssop) viz. the sponge.

When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
John 19:30. Τετέλεσται, it is consummated [finished]) This word was in the heart of Jesus in John 19:28 : it is now put forth by word of mouth; [—and it is put forth too before His death, which, however, itself was truly the principal head of those things which were to be consummated. What is meant is, His toil was accomplished; the prophecies were completed, not even excluding that as to the drink; and so now all things were tending to the one point, that He should deliver up His spirit by death into the hands of the Father. Most truly, therefore, He comprised in one joyous word the things past with those most surely and immediately about to be.—Harm., p. 574.]—κλίνας, having bowed) with His mind still present.[392]—παρέδωκε, He gave or delivered up) That which is delivered up, is permanent [still continues].

[392] Retaining His senses to the last, so that His bowing the head was not involuntary, but His deliberate act.—E. and T.

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
John 19:31. Ἐν τῷ Σαββάτῳ, on the Sabbath) This special reason includes that general reason, of which Deuteronomy 21:23 speaks: The criminal’s “body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him on that day (for he that is hanged is accursed of God), that thy land be not defiled.”—γὰρ, for) This assigns the reason why the Preparation (παρασκευή) urged them to make haste.—μεγάλη, a great) inasmuch as the Sabbath and the Feast met together on the same day: add, that the Rest of the Lord in the sepulchre was an accessory circumstance of its greatness [though this was not perceived by the Jews].—ἐκείνου) This is a more appropriate reading than ἐκείνη;[393] for the word σαββάτῳ precedes, and ἐκείνου is to be referred to it.—κατεαγῶσιν, might be broken) Thomas Magister denies that the augment has place here, and reads κατεάγωσιν, like τετύφωσιν [the Middle Perf. Subjunctive], from κατἑχαγα, viz. in the verb καταγῆναι. But even ἀνεῳχθῆναι is used in Luke 3:21, the ε remaining beyond the Indicative even in the case of the Aorist.[394] The breaking of the legs was formerly effected by means of a club, as in our days by the wheel.—ἈΡΘῶΣΙΝ, might be taken away) viz. the bodies.

[393] Nevertheless the margin of Ed. 2 prefers ἐκείνη; whilst the Germ. Version follows the decision of the Gnomon.—Again, the Harm. Ev., pp. 579, 580, gives the preference to ἐκείνη, subjoining moreover this, “John has throughout such readers in his mind as are not Jews, but need instruction on Jewish subjects: ch. John 2:13, John 4:9, John 5:1, John 6:4, John 7:2, John 11:55, John 19:40; John 19:42. It is for this reason that he generally marks the ‘greatness’ of the Sabbath as surpassing all other festivals whatever (Deuteronomy 23:3) [This, though given both in Ern. Bengel’s Ed. of the Gnomon, and in the Germ. Harmony, seems to me a mistake for Leviticus 23:3.—E. and T.]: although that day of the Sabbath had in it something peculiar, because it both entered among the days of unleavened bread, and was the first of the seven Sabbaths which divided the Passover from Pentecost, and, on account of the ‘handful’ or ‘sheaf of the first fruits’ to be waved before the Lord on the following day (Leviticus 23:10), was observed with more than common reverence.”—E. B.

[394] So κατεαγῶσιν here is the 2d Aor. Subjunctive, not the Perfect Subj.—E. and T.

Ἐκείνη is the reading of Vulg. c and the Elzevir Rec. Text. But the weight of authorities is for ἐκείνου, ABLab.—E. ana T.

Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.
John 19:32. Τοῦ πρώτου, καὶ τοῦ ἄλλου, the first, and the other) Pains often remain even to the converted [as here in the case of the penitent robber]; and an equal amount of outward bodily suffering with the ungodly. Ἄλλος, the other (a different one), is the expression used, not, the second; from which it may be inferred, as it seems, that by the first is meant the converted robber, who was more speedily released from his pains than the other.

But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:
John 19:33. Τὸν Ἰησοῦν, Jesus) the breaking of whose legs, which they had intended, they had put off for the sake of giving Him more protracted pain.—ὡς εἶδον, when they saw) what they had not anticipated. Therefore these soldiers, whilst they were occupied with their own concerns, had not observed the death of Jesus.

But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.
John 19:34. Λὁγχῃ, with a lance or spear) which would not [i.e. in such a way as that he did not] touch Jesus’ bones. Yet the wound was a large open one, wide enough to hold in it not merely a finger, but the whole hand: ch. John 20:27, Jesus said to Thomas, “Thrust thy hand into My side:” and an altogether deadly wound, if it were inflicted on any living person.—πλευρὰν, side) the left side perhaps. Comp. Psalm 91:7.—εὐθέως ἐξῆλθεν αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ, forthwith there came out blood and water) That blood came out was strange; that water also came out was still more so; that both came forthwith, at the one time, and yet distinct from one another, was most marvellous of all. From what quarter of the body the blood and water came, from the chest, or from the heart, or from some other part, who will define? The water was pure and real, just as the blood was pure and real: and the water is said to have flowed after the blood, that it might be perceived that the Saviour had wholly poured Himself out. Psalm 22:15 (14), “I am poured out like water.” The verb ἐξῆλθεν may be either translated by the Singular [agreeing with each subject, αἷμα and ὓδωρ, separately] or by the Plural [the two neuter nouns being taken as a collective Plural, agreeing with the verb Singular]. The asseveration of the Evangelist, who was at the same time a Spectator and a Witness, shows both the truth and the greatness of the miracle and of the mystery. Comp. 1 John 5:6; 1 John 5:8, note, [“This is He that came by water and blood—not by water only, but by water and blood—There are three that bear witness on earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood.” Not merely did He undertake the office of fulfilling all righteousness, by submitting to baptism, Matthew 3:15, but consummated what He undertook by having shed His blood, John 19:30; John 19:34.]

And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.
John 19:35. Ὁ ἑωρακὼς, he that saw it) viz. John, in his character as an apostle.[395]—ΜΕΜΑΡΤΎΡΗΚΕ, hath testified it) viz. John, in his character as an evangelist. He saw it, whilst it was being done: therefore, after that he had quickly taken and received the mother of Jesus into his own house, John had returned to the cross, thereby obtaining the benefit of this remarkable spectacle.—καὶ, and) and so, and therefore.—ἀληθινὴ, true) irrefragable among all men.—κἀκεῖνος, and he) He who saw it, knows that he is speaking the truth.—οἶδεν, knows) being sure, even in the Spirit too, not merely in sense.[396]—ΛΈΓΕΙ) he saith, by word of mouth, and in writing. Comp. ch. John 21:24, “This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things.”—ἵνα, that) This sets forth the end for which the strong affirmation is made: ἵνα, that, depends on μεμαρτύρηκε, hath testified.—ὑμεῖς) ye, to whom this book is read: ch. John 20:31, “These are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ,” etc.—πιστεύσητε, ye might believe) not merely, that these things are true; but that Jesus is the Christ. The correlatives are, testified and true: knows and believe. He knows that he saith true, and declares that he saith truth, that ye also may believe.

[395] Whose peculiar office was to be witness of the death and resurrection of Jesus: Acts 1:21-22.—E. and T.

[396] By the teaching of the infallible Spirit, as well as by the evidence of sense.—E. and T.

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.
John 19:36. Ὀστοῦν οὐ συντριβήσεται αὐτοῦ, not a bone of Him shall be broken) Instead of αὐτοῦ, some Greek MSS. have ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ from the LXX. I know not whether also any versions have this reading. Αὐτοῦ is more in accordance with the subject itself in John; nay more, it accords also with the Hebrew בו in Moses: the LXX. in Exodus 12:46, have καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ; in Numbers 9:12, καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψουσιν (Alex. οὐ συντρίψεται) ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ. But also in Psalms 34(33):20, ἐν ἐξ αὐτῶν (τῶν ὀστέων) οὐ συντριβήσεται, John accords with Moses, in that he employs the singular number ὀστοῦν; he accords with the Psalm, in that he passes over (omits) the particle καὶ, which he would not omit if he were referring to the Mosaic ועצם: Comp. ch. John 6:45, καὶ ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ Θεοῦ, where the καὶ is retained in the quotation from the original, Isaiah 54:13; and in that he says οὐ συντριβήσεται. Therefore the Psalm refers back to Moses, John to the Psalm, as also to Moses. The Passover was a type, 1 Corinthians 5:7, “Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened; for even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us;” and that type is fulfilled in the passion of Christ. The bones of Jesus Christ did not undergo breaking or injury; nor did His flesh undergo corruption. The cross was the direst of capital punishments; and yet any other would have been less suitable for the raising again of the body [in its unbroken integrity] presently after.

And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
John 19:37. Ὄψονται, εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν, they shall look on Him, whom they pierced) εἰς is construed with ὄψονται. Zechariah 12:10, LXX., καὶ ἐπιβλέψονται πρός με, ἀνθʼ ὧν κατωρχήσαντο. They (the LXX.) read רקד (they danced on, insulted) for דקר (they pierced), although Lampius denies it. The piercing took place on the cross: the seeing or looking on Him, accompanied either with penitential grief or with terror, shall come to pass in other times. Therefore John quotes this passage for the sake of its allusion to the piercing [not for that to the looking].

And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.
John 19:38. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα, moreover [but] after these things) Nothing was done in tumultuous haste.—κεκρυμμένος, hidden [‘secretly’]) So the LXX. Ezekiel 12:6-7; Ezekiel 12:12, κεκρυμμένος (ἐξελεύσῃ). Neither Joseph, nor Nicodemus, remained a hidden disciple: John 19:39.

And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.
[39. Καὶ Νικόδημος, and Nicodemus) Whose faith had already put itself forth into exercise by a kind of confession (ch. John 7:50) six months before this time; but now it is manifested by an altogether distinguished work of love.—Harm., p. 581.]

Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.
Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.
John 19:41. Ἐν τῷ τόπῳ, in the place) The cross itself was not in the garden.

There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.
Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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