Mark 15
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it.
And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing.
And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.
Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
Mark 15:7. Ἐν τῇ στάσει, in the insurrection) A charge most offensive in the eyes of Herod, who would therefore be likely to punish Barabbas with hearty good-will.

And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
Mark 15:8. Ἀναβοήσας) having raised a cry. It is to this the reference is, Mark 15:13, They cried out again. Formerly the Vulg. read ἀναβὰς; or even other paraphrasers: and that reading is consonant with Matthew 27:17, therefore when they were gathered together. Certainly both the people gathered themselves together to the chief priests, who were accusing Jesus in an invidious manner, for the purpose of praying that some prisoner should be given up to them: and an ascent to the Pretorium [Governor’s Hall], and some cry, were begun by the people. whoever will compare ἀναβοήσας with the words following, and ἀναβὰς with the words preceding, will perceive that either reading might have been formed from the other by alliteration.[8]—αἰτεῖσθαι, to desire) Understand from the context, ποιεῖν, that he should do. Often the verb is omitted, it being intended that it should be repeated from the following clause. John 5:21; John 6:32; John 6:35; John 12:25; John 12:35; Romans 5:16; Php 2:1-2; Titus 2:2, note. So LXX., 2 Kings 9:27, καιγε αὐτόν (viz. πατάξατε·) καὶ ἐπάταξεν αὐτόν. Comp. Glass., B. iv., Tract. 2, Observ. 5 and 12 all through: and, if you have a mind, the remarks which we formerly made on Cic. Ep., p. 143.

[8] ἀναβὰς is the reading of BDcd Vulg. Memph. Theb. a has accensa. A supports Rec. reading, ἀναβοήσας.—ED. and TRANSL.

But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
Mark 15:9. Τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰονδαίων, the King of the Jews) A Mimesis [i.e. a using of the words of an opponent in irony, or in order to refute him. See Append.]

For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
And they cried out again, Crucify him.
Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
Mark 15:15. Τὸ ἱκανὸν ποιῆσαι) to content, or satisfy.

And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.
Mark 15:16. Αὐλῆς, the hall) The Greek word is put before its Latin synonym, Prœtorium.

And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.
And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.
[20. Καὶ ἐξάγουσιν, αὐτὸν, and lead Him out) What is the mystery which lies hid under the fact, that our gracious Saviour was led out of the city, no mortal man, we may suppose, would have been likely to have discovered, not to say, would have been able to have persuaded others, had not the wisdom of the apostle instructed us on the subject, Hebrews 13:11-14.—Harm., p. 559.]

And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
Mark 15:21. Ἐρχόμενον, coming) either in order to be present at the Passover, or in order to see what would be done to Jesus.—ἀπʼ ἀγροῦ) Where perhaps he had his home. Happy man, in that he was not present, and had no part in the accusation: but in consequence of that very fact he was the less agreeable to the Jews.—Ἀλεξάνδρου καὶ Ῥούφου, of Alexander and Rufus) These two, at the time when Mark wrote, were better known than their father, inasmuch as he is denominated from them [instead of vice varsâ]: They were distinguished persons among the disciples (see Romans 16:13 as to Rufas, who also is set down in that passage as one better known than his mother, though Paul seems to have regarded her as his mother at Jerusalem): which is an evidence whereby the truth of the whole fact, as it happened, may be perceived.

And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.
Mark 15:22. Φέρουσιν, they bring [bear or take]) not merely lead.—Γολγοθᾶ) The genitive.

And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.
Mark 15:23. Οὐκ ἔλαβε, He took it not) He tasted, but did not drink it. Matthew 27:34 : comp. ch. Matthew 26:29.

And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
Mark 15:24. Σταυρώσαντες) having crucified.—τίς τί, what, and who [what every man should take]) See Bud. Comm. 1349, 27.

And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
Mark 15:25. Τρίτη, third) which the sixth and ninth hour follows, Mark 15:33. Therefore it is Jewish hours that are here marked. However the case stands in Mark and John as to both the kind of hour and the mode of enumeration respectively employed by them, both mean the one and the same portion of the day, viz. in the forenoon. Nor is there any reason why we should desire to diminish the number of hours of His remaining on the cross. Jesus hung upon it more than six hours: for even six hours, from the third to the ninth hour, were in themselves a longer time than ordinary hours of equal length, inasmuch as the equinox was now past: for they were wont to divide the day, whether it were shorter or longer, into twelve hours: and between the close of the supernatural darkness and the death of Jesus many events intervened. There are some who explain this verse thus: It was the third hour from the time that they had crucified Him. But if this had been his meaning, Mark would have said, There were three hours; and in that case, passing by the hour of the crucifixion itself, he would say, what occurred three hours afterwards [which is not likely]: for, both the casting of lots, and the superscription written, were acts more speedily done [than the act of crucifixion].—καὶ) Καὶ either is used in its strict meaning, and; in order that Mark may intimate, that first of all the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, next, that they divided His garments, and then erected the cross: or else, rather, the καὶ has a relative force, so that the hour should be precisely denoted, to which the mention of the crucifixion is both prefixed and subjoined.[9] Comp. John 19:14; comp. καὶ, ch. Mark 2:15, at the end of verse.—ἐσταύρωσαν) elevating the cross.

[9] “It was the third hour when they crucified Him.”—ED. and TRANSL.

And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.
And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
Mark 15:28. Καὶ μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη) Isaiah 53:12, LXX., καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀνόμοις ἐλογίσθη. The μετὰ has a stronger force than ἐν: He suffered Himself to be reckoned with the transgressors.

And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,
Mark 15:29. Οὐὰ, Ah!) An interjection and exclamation, having the force of expressing astonishment, as Franc. Bernardinus Ferrarius, L. 3. de Acclam. Vet. c. 15, shows at large. In this passage, it has the force of expressing wonder along with irony.

Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.
Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
Mark 15:32. Ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ βασιλεύς, Christ the King) A Mimesis [an allusion to the words of an opponent, with the intention of refuting them.—See Append.] The expression, Christ, refers to the proceedings before Caiaphas; the expression, King, refers to those before Pilate.

And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Mark 15:34. Ἐλωῒ) Hebr. אֱלהַי, as בַּרְזִלַּי Βερζελλὶ, בֵּבַי βαβὶ, אֲבִישַי Ἀβεσσὰ, etc.: Hiller, Onom. p. 707. For not even שָׂרַי in Greek is Σαραῒ, Genesis 17:15. Matthew has ἡλὶ, ἡλί. and so the Hebrew Psaltery [Psalm 22:1]: Mark has ἐλωῒ, ἐλωῒ, and so the Syriac Psaltery, as John Gregorius observes.—εἰς τί, for what [why]) See Matthew 27:46, note.

And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.
And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
Mark 15:37. Ἐξέπνευσε, He expired) To breathe, is conducive to the good of the body: to cease to breathe [expire], is conducive to the good of the spirit.

And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
[39. Οὕτω κράξας, having thus cried out) Christ was not exhausted to death by faintness, but most voluntarily laid down His life.—V. g.]

There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;
(Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
Mark 15:41. Γαλιλαίᾳ, Galilee) Here it was that He had sojourned for a great part of His time: He had come to Jerusalem, especially at the times of the festivals.

And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
Mark 15:42. Προσάββατον, the day before the Sabbath) When there was the beginning made of resting.

Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counseller, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
Mark 15:43. Ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀριμαθαίας, who was from Arimathea) The article shows, that this had become a surname of Joseph. Matthew does not employ the article, because he wrote before Mark.—εὐσχήμων, honourable) Distinguished by both honour and dignity.—βουλευτὴς, senator) of the Jerusalem Sanhedrim.—τολμήσας, having boldly ventured) A praiseworthy boldness. [Not unattended with personal risk.—V. g.] John 19:38. An elegant and effective Asyndeton.[10] [It very frequently happens in the case of those making such bold ventures, that their efforts succeed better than you would have supposed.—V. g.]

[10] Omission of the copula between ἐλθὼν and τολμήσας.—ED. and TRANSL.

And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.
Mark 15:44. Ἐθαύμασεν, marvelled) In fact, it was not the mere cross that deprived Jesus of life. [Those crucified sometimes used to protract life for a considerably longer time. Pilate had permitted the breaking of the legs; but the fact, that Jesus had died before the breaking of the legs (of the other two), came to Pilate’s knowledge through Joseph, and not until then.—V. g.]—πάλαι) Eustathius has showed that this word is used of even a rather short interval of time.

And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
Mark 15:45. Γνοὺς, having ascertained the fact) that Jesus was really dead.—ἐδωρήσατο, he gave it) The body of Him who was crucified had been at the disposal of the judge. [Therefore the body, which was ordained to be kept free from corruption, was subject to the disposal of a man who was a heathen. Marvellous! Joseph, it is to be supposed, would have paid for it no small sum of money.—V. g.]

And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.
Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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